Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual reports"

See other formats


<r*&V 




Illiberal Hrts 



M^chnologg 






%i^'l-l9lil. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



STATE REPORTS 



FOR 



1895=1896. 



VOL. lI.-BIENjSriAL. 



CONCORD 

EDWARD N. PEARSON, PUBLIC PRINTER 
1897 



s/H 






rV52>^5 



l?PS/3Cr, 



CONTKNTS. 



VOL. II, 



No. Pages. 

Report of the Board of Agriculture . . , 442 

Report of the Agricultural College . . .184 

Report of the Board of Health . . . 252 

Report of the Bureau of Labor . . . -415 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTUEE. 



RKPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 



FROM 



NOVEMBER 1, 1894, TO NOVEMBER 1, 189G. 



By N. J. BACHELDER, Secretabt. 



CONCORD : 

EDWARD N. PKARSON, PUBLIC PRINTER 
1897. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



Organized August 23, 1870. 



MEMBERS. 



His Excellency George A. Ramsdell. 

Moses Humphrey, Presidejit. . . . Concord. 

John D. Lyman . . , . . Exeter. 

Alonzo Towle Freedom. 

Willard Bill, Jr Westmoreland. 

George W. Mann ..... Benton. 

James M. Hayes Dover. 

Joseph A. Hall Brookline. 

William Sissons Cornish. 

L. J. Miner Whitefield. 

George H. Wadleigh .... Tilton. 
N. J. Bachelder, Secretary. 



GENERAL REPORT. 



STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Board of Agriculture, 

Concord, November i, 1896. 
To His Excellency the Governor, and the HotiorahJe Coimcil : 

The report of the State Board of Agriculture for the two 
years ending November i, 1896, is herewith submitted, as re- 
quired by law. The agriculture of New Hampshire is an in- 
dustry represented, according to the last census, by 29,151 
farms containing 1,727,387 improved acres, valued at $66,162,- 
160. The number of persons engaged in agriculture is 42,670, 
and the total value of farm products in the state annually is 
about $13,000,000. It is an industry of sufficient magnitude and 
importance to demand intelligent and earnest public attention. 
The work of the board has progressed along various lines as 
provided in the Public Statutes and may be classified under the 
following divisions : 

fertilizer inspection. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Public Statutes, the 
annual inspection of commercial fertilizers licensed to be sold 
in the state has been made, both in 1895 and 1896, and the 
result issued in the form of Bulletins for the information of the 
farmers of the state. 

In 1895, samples to the number of 134, representing 50 
brands, were collected by a duly authorized agent of the board 
and the analysis made at New Hampshire Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station at Durham. In those instances where more than 
one sample of the same brand was collected, the samples were 
mixed and a sample taken of the mixture for analysis. Follow- 
ing are the results of the analysis made in 1895 : 



IV 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



•moi 



•axqBnBAV 



"imox 



•aiqniosui 



•pa^aaAaa 



•aiqnios 



'I'B'iO'i 'naSojji^ 



•saidraBg JO 'oa 



jaqxnn^ pjooan 



»fle^OQCOO»-ICOC^CO ^^COW'^I'lCOlClOWi-' CDCOC<l (N CD 



O 00 W U5 C<I CO C<I ^ a> CD Tt< l£5 »C t-4 CO Cfl Oi u^ T** iA t- f-H 05 
t^OaI>OSOCD005t^ 



t— OCCrHt.-COC5.-^OS 


CDCDCO-'^'C^CO'^MiC-^ 


CO r^ CO 
cc (N in 


- 


2 


eJcJccc<i(Ncr. w(NO 


CDi-Ht^XCDiOOO«0 


C^ C^ CO 


C5 


Oi 


5.17 
3.62 
6.35 
2.16 
2.25 
3.50 
1.71 
2.50 
2.70 


1.70 
3.42 
0.98 
0.69 
0.81 
0.97 
1.52 
1.74 
1.80 
0.00 


00 05 00 


00 


» 


1.01 
4.84 
5.43 
2.00 
4.85 
3.40 
4.23 
3.36 
2.42 


3.73 
1.85 
2.74 
2.39 
1.83 
1.70 
2.76 
1.67 
2.63 
6.08 


05 00 (M 
CD COC^ 

-H i-i CO 


CD_ 


CO 


6.69 
4.44 
1.70 
7.95 
5.67 
2.63 
5.39 
6.55 
5.37 


1.53 
5.99 
4.01 
5.76 
3.48 
3.06 
6.26 
7.02 
3.62 
4.76 


CD 05 03 

ooo; ■* 
r.1 1^ CO 




-* 
■* 


rHCOiftCOt-C^JCO-^-^ 


COCOO!»r-<inO(N-9'i-l 


CO •* 05 
05 I> O 


CD 


o 

CO 


(N(Ni-icoe^'w>eqc^cq 


^C^(NOfHC^C<l!NC^T-H 


rH rH rt 


"^ 


CA 



- CD ^ .H i-l(M IN C^ eq .-I CO Id CO (M 1-1 .<»< i-Hi-H T)< CO 'S" M <N 



O M 

CQ ^ 






cSS 



Ik 



o a - - 

+3 C 3^ W 

25-" o o .H- 

O K^ <-■ _. 

oa o £ 9 >^ 

ffl '52 * 

-' .0—5^— 

;0 .o 



o t-°*:3 u o - 

CO o) t. — ' ffl O 5P 

"m o . ^- ?^ 
^ -- ® fa t: Q 

AS o.S ?i!; o 

*5 ..9 Q -g SI cS =^ 

oe'ga,.aa;fflg 

Oi^t.t.j3D.cSc« 

O o p o a^jsa 
.J ""*""" t- o a 

t, t- i. t. c.a< o 2 
CQ (D as » >J r^^ ,° o t? 

D.-0 "O -^ _t« _75 »] _K p5 

P 'E 'i^ 'E Vi V, >)"i»i . 

O.O.CX5 0) ® » « ^ 
03 CC 03 CO W ffl CQ CQ 



a>|z; 



! ® 



fa c« 



ic . - 

3>H>H 
O . 



So 



g d oT J >.,^ o . 

• t- o t3 r -■ o 
^ S =^ e O r"^ i^ 

2 ■^ ^T? 7 t" 3 
•5 S 02 "^ «2 c -^ 



fa 



OCQ 9* 



"1- .« ^ 



2 fa r° S 5 5 '-^ 
»|g:5faf^fc 

' • 3j C3 jj ; ■ 



! idling 



a o 



fa 
tad 



o .— o •:< a 
O Oi t * S 1J " 



cS^ 



— — — a: CL< 



S§3 

'Sol :t=^.a 



•^1 



o 



fa 






- ■ o "O -3 _ ■* &< 



rt 3 01 .-; if 1 



- "1^ C^i So 



2 ®i3 Ci So 

09 > t» Ph fa fa t/2 



°T3 

— 3rn t.-3 cS 
^g O-^ O .2 a; 






ii'z 






coZW a3C3-< O 



I C<1 CO U5 CD £>• f-l CO Tj< CD t:^ 00 05 O i-H CO -^ IC CD t^ 00 05 O t-i 
r-l rH ri rl i-H ■-( i-H C^ IM CJ (N C^ « CJ iM N CO CO 



GENERAL REPORT. 



OS iTl 00 GO 00 OOt-O-COCO 



00 OS 05 C<> OS O N fO CO CO CD y-* 



rH CI IC OO 

OS OS C^ 00 



Tt<t-CfiOOi-H COCO •-! IC CO! 



C^ CD O ^ 00 ^ 



00 


^ 


s 


l^ 


s 


§ 


o ecooos IN 

00 03 Oi OS w 


coin 

IN (N 


in 

00 


j; 


CO to OS 


CO 


00 IN CO eo IOCS 

O OS lO C^ -^ 00 


g 


s 


(N 


<N 


C^ 


j:^ 


s 


rH OOM 00 (N 


tH IN 


o 


S 


sss 


O 


.H .-( rH lO O 00 


IN 


to 


S 


O 

o 


^ 


S? 


•^ 


to to e<i — — 1 

-^ CO 'J* ■'J^ I> 




s 


to 

C<1 


t-osto 

CO 00 IN 


■* 


to to CO (N t^ 00 
lO (NtO O oos 


S3 


(N 


CO 


o 


CO 


""• 


^ 


rH<N e^ O IN 


(N 1-1 


(N 


^ 


i-H r1 IN 


■^ 


IN(N IN OO 11 


lO 


00 




to 

05 


to 


t- 


lO 


ssssss 


<N IN 


§ 


OS 
OS 


o too 

TJI O t- 


OS 
IN 


OOO <N oos to 
COO OCOOOIO 


S 


o 


IN 


CO 


M 


co 


IN 


eq ■*c>5 to ■<>• 


CO-* 


N 


^ 


IN COCO 


N 


eotoira ooiN 


CO 


?? 


K 


lO 


03 


§ 


00 


to 00 ■* to 03 

i>co to to r^ 


OS l-H 
■>*■ r-l 


CO 


to 


to ^ CO 


to 


•* to 00 •* 05 1O 

.1 to 00 00 oeo 


o 


<o 


to 


» 


lO 


t- 


'^ 


t^ (N IN iH ■* 


into 


to 


00 


t^to in 


to 


iO CO CO -^ i-l -^ 


eo 


s 


s 


§ 


f2 


g? 


s 


T-H CO C<) CO ^ 

0(N eoe<i IN 


s^ 


18 


CO 


lO oos 
■"jieoeo 


§ 


•* .-1 •* to eo OS 
e^riT-iocOrt 


S 


e) 


'"' 


"^ 


'"' 


■^ 


a 


(N C^IN C<l IN 


IN IN 


o 


'^ 


(NININ 


IN 


IN ■* eoeo e<iN 


03 



rH rl in 



in i-H rH i-H CO ■* iH 



IN 1-IC^C^ eo NiHrtrtlNrH iH 



C 

a 
o 

k. . 

'^'-5—1 - 



6 J £ •?" '2 3 

-^ o ^ a r' 

..-; « di »3 ^ 53 



mO 



^ :i5 

c>*& - 
g .H o 

-cj -flit: 

^^ oa 

: « * O 




o o 



tj 03-" O 0) 
csWS gfe 

'ill' 

^cu® g^ 
a o cs o o „ 

t^-'-' m O O =* 

« tc a .1 .n" fl . 

o a> fl fl ?^ 

^ t^ fl ." ." ^ . 
oj cS o p g 



SB 



0-3 



CL, g 






•2;o 

■<^-«^ 

^ "=i a 

0) oj m 
J** 2 






-JO'S 

£-1 

oS - 

-oii 

2 -is 

i"a 
S 2 t- 






a5 
S a 

og-aai 
5a*c« 













:> 


W rj 


• . 


m 


•.•z 


nj c 


r 


P^.> 


• n! 






- • V- 



&^ 






■a C't:; 

0) OJ g 

5oo 



aPi aj a ^m 
op5gfl7 

•S "H r; a< ^ c8 

r; -M &f) w • i-i 

t^ t. g'ca o . 

a; Q^ rt 0) ® * 

9 3 & S 

.„ CQ i2 iJ ? O -1 

a^'SoSaga 

iS o^a ^ CSS! "^ 
Jtl o o 2 -mS <=> 



!;t =«5l 



Ift CO t^ 00 OS O »H CJ 111 IC 



CO CO eo CO CO CO 






■ 00 OS o ^iN eo 



ic in m ic 



« ao t- o =s 
O aa3P50aQ 



00 OS O rH <N CJS 

in lo CO to to to 



VI 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



o 



G3 9 



2 ft 

ti t»l-H 



w 
cq 

H 



bo 









t- a fl- 
ats " K 



5 =s ft-- 



W 

o 
o 



5 " a 

-030® 



D.^ *> S 

O CC-fl 

2 § * =« 

■I- (N+j 
9 o fl c 

ftl-^S 

i 2 S ® 
5 s ftft 

,c °* ■■« — 



0551 
'"' a 5 ? 






2 ® 
53 



•jaqninM 



iM i-< i-H rt •* IN e^ 









o o o ooo o 
lO o o o o o o 


ooo 
ooo 


s§ 


O 

o 








^-r eivi 


M ■* e^ 


c4 .iio 


O CO 


■«' 


00 tC CO O CO O CO 00 00 CO 

o 05 ■<»< CO-* int-cocoT)i 


(N O ■"! 

eo o IN 


1-1 IN 

IN CO 


CO 


rH O 


w^n (N CO 

* 


rt ■* e<i 


CJ i-H lO 


O CO 


Tfl 


g§§ 




§ : 


g§8 


S§8 


§§ 


§ 


t~^Ti! •<f< 




IN . 


ooo 


e^ ir4oJ 


00 CO 


o 



t~OT»ieOQO ot-^io looo lO 
uo«<Nin-^ coino^ eooo o 

INC>e^i-Hrt ■>J<COINCo' 0505 CJ 



ooooo oooo oo 
oooop oooo <s o 
oit^oooooo CO o c^ irt iri^ 



(N eo ^ w CO oomt^t^ co oo 



lO T O IN IN e^ C^ ■«< 00 05 o 



iocO'*coe<i eoeot^o 



t^ o o IC M< 



O -^ lO O CO 



050^10 CO 
CO CO rH iO t-; U3 
IN r-< r-< C^ rH rH 



O o 



o o 



C W 

ft p 



fag 



K SCO 



•J -SS 



0) 



a>^ 



sZo 

§ ft-O 

- "'■ a 

e'--S-5fta. 



cS S OS t< 



00 eo CO 



On 


fa 






a d 


« 






b» 


Qj ca 




a" 


n 


tj « 





O s- 
ftfa 



So 



•«^G 



*m, 



o^-oScuftdm 

ftn-c^^og-a 
Ocsc«§£|fta; 

oo^£;2a^| 

gOcSCT^SO-T; 
KftfatB CCftQ 



^5 

K bo 

■ O tH 

ftg o 
O ^ '^ 



£|2£° 

3 01' 3 3 r-J 

c 1' a o c 
ce> a !i ti 



bo 



rH c^ rH c^ ^ e^ t^ 00 o c^ coco 
CO CO CD CO t^t^rHCJ coco 



GENERAL REPORT. 



Vll 



IC lO ITS ifi lO m (M (M 1-1 i-H ^ CC 



^ « .-H i-H 



g 


s§§ 


§ 


g§ 


oomoo o 
ooe^ o Tjieo 


§ 


o 
o 


oo 

o o 


O O OO 
O O O O 


mo 
CJ to 


g 


o 


in .-1.H 


to 


e^o 


cO(NeO(Mm(N 


c^ 


CO 


e^ m 


COd t-CJ 


CO 1-1 


■^ 


!0 


??gg 


s 


ss 


gi:s^S5§ 


to 

o 


O 


mi*" 
wm 


m*A to OS 

rH d OS r-i 


t-os 


OS 
OS 


o 


lO rH r-c 


to 


e^(N 


>»< Ncooorn C4 


CJ 


CO 


t»in 


eoiM to o 


CO 1-1 


'^ 


o 
o 


8§§ 


s 


§§ 


§§§§§s 


o 
o 


s 


gg 


o oo o 
o oo o 


gg 


o 
o 


^ 


00 oe^ 


"^ 


to M 


CO C<1 r-( o o to 


o 


as 


OS t^ 


O 1-1 OS OS 


rH ^ 


- 


§ 


2§g3 


g 


KS 


coca mo CD t- 

■^ CO W C^ 1-1 1-1 


to 
to 


i> 


m t- 

t~OS 


fejgg^ 


ss 


g 


« 


00^ eo 


^ 


to M 


■^ CI »-» 1-H 00 to 


o 
t-l 


^ 


1-1 1- 


oo oo 


^ n 


a 


§ 


o o o 
o o o 


§ 


§s 


o o o o 
o o o o 


o 
o 


g 


g 


gg 


oo oo 
o o o o 


gg 


g 


to 


to 05 o 


00 


lO 05 


c^ t-^05 m 

i-i 


m 


00 


00 


00 to 


00 OS 00 00 


oo 


o 


o 


5SSS 


CO 


oco 

lOOO 


CO o CO o eq 00 

OOI-CO O "JIOl 


s 


!g 


OS t- 

OS to 


JSg^S 


?2S 


s 


00 


tOM Ol 


en 


in OS 


003 05 05 to -S< 


w 


OS 


00 m 


00 00 QO X 


OS OS 


o 


to 




S 


S2 


§g§§22 


o 


to 


to IM 

t-co 


2:§?;g 


Stji 


s 


CO 


•"mc^ 




rH CA 


CO e^ (N e^ rH 1-1 


<N 


c^ 


C)IM 


(M IM — CJ 


r-lll 


IN 


?. 


VCiS 


s 


^^ 


com moo e^ <N 
oi com lOT-rt 


s 


m 

00 


t-o 


■^ OS t- « 
C» COC) to 


g§ 


to 

(N 


eo 


eo ■*•«• 


■r»< 


COCO 


to ■«■•*■* CO CO 


CO 


■^ 


m CO 


coco CO (N 


1-1 ■-< 


CO 


o 


02 to CO 


o 

00 


CO to 

O 00 


o m 00 c^ o to 
en cot-m t-oo 


00 


o 


oco 

IM to 


t^ 1-1 1- m 


COCI 

OS OS 


00 

CI 


to 


c^-t< to 


■^ 


C^ lO 


CO m Ti< i«< eq r-i 


m 


'Jl 


COCA 


^ m m m 


t^ t> 


'^ 


g 


s§§ 


CO 


in o 
mm 


com o to o 03 


m 

00 


o 


§^ 


mm oco 
o o coo 


gg 


o 


cq 


e<i<M .1 


CO 


■* C*l 


CO Cq ca 1-1 IM 'll 


^ 


o 


.icq 


(NCJ COi-l 


(Nd 


*"* 


£ 


to rt 05 


o 


§g 


S582SS 


m 


m 


OS 00 

O T)< 


(N -^ -^ ^ 
(N O (Nd 


o t> 


?5 


<N 


IM(N r-C 


? 


m« 


N(Ne<i(NiNm 


(N 


c^ 


rlN 


dCJCOi-c 


«N 


IM 



5 o 



be w 



O CO O 

■S s- .=? ^ 



6 =5 

St" 



o o o O-i-^ o^ , o 



N W ~ - O 

:= .2 ^ So 

— 'S O .2 r« 

C3 , ,- t- -M o 



rf oj o =1 e: p 



5 «i^ 



ft- 



ci O 
«ft. 






cSS 6p 



• 4) 

• u 

: a 
■ a 
: cs 

-.■Sg S 

;? <= cs fe "^ 
ft<a)ffifa h 



o -S. 






c4 : oS 
. :Dg . 

ja.2 S^a 

- & fi •-■ Oi 

oftt a « ft 



w 



w « 



o 



CO Tji ^ m 



CO Tti m OS o 1-1 to 

131 to to t^ 00 00 to 



00 -fi m to 



Vlll 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



■S9X0a 






2® 
53 



•jaqrariN 



8 


oo o o 
o o o o 


gg8§ 




00 


in 

CO 


in 

00 


o in 
in 00 


g 


£ 


e< 


«I(N (M IM 


t^ tT CO ^ 




'^ 


^ 


" 


eoi-H 


r-( 


« 


CO 


O O Og 


o CO eo (N 


s § 


s 

03 


CO 


woo 


g 


S 


(N 


KKN (N.-I 


t^lO lO ■>* 


c4 ei 


" 


(N 


TJ* Oi 


^ 


* 



o o o o 
^ o o c4 



o oo o o 



(N in m i> CO 



oo o o 



t-r-lOOin 



ooin coin ■-! 



T(i 0(N(M M 



'~t CO CO 05 ^ 



t>-C<I O CD t^ 



O O OIN 



o oi>o to 



cooo o cmn 



cS 



0.2 






c 3 ai * 



•ft<a 



•^ K t< 

O O) 

•a « a <D 

Cfe Ofa 

o 3 « 5 



r- -I r-. O 



(N (M >-< 



P) 00 OJ 



! in in o> 



Oa 00 00 Oi Oi o> 



r^ to 00 



(N w .I 



00 05 w 



W r-( e^ ,-. i-H 



O^O 



- ^ S'c 



g ® o 



« a 



■M jj r; rt ir' d. 

o « 





a : 

'3 : 

Cm . 


:^ 


:'5 • 






t.'C : 


s 


a ■ 


b 


es • 


o 


r/l • 






c« 


rrl . 






.^ 


: 



-a o 
"o ^ 

CO 



< r- c _e C-^ ~ 



I* 

oo CD 



.2 3 

OS 



lO 05 O CO i-H 05 

m CO oi c» OS o 



O OS » OS <o t^ 
i-iiM CO 00 iCiO 



GENERAL REPORT. 



IX 



lOlONi-l rH 



lO^'H i-H i-H 



O O O O O 



o o ooo o 



o o o oo 



o o e^ LO 00 



00 CO 

00 u5 

COCO 



C»3 C^ 00 CO o 



oo o o o 



o o oo oo 



oo o o o 
lo o o oo 



00 OOi-lO lO 



r-l05 OO INO 



toeot-o lo 

05 t^l>QO p 

O d TJ wo 



O O O in lO 
IC O IC c^ c^ 



oo OOO o 

o o o o o o 



o o o oo 
inio o oo 



00 00 t~00lO 



coco ic t^in 



iD a> w X -^ c<i 



— C^ CO o t~ 



in d CO CO o 
d CO c^ in C7S 
c4 c4 --^ ci f-H 



in o 05 cjoooo 



in w *^ CD 00 



lOt-i-ICO 



03 CO in 00 00 

C0 03 t-i CO CO 

cj 1-5 >-< 1-5 CO 



00 ■^ CO ooos > 



- O O CO lO 



^ oo 05 t~ 



00 in 
ine4 



■* Cl CO T)< CO 



eic6 


°. 


in 

00 


1.24 

3.70 
1.81 
1.81 


ejco 


2.47 
2.47 
4.12 
1.65 




2.25 
1.15 
1.03 
2.06 
2.47 


OO) 


^ 


e4 


1.45 
1.81 
3.82 
1.80 
2.06 


t-co 
oi CO 


3.62 
3.13 
4.64 
2.75 


S 


2.13 
1.25 
1.33 
2.06 
2.41 



o o t- a> 



Q d, 



Ed 



^ S o o ^ 

<1 DC*®, 
P3 ' 



fn 



a 



S 2 »! 

o ►J 3 




fe o- ' - ■ " 
4) t; "^"o 5 

o O ^ * cS-B 

MOhO ?»i-5 a> 
rt > 

aJ o 

1 .2 



3 » 

O O C3 

._ 3 K Oh cS 
O -K O . +.> 

CI. ajPnCiCLi 
^ ly cS c3 
.S -g ^, » <D 

o o\! ao. 



C^ C<1 00 CO -^ 
w Tj< CO 03 05 



coc^ in r~» CO 
^- in 03 o o 03 



■*C0 05 O 'H 
»-» •»*' OS o o 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



•S8XOH 



» 


o 




(0 




a 




H-l 




•o 








«■£ 




«« 




> 




3(B 








o3 




02 



eoN c<i "-iiH 






o o o o o 



oj in i-H 



oo d CO o) 03 

000 W 05 t-; 



00000 



c^ 05 «o O CO 
CO 05 i-H iq 05 

WrHCi 00 



00000 



Tj< C^ CO O CO 



to CO 00 Ir-r-l 



t- CO 000 CO 



ooc^ 00 o >n 



«0 <D «C CO O 



05 »-i -^ai o CO 
i-Iei CO i-HCO 



la c< CO -H 'J" CO CO 



0000000 



to o •* iH o i-H « 



0000000 



Tj< c^ ic 10 00 t^ 10 



0000000 



i-H -^ o t^ r^ ic lA 



CO 00 in 00^ IN o 

CO CO 00 O tC i-( rH 



CO 05 Tl< X C^ IC c^ 
rH « to t^ O in .M 

c3 c4 1-5 ^ r4 rH ci 



00 m CO 03 m o CO 



C<J C^ to O IM U5 t- 

00 00 o CO 00 to 1; 

' oi CO ' r-irt 



OS i« c^ CO CO o> »n 



— ■ i" 



(a a 
— P B 



® s 
o w o 






o ^5c 



d a 

ci cj 






„ •S.'O 

S2 <D-,„r.&. « 



tt* « oj -„ -r gl, " 



& 



•jaquinM 



■* to rH rH 



ri '9' in O O 



«- 1- a oiii_'a 
=«=«£& se^ d 
c3 n t- o o c3 ^ 

S £ V.' £ 'S 3 o 
83 £ O .«i ^ 03 
'b S ^ "'S ® -- 

rt fc,ffia,>fa 



t^ O O Tt< 00 O f-t 
1-1 t- CO O 'T to t^ 



GENERAL REPORT. 



XI 



<N 


-- -HCl 


1-H r^ 


■*ej e< i-H 


^ 


'^ 


O 


e4eo<N 




1.00 
5.00 
1.00 
2.00 


g 






00 M» 
(NM(N 


00 03 


1.40 
4.86 
1.68 
1.90 


00 


CO 


§ 

00 


o OS d 


§§ 


11.00 
13.00 
15.00 
15.00 


o 
d 


§ 

d 



in (N ooc 
d c^ "S* M 
* » * * 



8 


o oo 
o o o 


§§ 


o ooo 

O O OO 


g 


g 


t- 


00 X X 


03X 


X05 (N ^ 


o> 


Oi 


■«< 


X o -^ 

X lO lO 


ss 


CO ■* X X 
O) O TC X 


§ 


§ 


'^ 


00 00 00 


a>«o 
# 


X o e^ —I 


X 


o 


CJ 


OS O X 
C^X.H 


CD iH 


t-X Ol t~ 

»C r- IC 05 


05 


IN 




(N e^(>5 


>-l <N 


r-1 (N Tl rH 


O 


IN 


CO 


sgg 


to lO 


rH « rH O 

eocc t^x 


X 


CO 


M 


«eoT)< 


(N CO 


CO c) (N eq 


•* 


•f 


§ 


P> (NX 

rH OOS 


Sg 


e^ rH t^x 

CO "9< t~0 


OS 


§; 


■* 


id-* CO 


CO (N 


irt r^o 05 


CO 


in 


s 


§§g 


OO 

0-* 


IN in •* in 

X CO d CO 


CO 

o 


^ 




ci IN r-i 


(NIN 


rH fH rH 


e^ 


c^ 



■»i IN 

o in 

rHIN 



a 
go 

c«0 



CS t. 

iJO, 



o 
H 

s o o 
a> o 3 



PI'S o 
cs a— 

c « oj 

O cc 



•r o 

2 ^ 



03 m'O a 

a fl rt ti 
a; 2 3 o 

S-" •" S '^ 

Hit; .2 3 
£J ai"'-^ 
— (if >- 

— ' '^^ t* iK 

fe o >>o 

o oS-' 
EiHOiccn 



be ^ 



I'g 

O.S 

Sd 

oo 
o . « 

.20 a 

t. KJ »3 

s ••« 



xll new hampshire agriculture. 

farmers' institutes. 

The demand for farmers' institutes and the interest in them 
have greatly increased since our previous report was made, and 
there seems to exist a well-established belief in their utility. 
The exercises have been of a practical nature, and bearing 
upon farming methods and principles, or upon subjects of prac- 
tical importance to rural sections of the state, and therefore of 
direct advantage to agriculture. The attendance has varied 
from forty to four hundred and fifty, averaging about two hun- 
dred for the entire number held. The plan has been one-day 
institutes of three sessions each. During the period for which 
this report is made, institutes have been held at the following 
places : Concord, Newington, Conway, Effingham, Haverhill, 
Lyme, Unity, Croydon, Hinsdale, Gilsum, New Hampton, 
Hampton, Rye, Dunbarton, Salisbury, Farmington, Strafford, 
Newport, Keene, Greenfield, Rochester, Andover, Raymond, 
Meredith, Littleton, Stewartstown, Colebrook, Dalton, Bethle- 
hem, Warren, Woodsville, Hanover, Enfield, Canterbury, New 
London, Sutton, Meriden, Sunapee, Marlow, Hancock, Bow, 
Sanbornton, Centre Harbor, Sandwich. These constitute about 
fifty per cent, of the towns from which requests were made for 
institutes, the balance of which are placed upon file and will be 
granted as soon as practicable. 

PUBLIC MEETINGS. 

Public meetings for the discussion of topics of importance to 
farmers and those interested in agriculture have been held at 
Laconia and Lancaster, in connection with the State Dairy- 
men's Association, and a summer field meeting at The Weirs, 
in August of each year, in connection with the State grange. 
These have been attended by large numbers and addressed by 
speakers of eminence and ability. Some of the addresses 
delivered at these meetings will be found in this report. In 
May, i8g6, a Good Roads Convention was held in Concord, 
consisting of addresses upon good roads and kindred top- 
ics, by experts and specialists from various sections of the 
country, and a practical exhibition of road-working machinery. 



GENERAL REPORT. XllI 

The principal addresses delivered on this occasion will be 
found in this report. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

The Public Statutes impose upon the Board of Agriculture 
the duty of encouraging the formation of farmers' clubs, agri- 
cultural and horticultural societies, and kindred institutions, 
and action has been taken in this direction. All organized 
agricultural societies in the state have had such encouragement 
and support as the board could legitimately give, and especially 
has the grange been advanced and supported. 

Under the act referred to, the board has considered it an 
important part of its work to encourage and assist in the estab- 
lishment of granges and in sustaining an interest in those al- 
ready established. While no financial aid has been rendered, 
the time of the secretary and members of the board has been 
considerably devoted to this work, believing it to be for the 
interest of New Hampshire agriculture. It is pleasing to refer 
to the active and prosperous condition of this farmers' organiza- 
tion throughout the state, with 219 active subordinate granges, 
15 Pomona granges, and a membership of 18,000. 

The Granite State Dairymen's Association and State Horti- 
cultural Society are promoting their respective lines of hus- 
bandry to good effect. 

The agricultural fairs of the state have been continued, with 
their usual interest and success. 

ABANDONED FARMS AND SUMMER RESORTS. 

The action authorized by the statutes in calling attention to 
the abandoned farms of the state, and otherwise advertising the 
advantages of the rural sections of New Hampshire, has been 
vigorously prosecuted in accordance with the system adopted 
in previous years and now carried out in other New England 
states. Letters of inquiry in regard to the advantages of New 
Hampshire as an agricultural state and as a health resort, have 
been received from all sections of the country, and even, to 
some extent, from foreign countries. In reply to these, we 



XIV NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

have published a catalogue of desirable abandoned farms, con- 
taining such information as was furnished us by the owners 
of these places. In addition to this, we have replied by letter 
to thousands of letters whose inquiries were not answered by 
the printed pamphlet. We have now in preparation a publica- 
tion containing views of natural scenery in the state, which will 
also contain a list of the summer hotels and boarding-houses, 
and will be a continuation of our previous work in this direc- 
tion. 

THE OLEOMARGARINE LAW. 

While a strict construction of the statute, perhaps, does not 
require the Board of Agriculture to enforce the law of the state 
in regard to the sale and use of imitation dairy products, yet 
the duties of the board are of such a general nature as to easily 
include this matter, and in this direction action has been taken. 
The present law upon the subject forbids imitation butter to be 
sold when colored in imitation of the genuine product, and re- 
quires all hotels and restaurants where it is used to notify their 
guests of the fact that the imitation product is served on the 
table. This latter provision is the one which needs the most 
attention, and which has been the object of action on the part 
of the board. Several prosecutions have been made for viola- 
tion of this law, and several others are waiting the action of the 
court. The board will take all reasonable action for the enforce- 
ment of this law in the state. 

HIGHWAYS. 

A bill was referred to the State Board of Agriculture by the 
legislature of 1895 providing for the appointment of a State 
Highway Commission and a system of state roads, with instruc- 
tions to "investigate the subject and report to the next session 
of the legislature." 

It is not necessary to reproduce the bill, as it is one of some 
length, and it will suffice to state that it is a bill drafted after 
the form of the present highway law of Massachusetts, with 
such modifications as were necessary to meet the conditions 
and apparent necessities of the roads of New Hampshire, and 



GENERAL REPORT. XV 

making an appropriation for the same. In accordance with the 
instruction of the legislature, the Board of Agriculture made 
investigation in regard to the working of highway laws in vari- 
ous states, and made available as far as possible the information 
upon the subject furnished by the office of Road Inquiry of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. The result of this 
investigation is, that while the Board of Agriculture recognizes 
the importance and influence of good roads in sustaining the 
prosperity of rural towns, and their special importance in a state 
as prominent as New Hampshire in the summer-boarding indus- 
try, yet in view of the general financial condition and the expense 
attending the establishment of state commissions, the Board of 
Agriculture does not deem it wise at this time to report favor- 
ably upon the bill referred to it, and does therefore recommend 
its indefinite postponement. The board begs leave to call the 
attention of the legislature to the importance of educational 
work in the interest of better roads, and also requests the favor- 
able attention of the legislature to some form of state aid for 
roads in rural sections, a matter that has already received atten- 
tion and favorable action in states located and circumstanced 
similar to New Hampshire. The board endorses the highway 
law enacted in 1893, and, with slight amendments, regards it in 
the line of progress, and representing a system, recognized also 
in other states, as capable of advancing the movement for bet- 
ter roads throughout the state and country. 

IN CONCLUSION. 

A comprehensive survey of the agricultural interests of New 
Hampshire leads to the conclusion that the financial depression 
existing in other industries is shared by this, and as it was the 
last of these industries to feel the effect of hard times, it will be 
the last to recover from its effect. In view of this fact, we sub- 
mit that the most practical and economic means of aiding this 
important industry and permanently promoting its interests on 
the part of the state is through educational methods, and such 
should have liberal support. We refer to the diffusion of prac- 
tical agricultural instruction, as well as to general education. 



XVI NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

We also desire to respectfully call the attention of the legisla- 
ture to the advisability of adopting some means of state aid to 
rural schools and highways, and refer to the system adopted in 
neighboring states as a possible guide in this important mat- 
ter. 

Respectfully submitted : 

N. J. BACHELDER, 
Secretary State Board of Agriculture. 



ADDRKSSKS 



DELIVERED AT 



MEETINGS AND INSTITUTES. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 



BY JOSEPH B. WALKER, CONCORD. 



FAJRT II. 
Afr. Chairinan^ Ladies and Geiztlettzen : 

I had the honor, a year ago, about this time and in this place, 
to read to you, as those of a typical New Hampshire farm, the 
annals of that of the First Minister of Pennycook, now Con- 
cord, and the capital of this state, from the time it was wrested 
from the wilderness, down to the death of its first proprietor in 
1782, — a period of fifty-two years. I have since been invited 
by this Board to continue the narrative to the present time. 
For that purpose I am here to-day. 

Concord was colonized, rather than settled in the usual way 
by accretions from time to time of individual immigrants. The 
proprietors were all admitted to plantation rights after careful 
examinations by a committee of the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts Bay as to their fitness. As a consequence, as early as 
October, 1731? less than six years after the grant of its proprie- 
tary charter, almost every one of its proprietors had a portion of 
his land improved and a house built thereon.-' 

In 1769, the First Minister transferred the ownership of one 
half of his farm to his only son, Hon. Timothy Walker, and in 
1782, devised to him the other half.- He had been born upon 
it and was familiar with its traditions. He had been educated 

1 See Appendix A. 

2 On the 25th of December, 1769, the Kev. Timothy Walker deeded to his only 
son, Hon. Timothy Walker, " The one half of all the lands which I own in the 
Parish aforesaid, as well such as are already divided into lots as those which I 
own in Common with other Proprietors of said Parish." By his will, executed 
August 10, 1782, he devised to him the remainder of his real estate. 

Walker Papers, Vol. 2. 



4 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

at Harvard, had studied theology, and was for several years a 
minister of the standing order, but was never settled. The Revo- 
lution, however, swept him from clerical, first into military, 
and subsequently into civil life. In 1777, he was appointed a 
justice of the Court of Common Pleas for Rockingham County, 
an office which he held until he became disqualified by the 
limitation of age, in 1S07 ; having been presiding justice from 
1789. He died May 5, 1822, at the mature age of eighty-five 
years. ^ 

By his deeds bearing dates from June 30th, 1803, and June 
23, 1807, the farm passed to its third owner, his youngest son. 
Captain Joseph Walker.- He held it until his death, March 3, 
1833, when it descended by law to his only son, the present 
owner (Joseph B. Walker). 

During the ownership of the second and third proprietors, a 
period of about fifty years, the agriculture of New Hampshire 
was more conservative than progressive, and made few 
advances. A traditional system of mixed husbandry prevailed, 
mingled with domestic manufactures. The farmer lived more 
entirely than now upon the products of his farm. He sold lit- 
tle and bought little, and that mostly by barter.^ 

The latter part of this period, however, marks the approach- 
ing renaissance of New England agriculture. Improved breeds 
of sheep and horses were introduced. The horse hay-rake and 
iron plows came into use. The first New Hampshire Board 
of Agriculture was established, as were our several county 
agricultural societies. The depressing influences of the wars 
of the Revolution and of 181 2 had passed away, and the new 
spirit of a new age was everywhere felt and manifest. 

For nearly thirty years after the death of its third proprietor, 
the farm of the First Minister was occupied by tenants. To 
say that its condition improved during that period, would be to 
say what is not true. To say that it was maltreated, would be 
equally so. For the use of it, the fourth proprietor received a 
fair annual rent and the tenants secured for themselves a fair 
net profit. 

' See Biographical Sketch, Appendix B. 

= See biographical notice of Capt. Joseph Walker, Appendix C. 

3 See Agricultural Advancements, 1782 to 1833. Appendix D. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 5 

But our agriculture will be unlikely to improve under any 
system of tenancy which has hitherto or may hereafter be 
devised. The changes for the better in its condition, so 
devoutly desired, can only be secured through the stimulus of 
personal ownership and the adoption of better methods of farm- 
ing. The old English system of landlord, tenant, and farm 
laborer engenders jealousies, supports caste, and keeps all par- 
ties concerned discontented and unsatisfied. 

While it is to be deeply regretted that twenty-eight per cent. 
of all the farms in the United States are leased to tenants, we 
should rejoice that only seven per cent of those in New Hamp- 
shire are rented. If there be upon this planet any substantial 
foundation upon which national prosperity can securely rest, it 
will be found in an intelligent, Christian yeomanry which owns 
the land which it tills ; such as New England has heretofore 
produced, and, it is to be hoped, will never cease to maintain. 

THE FOURTH PROPRIETOR. 

In 1853, after it had been leased to tenants for some twenty 
years, the Fourth Proprietor assumed control of the Farm of 
the First Minister. He knew no farming, but he had agricul- 
tural blood in his veins, as a descendant of the seventh generation 
in a direct line of farmers back to their first Anglo-American 
ancestor, an English yeoman, who settled at Lynn, Mass., in 
1630, and believing in gospel and gunpowder, became a mem- 
ber of the Church of Christ in that town, and a founder of the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. 
The farm then consisted of: 

Tillage, 73 acres, 37 square rods. 

Pasture, 68 acres, 12 square rods. 

Low meadow, 47 acres, 69 square rods. 

Forest, 215 acres. 

Water, 20 acres, 70 square rods. 

Amounting to 424 acres, 28 square rods. 

TILLAGE. 

Island 46 acres, 172 rods 

Six Acre Lot 6 " 000 " 

Waternummons Field 16 " 105 " 

House Lot 3 " 80 " 

73 acres, 37 rods. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



PASTURES. 

Island Pastures 32 acres, 12 rods 

Little Pond Pasture 36 " 00 " 

68 acres, 12 rods. 

LOW MEADOWS. 

Improved Meadow 7 acres, 28 rods 

Unimproved Meadow 40 " 41 " 

- 47 acres, 69 rods. 

FORESTS. 

Livermore Lot 15 acres, 00 rods 

Parson Walker's Pasture Lot 30 " 00 " 

Little Pond Lot 110 " 00 " 

Dark Plain Lot 60 " 00 " 

215 acres, 00 rods. 

PONDS. 

Horse Shoe Pond 16 acres, 60 rods 

Little Pond 4 " 10 " 

20 acres, 70 rods. 

Whole Area of Farm 424 acres, 28 rods. 

The tillage land was in low condition, the pastures had been 
closely fed and, together with portions of the meadows, were 
largely encroached upon by vyillow, alder, and other bushes. 

The buildings consisted of a one-story cottage, two two-story 
houses, two cattle sheds, a wood and carriage house, a hogpen, 
a bacon house, and several other small structures. No one of 
these was covered with a sound roof. Each, together with long 
lines of farm fences, needed speedy repairs.^ 

To the present proprietor, who then possessed very little 
agricultural knowledge and no experience, these neglected 
lands and dilapidated buildings afforded larger opportunities 
for making improv^ements and sinking money than the first sur- 
vey of them revealed. But a few months' association with farm 
hands, stone layers, carpenters, and other mechanics, accom- 
panied V)y a painful void in the abdomen of his pocket-book, 
gave him unwelcome information which he could have obtained 
so well from no other source. He learned for the first time 
that the glory of being a land holder was an expensive one. 

But, he had literally put his hand to the plow and he pushed 
on into his unknown future, thinking that he ''■ who looked 
back " was not worthy of agricultural success. He observed 

I For condition of First Minister's Farm in 1853 see Appendix E. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 7 

as he went, he thought, he recorded his experiences and studied 
those of others ; sometimes cheered, sometimes depressed, but 
determined to sooner or later know his business. 

On one occasion, however, he became discouraged. The 
farm was not paying expenses, and he confided to a neighbor 
of twice his years and far broader agricultural experience, his 
purpose to sell it. " Pooh ! " replied his confidant, throwing 
back his head, until his eagle beak of a nose hung down his 
face like a bush scythe on a tree, " Pooh ! I don't think much 
of a young man who is not smart enough to keep what was given 
to him." 

This remark stung the young proprietor's too thin skin, 
which has grown thicker since. When, ere long, his temper 
had become serene, and cool reflection had come to his aid, he 
concluded that his sympathetic comforter held a justifiable 
opinion. The old farm was not sold. Thus far, its present 
owner has been " smart enough to keep it." 

PLOWING. 

The important fact was ere long made known to the present 
owner, that his hired men worked for pay and not because they 
loved him, and that if their pay was to come from the farm's 
income, the farm's products must be largely increased. It was 
being run upon the old rotations of an hundred years ago. 
Exhausted sod ground was broken up in the fall, manured the 
next spring, and planted to corn. The following year it was 
sown with oats, to be cropped with grass the succeeding six. 

Hay, the leading crop, was produced at the rate of some fifty 
to sixty tons a year. A part of this was of good quality, but most 
of it classed under the uncertain term of " stock hay," and 
varied all the way from fair, fairish, and middling fair, down 
to mean, meaner, and meanest. 

A farm never stands still. It either improves or deteriorates. 
Conscious that, for aught he knew, its three former owners, — 
a minister of the Gospel, a judge of the Common Pleas court, 
and a captain of Cavalry, might, from some locality beyond his 
ken, be watching his movements, the present proprietor felt 
that, if he neglected its improvement, there might be such a 



8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

rattling at night of dry bones about the headboard of his bed as 
would drive " sleep from his eyes and slumber from his eyelids." 
He therefore determined to break up as fast as he could his 
exhausted, turf-bound fields, and after thorough pulverization 
and fertilization seed them anew. 

This work was begun in 1853, by breaking up a section of 
run-out grass land to the depth of eight and a half to nine 
inches. The favorite breaking-up plow then in use in his 
locality, was the old cast-iron " Lion plow." Its successful 
operation on interval turf land required a plowman, two team- 
sters, and eight oxen. It turned a fifteen-inch furrow slice 
perfectly flat, shutting it in closely against its neighbor, and 
leaving the ground as smooth and solid as before. 

Upon the soil thus inverted, manure was spread at the rate 
of ten cords per acre and buried with a seed plow, running 
some four inches deep. Thus prepared, the eight years' rota- 
tion above mentioned began. 

The present proprietor will never forget his first attempt at 
plowing. He took his initial lesson in an effort to plow 
under manure upon an inverted sod. The plow seemed aware 
that a green hand was between its stilts, and showed a per- 
sistent determination to either dive under the furrow slices or 
scoot from the ground. To keep it in place, he expended all 
his strength, sometimes turning it one way and again the 
other ; sometimes lifting it up, and at others bearing it down ; 
all the while making very poor work and learning the impor- 
tant fact, that a balk in one furrow secured the imperfection of 
the next. At the end of tvv'O or three hours, he was the 
"tiredest" man ever seen on the First Minister's Farm, and 
he had reached the conclusion that plowing was very hard 
work. But first conclusions are not always correct. 

It at length occurred to him that if he would restrict his 
eftbrts to the guidance only of the plow and leave its draft to 
the team, he might save both muscle and perspiration. This 
idea was an inspiration. From that time to this, he has al- 
lowed his teams to do his plowing, contenting himself with the 
simple direction of his implements. 

Following a plow all day long in the constant endeavor to 
make every furrow like every other perfect furrow, may seem 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 9 

to some a monotonous business, but every good plowman will 
tell you that it is not so. Each furrow makes a little history of 
its own, of much interest to him who turns it. If his plow 
shows a fixed disposition to run away, he notes the fact, and, 
if it be a good one, at once changes its draft line. If a poor 
one, embodying faulty lines of construction, he dismisses it 
with his blessing, as Abraham did Hagar, and seeks a better 
one. No farmer can afford to use a poor plow. 

The practical plowman soon learns that the basal idea in 
every plow is a combination of two wedges, one to move hor- 
izontally, and the other perpendicularly ; the office of the first 
being to sever the furrow slice from the subsoil ; while that of 
the second is to raise and turn it downside up. He also sees 
that if these wedges are too blunt, and their cutting edges are 
kept dull, unnecessary resistance will be encountered and the 
amount of power required to draw the plow through the soil 
will be unduly increased. 

A careful experiment made, some years since, with two pop- 
ular plows in breaking up a piece of tough sod-land, revealed 
the fact that the turning of a furrow eight and a half inches 
deep and fourteen inches wide, by one of them, required an 
expenditure of power amounting to eleven hundred and fifty 
pounds ; while by the use of the other, the same work was 
done at an expenditure of only eight hundred. As the cost of 
plowing is largely in that of the power used, the comparative 
merits of the two plows were very apparent. 

When, in the course of time, experience had taught the 
present proprietor many of the points in good plowing, the 
question arose in his mind, why do you and your men and 
teams walk hundreds of miles every year to plow .^ Readily 
came the answer, " to pulverize the soil." To the next ques- 
tion, " Does the old ' Lion plow,' which simply lifts the furrow 
from its bed, and after turning it lays it down again as solid as 
before, do that.?" To this inquiry the answer was simply 
"No." 

Thereupon the old " Lion " was left to " innocuous desue- 
tude " and a successor was employed which turned every fur- 
row slice with a twist, and rested its oft' edge upon the near 
edge of its neighbor. Thus turned, partial pulverization was 



lO NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

secured and an open space left at the bottom of each furrow, 
from which the forces of nature might attack the inverted sod 
and aid in its disintegration. 

With the best hand plows which he could get, it cost the 
present owner of the First Minister's Farm from ten to twelve 
dollars to break up an acre of his interval sod land to the depth 
of from eight and a half to nine inches. To do this, as before 
remarked, required three men and eight oxen, or a team equiv- 
alent thereto. In the course of time the Sulky plow came to 
the farm and came to stay. No less than three have here done 
service ; first, a " Cassidy ; " later, a " Syracuse," and lastly a 
Taylor & Belcher. Their distinctive points of excellence can- 
not be here detailed. It must suffice to say that, with a slightly 
diminished depth and width of furrow, the cost of sod-plowing 
has been reduced to about one half of its former amount ; while 
the privilege of riding has been accorded to the plowman in 
exchange for that of going on foot. For similar reasons, 
the old spike-tooth harrow has been remanded to the retired 
list. 

Next in importance to fertilization, in field culture, is soil 
pulverization. There is no better place to study this essential 
work than between the handles of a good plow swinging free in 
the furrow, behind an even, steady-moving team. The com- 
minution of the furrow slice as it is detached from its bed and 
rolled over, will suggest to an intelligent plowman that the 
vast envelope with which Omnipotence has wrapped this 
planet is all plant food ; stored for the farmer's use in a form 
to insure its preservation, and that he has but to separate its 
numberless particles and expose them to the action of heat and 
air, water and frost, to secure from them assimilable sus- 
tenance for the plants growing upon them. Furthermore, as 
he thinks back into the agricultural past, it will occur to him 
that old Jethro Tull, who, two hundred years ago, taught that 
pulverization might be substituted for fertilization, was less of 
a crank than his neighbors thought him to be. In time it 
will dawn upon him that the former is cheaper than the latter 
and that if he will, he may plow more and manure less to his 
own pecuniary advantage. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. II 

THE COW PASTURE. 

An early subject to claim the attention of the present proprie- 
tor was the condition of his cow pasture, about one third of 
which had been usurped by a vigorous growth of hardback, 
black alder, cold water, and willow bushes. The Bible tells us 
that the advent of sin upon the earth was followed by " thorns 
and thistles,"^ and that our first ancestor was commanded by 
his Maker to " replenish and subdue it."^ The alternative pre- 
sented was the subjugation of these intruders or, in the near 
future, no milk. 

He accepted the former, but, it must be humbly confessed, 
with little knowledge of the best means of its attainment. 
Kindly disposed neighbors told him that if he would cut his 
bushes on two certain days in August, " when the sign was in 
the heart," he would surely kill them. As it was impossible 
with his established farm force to cut ten acres of them, vary- 
ing in height from one to twenty feet, in two days, he was 
constrained to disregard their disinterested advice. 

But extermination must be accomplished somehow, and he 
began it bv mowing the hardbacks {Spirca satiscifolia') . This 
temporarily improved the appearance of the pasture, but the 
following season brought them all back again in increased num- 
bers. Ploughing was next tried. Their stalks were turned 
downwards and their roots upwards. They weix literally up- 
rooted,, but while most of them were thus killed, their roots lay 
upon the ground's surface, black, tough, fibrous masses, each 
one resembling a big darky's scalp, which neither plow, har- 
row, or other implement, would reduce to pulverization. 

But, inasmuch as fire will do what no other agent will, some 
of these were gathered into masses and burned, and their ashes 
paid in part the expense of their reduction. The remainder 
were used as the substratum of a farm road then in process of 
construction. Whether by this time, the forces of chemistry 
have reduced these to their primal elements your speaker 
knows not. He does know that that road has never settled, in 
spite of time and frosts and fioods. 

1 Genesis, 3:18. 

2 Genesis, 1:28. 



12 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

This work of subjugation extended through parts of as many 
years as it has taken minutes to narrate it. It taught the inex- 
perienced farmer how to kill hardhacks, which should have 
never been allowed to grow. 

The plow sufficed for the uprooting of small willows. As 
fast as a bout was plowed, the stalks and roots were pulled out 
by hand, to be afterwards gathered into heaps for burning. 
Any not loosed by the plow were dug out by the bog hoe. 
This operation left the ground in fit condition for further 
manipulations. 

But willows five or six feet high, or higher, did not obliging- 
ly yield to this treatment. Their roots were too large and 
descended too deep. The axe was here found necessary. 
Severing them at an inch or two below the ground's surface, 
just where they changed to stalks ; in short at their necks, 
where one cuts oft' a mean dog's tail, they all died satisfactor- 
ily. Whenever water bushes were encountered, extermination 
was found only in substantial extraction. 

The black alder generally grows in bunches of a dozen or 
more stalks springing from one cluster of roots. Cutting each 
stalk separately above ground proved a slow, laborious and 
ineffectual work, even if done on the right day in the month of 
August, when '' the sign was in the heart." It was found that 
each bunch must be severed from its roots below the ground's 
surface, or it would sprout and grow again. Qiiestions as to 
why the Almighty allowed sin to enter the world, and why he 
endowed weeds and bushes with high vitality have never been 
satisfactorily answered. If, however, they have been intended 
for human discipline, the present proprietor has great reason 
for gratitude. 

But experience, ere long, developed an effectual method of 
subduing the largest alders. It consisted : 

1. In making a circular incision with an axe, a few inches 
deep, around the outer roots of a clump, similar to that for- 
merly made by the old-fashioned doctor, with his dull lancet, 
around the tooth he was about to extract with his accursed key, 
of which some of you may have painful recollections. 

2. By carefully introducing to the groove thus made, a small, 
short linked, cable chain, and so hitching it to the neck of the 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 1 3 

roots that, when drawn to its final grip, its pull was an upward 
and onward twist. 

After these preliminaries, the slow, steady pull of four good 
seven and a half feet oxen, with heads slightly lowered, as they 
straightened themselves horizontally under the guidance of a 
skillful teamster, sufficed to extract and lay prone upon the 
ground the most formidable clumps of these intruders. 

You must pardon him, Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentle- 
men, if the present owner of the First Minister's Farm just here 
and now, confesses to a love for a good yoke of oxen. There 
are few finer types of animated substantiality than a mild-eyed, 
clean-faced ox, possessed of a head surmounted with a comely 
pair of horns, behind which a strong neck and shoulders develop 
into a straight back and well-rounded body, terminating in deep 
hind quaiters, and a well-inserted tail ; the whole supported by 
four muscular and well-formed legs. 

Mrs. Austin, his daughter, tells us that that sharp-witted 
English divine, the late Sidney Smith, kept a four-ox team, 
and gave to the animals composing it appropriate names. ^ Of 
the first yoke, he named one " Tug," and the other "• Lug." 
Of the second, he calle'd one "• Haul," and his mate " Crawl " ; 
names quite as significant as are those of Bright, and Berry, and 
Buck, and Broad, so common with us. 

Daniel Webster also loved oxen.^ It has been said that one 
of his latest earthly enjoyments, after he had gone down to his 
Marshfield farm to die, was to sit in his doorway and look ad- 
miringly into the honest faces of his oxen, as they stood before 
him, and to lavish upon them the noble affection, which, con- 
tracted in youth upon his father's farm, twenty miles below us, 
grew stronger with his years, and was as lasting as his life. 

Remote be the day when cattle husbandry shall be banished 
from the farms of our beloved state. " Let that day be dark- 
ness; let not God regard it from above, neither let the light 
shine upon it."^ 

1 Life of Sidney Smith, Vol. 1, p. 145. 

2 Harvey's Reminiscences of Daniel Webster, pp. 276-278. 
s Job, 3:4. 



14 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

FRESHETS. 

The tillage portion of the First Minister's Farm, as before re- 
marked, is a section of Merrimack River interval.^ For one 
hundred and twenty-two rods, the river forms a part of its 
northern boundary. As one stands upon its bank, some fifteen 
feet above its surface, when at its summer level, and looks up 
and down its course, it seems a peaceful stream, and its quiet 
flow suggests only the gentle lapse of the later years of a well- 
spent life. Its channel has a width of some five hundred feet, 
and its depth rarely exceeds fifteen. Unless ruffled by the wind, 
its surface is as smooth as a mirror and reflects the trees and 
shrubs and flowers which line its way. 

But it is not always thus. At times, it rises in its might some 
five, ten, fifteen and even twenty feet ; like a tawny giant from 
his sleep, increasing its volume and accelerating its flow. So 
long as it keeps within its banks, its current, though strong, is 
comparatively harmless. 

When, however, swollen by the waters of excessive rains, 
particularly if these be combined with those of melting snows, 
it overflows its channel, its course is capricious, impetuous and 

iThe formation of the Concord interval is clearly revealed upon a careful ob- 
servation of the adjacent territory. When, in a prehistoric age, the great Ice 
cap, which covered the northern part of this continent, receded from the Mer- 
rimack valley, it left behind it a bed of glacial drift extending from one side 
to the other of it. Upon the middle portion of this was subsequently laid an- 
other of modified drift, through which the river has pursued its devious way, 
cutting away its banks on alternate sides, all the while deepening its channel 
and emptying its sand-laden waters into the ocean at Newburyport. This it 
continued to do until the rocks of the underlying formation arrested its de- 
scent. Since then, its depth has not been changed, but its channel has all the 
while been moving laterally easterly and westerly, until it has passed over 
the entire interval time and again. 

Most of these lateral movements have been gradual. Some of them, however, 
have been violent and extensive. The September freshet of 1828 severed along 
tongue of land of some thirty acres, from the east side of the river and trans- 
ferred it to the west side and by a new channel then made converted it into an 
island, since known as Bradley's Island. Again, in January, 1831, the river cut 
off Hale's Point, near by, and transferred it from its west to its east side. 

These changes have generally resulted from natural causes. But several have 
been made by other agencies. In 1846, or thereabouts, the Northern Railroad 
turned all the water of the river at Sewall's Island into its eastern channel, 
which it has since broadened at the expense of much valuable land. At about 
the same time, this railroad cut a new channel across the base of Goodwin's 
Point, thereby transferring a large tract of land to its west side and making it 
an island. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 15 

irresistible. If, as is sometimes the case, its waters are freighted 
by ice or logs, the injury to lands, bridges, and buildings near 
its banks is liable to be serious. Turbid as the yellow Tiber of 
old Rome, it buries its intervals from sight and strews them 
with sand, logs, and miscellaneous debris. 

The Merrimack freshets, like those of other rivers, vary 
much in magnitude and results. The river usually rises from 
its previous level for some twenty-four to thirty-six hours after 
a flood-producing rain. When its waters begin to fall, a north- 
west wind arises and accompanies their subsidence. This 
pushes the current, accelerated to a speed of some four miles an 
hour or more, against the leeward bank and so undermines it 
that strips of land, varying in width from one to thirty feet, 
fall into the stream and are lost. The southerly course of both 
river and winds cause its erosions to be generally made upon 
the southerly bank. 

The thread of the stream almost always hugs the abraded 
shore, and the line of its withdrawal on one side indicates to 
some degree the width of its encroachment on the other. In 
other words, the loss of land by a proprietor on one shore indi- 
cates the gain of his neighbor on the opposite one. This 
transfer is without consideration, but so long as it is gradual the 
law does not interfere. 

Almost every year until 1870, the successive proprietors of 
the First Minister's Farm had more or less land thus taken from 
them and transferred to their neighbors on the opposite bank 
of the river. One of these used to show his unclean teeth and 
note with a covetous eye the yearly increment to his farm. 

The freshets of the Merrimack vary greatly in height from 
one year to another. A tradition somewhat vague speaks of a 
very high one in 1784. Authentic records exist of many of the 
abnormal ones occurring since 1S18, a period of seventy-seven 
years. ^ 

East Concord bridge was carried off on the 5th day of April, 
1819; again on the 12th of February, 1824, and still again, to- 
gether with the Free bridge, on the 8th of January, 1S41, 
when at one time the river rose four feet in thirty minutes at 

1 See Benjamin Kimball's Journal, Appendix P. 



l6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Sugar Ball ferry. Two years before this, on the 26th day of 
January, 1S39, '^ ^'^^^ fifteen feet in as many hours, and swept 
away all the Concord bridges with the single exception of Federal 
bridge. This stood until April nth, 1S72, when it was again 
carried away and the one nearthe south end of Main street was 
so damaged as to require a partial rebuilding. 

But the highest freshet on the Merrimack, of which any au- 
thentic record has been preserved, was that of April 13th, 1895. 
There had been a moderate rise of the river early in this month 
which had partially subsided by Friday, the twelfth, when, 
about its head waters, a rain commenced and continued 
through that day, Saturday, and until the evening of Sunday. 
This caused a second rise which, augmented somewhat by the 
waters of dissolving snows, proved unprecedented. 

With the exception of a few square rods on Waternummon's 
hill, adjacent to the track of the Concord & Montreal Rail- 
road, the entire Concord interval was covered. At its highest 
stage, the water was twelve feet deep on the top of Sewall's 
Falls dam. South of West street, the tracks of the railroad just 
mentioned were submerged for the distance of one or two miles, 
as were those of the Northern Railroad for some three miles 
north of Bridge street. On the floor of one of the barns on the 
Farm of the First Minister, the water stood two feet deep and 
its proprietor then learned by a new experience that the immer- 
sion of hay in cold water for twenty-four hours does not improve 
its quality, for ordinary purposes. He accordingly sold the 
most he had which had been so treated to milk men, as soon as 
he could and for what he could get. 

By this freshet, many of the houses upon the interval below 
the gas works, in Concord, were for a time surrounded by 
water, and some of them were temporarily vacated by their in- 
habitants. Four were undermined, two of which were moved 
from their foundations. The logs, timber, cord wood, old 
fences, discarded railroad ties, and other multifarious debris 
brought disgust to the owners of land upon which they finally 
rested. And the flood came freighted with sand also, which it 
deposited at its own sweet caprice, sometimes where it would 
do good and sometimes where its presence was as unwelcome as 
it was annoying. 



THE FARM OF THE .FIRST MINISTER. 1 7 

It is, however, " an ill wind that blows nobody any good." 
The Farm of the First Minister shared the fortunes of its neigh- 
bors. On some portions of it the water stood, at its highest, 
a dozen feet deep. Here and there, undesired coatings of sand 
were left, together with worthless deposits of brush and wood. 
But, thanks to its rubbled banks, it lost no land and its low 
meadows were elevated in places, to their improvement, some 
four or five inches, by the sand left upon them. 

Those sections of the farm's grass lands which were in best 
condition were most benefited by this inundation. The pro- 
portion of Timothy to the other grasses was greatly increased. 
More or less of it grew to the unusual height of four feet and 
occasional stalks were found which measured four feet and a 
half, and some even more.^ 

DRAINAGE. 

An examination of the meadow land of the First Minister's 
Farm revealed the fact that some fifty acres (47 acres 59 rds.) 
were either submerged or too wet to produce anything of much 
value.- It also showed that the water table beneath it corres- 
ponded with the surface of Horse Shoe pond, by which it was 
partially surrounded, and whose summer level was several feet 
higher than the river into which its overflow was discharged, 
at a point two thirds of a mile distant. It was apparent, there- 
fore, that the sinking of this water-table would drain the lands 
above it to a corresponding depth, and increase considerably 
the farm's arable area. 

That this depression of the water-table was practicable was 
clear. ^ Whether the cost of draining it would outweigh the 
benefits resulting therefrom was not altogether certain, but as 
Pope says, " hope springs eternal in the human breast," and in- 
experienced youth is often bold. It was decided to incur the 
expense and take the financial chances of the operation. 

'It was generally felt that such a freshet would not be likely to occur again 
for a century, but in this very March, 1898, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d days there was an 
ice freshet of nearlj' equal height. 

2Thls was a low section of land occupying an abandoned channel of Merri- 
mack river, which had been formed by successive deposits of aquatic vegeta- 
tion and silt. 

3 When a level was run the surface of the river was found to be six feet lower 
than that of the pond. 
2 



l8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The plan adopted was to lay a drain from the river inland 
for one hundred rods. This was to be constructed of green, 
white pine, two-inch planks, free of sapwood. It was to be 
twelve inches wide and eight inches high on the inside, aflbrd- 
ing an interior section of ninety-six square inches.^ Beyond this 
an existing open drain was to be followed onwards to the 
pond.^ 

An excavation, fourteen and a half feet deep, five feet wide 
at the top, and three at the bottom, was commenced at the river 
bank in September, 1853, when the river was at its lowest 
stage. 

The plank conduit, made in sections of eight feet each, was 
placed in position as the excavation progressed. These inter- 
locked at the ends, and v^^ere substantially water tight when 
covered. 

It was found upon trial that an ordinary shoveller could throw 
dirt upon the bank to a height of about six feet, and the work 
was commenced with an initial opening of that depth. Deeper 
excavations were next sunk in short cuts about ten feet long, 
and much of the dirt removed therefrom was thrown back- 
wards upon the successive conduit sections as they were put in 
place, so that only a portion of the earth moved was thrown 
outside the ditch. The ground gradually fell oft' as the excava- 
tion was carried inland, and at the end of the first fift}^ rods its 
original depth of fourteen feet and a half was reduced to ten. At 
this point the work was suspended for a time. Subsequently 
resumed, another fifty rods of similar construction was laid, in 
excavations varying in depth from two feet to ten. Hence, on- 
ward to the pond, the old open ditch was deepened as found 
necessary, and for about eighty rods its bottom was 
floored with boards. These, constantly covered with water, 

'Glazed Akron pipes were not then in use, and it was assumed that heart 
white pine, kept at a temperature nearly uniform and always wet, would not 
decay. Experience has thus far sustained this assumption and this draini 
worn somewhat by the friction of the water passing through it, seems as sound 
as when first laid, forty-two years ago. 

2The experiment may have been a rash one, as underdraining was then very 
imperfectly understood and but little practised in New Hampshire. Mr. Will- 
iam Connor and Judge Henry F. French, of Exeter, were the only persons 
within the writer's knowledge who had then done any systematic drainage in 
this state. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 1 9 

have never decayed. They define the bottom of the channel 
and afford firm footing to a workman when engaged in clearing 
it of aquatic plants and the precipitated silt of freshets.^ 

This drainage channel of covered conduit and open canal has 
a total length of about two thirds of a mile (222 rods). It has 
lowered the water-table, under and around nearly fifty acres of 
land, about thirty inches. Since its completion laterals of 
stone, brick, plank, and tiles, have been laid, as experience has 
suggested their utility. 

While the cost of this enterprise has been considerable it has 
not equalled the increased value of the land which it has im- 
proved. Some sections of this, which had ever before been too 
soft to allow the passage over it of cattle and horses, can now 
be plowed and harrowed. On othei's, where formerly only 
sedges grew, tame grasses flourish. The mowing-machine, 
horse-rake, and hay-cart are no longer strangers to them. 
Others, I regret to say, are still too wet for arable crops, and 
for the want of an out-flow sufficiently low, must ever remain 
so, unless raised above their subjacent water-table by costly sur- 
face fillings. 

The experience gained during the last forty-two years has 
pretty firmly established"'^ some conclusions in regard to farm 
drainage, among which are the following : 

1. Inasmuch as drainage is a costly operation, the expense 
and effects of which can generally be forecast with much accu- 
racy, it should not be extensively undertaken until these have 
been ascertained, otherwise expensive disappointments may be 
encountered. 

2. That no drainage operation should be commenced until a 
satisfactory outflow has been found and a definite plan of the 
main, sub-main, and lateral drainage lines has been intelli- 
gently settled. Loss of money and uncertain results are likely 
to attend a disregard of this suggestion. 

lOpen ditches, although boarded at the bottom, are liable to be clogged bj' 
abrasions of their sides, particularly when subject to inundations from the 
larger streams into which they discharge their water. 

^Experience on the Farm of the First Minister is demonstrating the fact that 
a lining of their banks with stone or plank will facilitate their flow and prevent 
obstructions from this cause. Its considerable cost is the only objection to its 
use. 



20 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

3. No underdrains should be laid at a less depth than three 
feet, and four is a better one than three. The deeper a drain, 
the greater will be the area which it will dry. 

4. The principles of land drainage may be acquired from the 
books, but the practical application of these can be learned 
only in the ditch. Any person afraid of soiling his hands or 
his clothes had best keep out of it. It is a wet and dirty busi- 
ness, but it unfolds to the agricultural student some of the mys- 
teries of aqueous circulation and changes worthless bogs to fer- 
tile fields. The cutting of his main ditch through the mud, 
against the protestations of the frogs, turtles, water snakes, and 
muskrats, to the open waters of Horse Shoe pond, aflbrded the 
present proprietor a gratification, less indeed, but akin to that 
experienced about the same time by the brave Arctic explorer, 
William Morton, while forcing his way through the ice floes and 
snow of Smith's strait, to the northern polar sea. 

5. Drainage does not change the natural characteristics of a 
soil. Silicious, peaty, or clayey soils before drainage, remain 
such after their surplus water has been removed. Therefore, 
from an agricultural standpoint it is generally bad farming to 
drain poor land. Its real value is as little enhanced thereby as 
the true character of a mean man is elevated by his election to 
an office which he is unworthy to hold. 

6. Open ditches should be avoided so far as possible. They 
embarrass cultivation, are liable to obstruction, and occupy 
much valuable land. In the long run they are the least effec- 
tive and most troublesome. 

7. Thorough drainage to be most effective must, as its 
name implies, be thorough. 

RUBBLING. 

Up to 1S50, as before remarked, the Farm of the First Minis- 
ter had been losing narrow strips of shore land on its northern 
border every year by encroachments of the river. These also 
threatened, by cutting a new channel, to transfer to dry ground 
both the East Concord bridge and that of the Boston, Concord 
& Montreal Railroad. 

It occurred to the parties in interest that the time had fully 
come to arrest this destructive wandering of the stream. For 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 21 

centuries, how many we know not, it had staggered wantonly 
over its interval, reminding one of jolly old Silenus on a spree, 
drunken, reeling, and reckless. 

Could this be done? It was decided by the officials having 
in charge the aforesaid bridges, the present proprietor of the 
First Minister's Farm, and his adjoining neighbors to cooperate 
in an attempt. It had been learned by inquiries that similar 
encroachments by the River St. John, in New Brunswick, had 
been stopped by lining its banks with trees and brush, pinned 
down by stakes ; and that, elsewhere, a like result had been 
reached by coatings of stones, of sufficient weight and thickness 
to withstand the force of moving ice and water. 

It was finally concluded to coat the bank with rocks, and 
work was begun and prosecuted by hauling to the verge of the 
bank hundreds of loads and afterwards placing them upon the 
slope. The largest were placed first and formed a footing 
beneath the surface of the water to sustain the smaller ones sub- 
sequently laid above them. 

Some forty-four years have since elapsed and the river has 
made no impression upon the bank thus protected. Trees 
have sprung up from between the rocks — maples, willows, 
alders, poplars, and some others, whose roots hold in place 
the stones which, in turn, prevent the washing away of the soil 
upon which they grow : — an instance of reciprocal aid which 
suggests that our success as farmers will be greatly promoted 
by good fellowship and mutual dependence. 

The late Col. David M. Clough used to say that it was the 
opinion of some men that a hole would wear longer than a patch, 
and they therefore went with their coat sleeves open at the 
elbows. For this or some other reason, satisfactory to himself, 
the owner of the upper section of this bank has allowed the 
river to attack it in flank and undermine it. From this neglect, 
he has lost most of his rubbled line, which a little labor and 
watchfulness would have saved. 

Regarding this kind of work, a few suggestions just here and 
now, may not be out of place : 

I. It should be done when the water is at its lowest stage ; 
as that is the time most favorable for sloping a bank and 
placing the stones which are to cover it. 



22 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

2. The stones should be of sufficient weight to prevent their 
removal by ice or water. 

3. Round stones had best be employed to make a footing 
and to cover submerged portions of the bank. Such are easiest 
got into position. Quarry grout and other angular stones, cut 
into slabs eight or ten inches thick, lie firmest above the water 
line and are to be preferred. 

4. If the bank be a high one, the rubble need not be carried 
to the top of it, nor cover all the surface it occupies. If three 
quarters of it is covered, erosion will be prevented. 

5. The requisite amount of stone may be often lessened by 
constructing the submerged footing of trees, laid parallel with 
the bank with their tops up stream. These may be kept in 
place by rocks laid upon them, and, arresting moving sand, 
will be soon buried beneath it. Kept perpetually wet, they 
will never decay. 

6. It is well to encourage a speedy growth of bushes and 
trees along a rubbled bank. They will be sure to spring up 
sooner or later of their own accord, but their advent and growth 
may be hastened by plantings. Whenever the river overflows 
its bank, these will arrest floating debris and cause a precipita- 
tion of suspended sand near the channel. 

7. I give no estimates of the expense of this kind of work. 
It will depend largely upon the height of the bank to be pro- 
tected, the depth of the water and the cost, of labor and 
materials. Hundreds of loads of the stones used upon the bank 
described were taken from useless stone walls on neighboring 
upland farms. The cost was one dollar and twenty-seven cents 
per linear foot. It might now, doubtless, be done for a good 
deal less. 

PRODUCTION OF HAY. 

A novice in farming is quite sure to make mistakes, more or 
less costly in proportion to the magnitude of his business. The 
present proprietor expected no exemption from the action of 
this rule, and determined at the outset to watch carefully the 
results of his operations and record them in a cash book. This 
is to the farmer what his log book is to the seaman. It gives 
him his financial latitude and longfitude and oftentimes saves 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 23 

him from the perils of an agricultural lee shore. He runs at 
random without it. 

The present proprietor followed at first the agricultural rou- 
tine of his neighbors. He h.nd a fondness for cattle and raised 
beef and milk for the Concord market; but, inasmuch as his 
best hay bore an average price of seventeen dollars a ton, his 
cash book indicated that the production of beef and milk was 
unprofitable. He raised a few crops of wheat, but so fully 
charged with gluten was it found to be that a slice of bread 
made from it might be thrown over the house and be sure to 
fall unbroken on the other side. His barley headed imper- 
fectly, and his rye crops were diminished by the uninvited 
presence of witch grass. Hay, however, and oats and corn 
and potatoes paid fairly well. 

It by and by occurred to him that, instead of raising a little 
of many things and some of them at a loss, he had better raise 
a considerable of a few things and, if possible, at a profit. He 
accordingly took a new departure, with hay production as his 
main objective point, accompanied by such acreages of corn, 
oats, and potatoes as his personal needs might require. The 
farm stock was reduced to three good horses, two good straight- 
backed oxen, one cow, and two hogs. 

But, some of you may ask, how sell hay and keep no stock 
to maintain the fertility of the fields producing it? In answer 
it may be said that the situation of this farm is exceptional. It 
lies within a mile of the New Hampshire state house, around 
which are located the stables which consume its hay and have 
manure to sell at five dollars a cord. Of this, one ton of hay 
will ordinarily buy three times as much as it would make, if 
fed upon the farm. 

It was soon found that the old rotation before mentioned 
would not secure success in hay production. Its maintenance 
required too great an acreage of other crops. The surface of the 
ground, lying undisturbed through eight year periods, became 
compacted by freshets and grass roots and too greatly reduced 
in fertility to yield satisfactory returns. As you all know, when 
the product of a hay field falls below one ton per acre, the hay 
declines in quality as well as quantity, and there is a double 



24 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

loss. Weeds come in to prod the farmer to his duty. He is 
burning his candle at both ends. 

The length of the old rotation was accordingly reduced from 
eight to five years, the first being devoted to corn or oats, and 
the remaining four to grass; any part of the land not wanted 
for the first mentioned crops being sown at once to the latter. 
By this change, the hay raised has been increased in quantity 
and improved in quality. 

Stable-keepers do not want fine hay, grown at the rate of a 
ton or three quarters of a ton per acre. They desire that of a 
coarser quality, which grew at the rate of from a ton and a half 
to two and a half tons per acre. And if he would have them 
buy it, the farmer must furnish the kind which they desire. As 
the late Capt. John H. Moore of Massachusetts once put it, 
when asked the variety of strawberries which he raised, " I 

raise the ■ variety, the meanest variety, the variety the 

Boston people want." 

The objective point proposed at this departure from the 
old course of cropping, was the production of hay at an 
average rate of two tons per acre per annum. Its attainment 
has been found dependent upon certain inexorable conditions : 

1. A thorough pulverization of the soil every five years. 

2. An uninterrupted maintenance of adequate assimilable 
plant food in the soil. 

3. Reseeding with suflScient frequency to insure a good stand 
of grass plants at all times. 

These conditions have been pretty satisfactorily met by sod 
breakings seven or eight inches deep every five years, followed 
by thorough pulverizations by the harrow ; by a careful mix- 
ture with the soil of six cords per acre of good stable manure, 
and an even application of seed subsequently rolled in. It is 
at once apparent that under this rule five acres of a twenty-five 
acre grass field will require plowing, manuring, and seeding 
each year. 

Sod ground may be broken up in spring, summer, or autumn, 
as may be found most convenient. On the First Minister's Farm 
this is done in August or the first half of September, if the 
ground is to be sown to grass, and immediately afterwards 
manured, harrowed, and seeded. Ordinarily the plants get 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 25 

well started before the season closes, and all annual weeds, which 
chance to spring up, are killed by the frost. The next season, 
from three quarters to a full crop of hay may be expected. 

If land is to be devoted to oats or corn, it is usually broken 
up in October or November. Grass seed is sown with an oat 
crop the next spring, and land in corn, as soon as the crop 
has been removed in the fall. In the latter case, the grass gen- 
erally reaches the height of an inch or two before the ground 
freezes. The next year it gives one half or two thirds of a 
crop not always free from weeds. 

I need not remind so intelligent an audience as this that the 
best implements attainable should be employed in harvesting a 
hay crop. Labor is always dear in haying time and the best 
are the most profitable. 

The first mowing machine introduced to permanent residence 
in Concord was used by Richard Bradley in 1866 or 1867. It 
was an early " Ketchum," and was provided with but a single 
driving wheel. Two years later the present owner put upon 
the First Minister's Farm a one-horse " Wood" machine, which 
cut a swath three feet wide and worked well on perfectly level 
ground. He remembers distinctly the contemptuous remark of 
his oldest hired man, as he looked at it. Stretching out his 
muscular arms, he said, " I guess the old-fashioned machine is 
as good as those of the new sort." It became evident, how- 
ever, in a few days that he and his associates had pocketed 
their pride and were willing to allow the " new sort" to do all 
the mowing it would. 

The next season a two-horse "Wood" mower, much im- 
proved and having a four-foot cutter bar, was substituted for 
the one just mentioned. None but " Wood" machines were used 
for many years and until an " Eastern Star " was purchased and, 
with one or two successors, did fair work. These, however, 
gave way in turn to the four and a half cut "Wood," one of 
which is still in use. 

Inasmuch, however, as the improved " Buckeye," whose 
knives driven by an endless chain cut a swath of six feet, has 
been found to require little more pov^^er than the four and a 
half cut " Wood," it has been welcomed to the farm and 
allowed to do the largest part of its mowing. 



26 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The first horse rake ever used upon the First Minister's Farm 
consisted of a horizontal head of wood, some eight feet long, 
carrying a single row of teeth. Upon this stood two perpen- 
dicular handles and a few standards to prevent the gathered ha}' 
from slipping over the teeth when in motion. It was drawn by 
long tugs attached to the ends of this head and its operation 
required the services of a man, a boy, and a horse. When 
filled, the boy backed the horse, and the man, after drawing 
the rake from underneath the windrow, lifted it over and started 
it for the next one. 

This rake was in time superseded by the wooden revolving 
rake. With this the present proprietor began his haying 
experiences, and it was in general use in the Merrimack valley 
for many years. But this, in turn, had to give way to the 
spring-toothed rake. When it had been mounted on wheels, 
so that the lame and the lazy could ride, it was adopted as the 
i-ake of the farm. For some years past, a couple of "■ Tigers" 
have done its raking. To these has been added the present 
season a " Worcester." 

Pitching has almost always been done by hand. A horse- 
fork was introduced and used somewhat by the third proprie- 
tor, sixty or seventy years ago, but since then hand pitching 
only has been practised. This horse-fork has been preserved 
and weighs some twenty to twenty-five pounds. 

At the present time, the larger part of the seeding to grass is 
done as follows : The land is usually broken up during August 
or the first half of September and partially harrowed. There 
is then spread upon it six cords of good stable manure, which 
is immediately incorporated with the soil by "•Cutaway" and 
Acme harrows. The seed is then sown by a seed sower at- 
tached to a " Tiger" horse rake, and the ground is made smooth 
by an iron roller, which compacts the soil about the grass 
seeds. 

Thus far, stable manure has been generally used as a fertil- 
izer in the production of grass. According to the present pro- 
prietor's best knowledge and belief, it is, all things considered, 
the cheapest and the best. Whether hay can be profitably 
raised by commercial fertilizers alone, is a question which he 
has repeatedly asked, and to which he has as yet received no 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 27 

satisfactory answer. His own experience has been adverse to 
its use as a seeding down enrichment of ground. 

As at present advised, he would expect best results from its 
use in connection with barn manure. If, for instance, upon 
seeding it to grass, the land was dressed with half the usual 
quantity of the latter, and after two cuttings of grass was an- 
nually top dressed for the next two or three years, with five 
hundred pounds of fertilizer, profitable results might follow. 
Experimentation might also demonstrate that, on a particular 
soil, only a part of the several ingredients of the fertilizer were 
needed. On this line, we farmers must all turn chemists ; 
making laboratories of our fields and, from repeated trials of 
our own, learn what application is best for each and every one 
of them. 

Long experience has shown that, on an acre of the best grass 
land of the First Minister's Farm, such a five years' course will 
afibrd an average of two tons a year, or ten tons in five years, 
worth in the Concord market an average price of seventeen 
dollars a ton, and amounting to $170.00 

The average cost of these ten tons will be about 
as follows : 

Sod breaking, $4-50 
Six cords of stable manure spread on the 

ground at $6.50, 39-00 

Working in the same, 3 -So 

Seed and sowing, 2.50 

Harvesting 10 tons at $3 per ton, 30.00 

Marketing 10 tons at $1.25 per ton, 12.50 

Use of implements, 2.50 94-50 



Profit in five years, $75.50 

While this system may not suit the majority of New Hamp- 
shire farmers, it may, perhaps, be suggestive of some other 
which will. Two or three points may be noted as of universal 
application. 

I. The species of grasses cultivated should be such as one's 
market calls for. Their number is not great. Of the two hun- 



28 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

dred and twenty-five varieties mentioned by the late Secretary 
Flint, a dozen or so comprise all which need concern us. 

2. The varieties should be suited to the soil upon which they 
are expected to grow. While witch grass grows almost any- 
where, it avoids the rich, wet soils in which foul meadow de- 
lights. Herds grass prefers a moist, fertile loam. Red top 
grasses do not flourish on dry soils. Each variety has its pref- 
erence which, as far as possible, should be met. 

3. Our grass lands should be manured and reseeded as often 
as need be, if we seek maximum crops at minimum cost. 

The present haying equipment on the First Minister's Farm 
consists of four horses, one yoke of oxen, two mowing ma- 
chines, one cutting a swath of four feet and a half and the other 
of six, three horse rakes, one tedder, four carts and men sufficient 
in number for the employment of these, each furnished with a 
scythe and a pitchfork. 

In haying, work begins in the morning, at six o'clock, sharp, 
and ends at the same hour in the evening, A light luncheon 
is served in the field at nine, and coft'ee as wanted in the after- 
noon. The grass is cut in the forenoon, mostly by a machine, 
the men using their scythes only when out of other work. It is 
raked in the afternoon when warm and put into cocks. None is 
allowed to lay over night in windrows. The heaps are opened 
the next morning and after an hour's exposure to sun and air, 
are tedded, if requiring it. When particularly heavy, fresh 
mown grass is also tedded or turned over by forks. 

Carting begins immediately after dinner by two teams and is 
continued until all hay fit for the barn has been drawn in. In 
particularly favorable weather, a load or two may be housed 
before dinner. All the loads are pitched off immediately after 
being drawn in, except the last four, which are usually left on 
the carts over night, to be unloaded in the cool of the next 
morning. This arrangement gives a little time to determine as to 
the weather which is often very uncertain at so early an hour. 
With this force of men, teams, and implements, and continued 
good weather, an average of ten or twelve tons of hay may be 
daily cut, made, and stored. 

The average cost, one year with another, of cutting, curing, 
and storing hay on the Farm of the First Minister, is about 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 29 

three dollars per ton. As a general thing, the heavier the grass, 
the less the cost of its conversion to hay. Hay caps have been 
tiMcd and discarded as unnecessary. In uncertain weather, the 
hay cocks are sometimes doubled up. No spirit is allowed in 
the fields and no haying is done on Sunday. The extra mow- 
ing machine and horse rake are kept to avoid delays by repairs 
in case of accidents. 

FORESTS. 

As before stated, when the present proprietor assumed con- 
trol of the Farm of the First Minister, two hundred and fifty 
acres of it were in forest. 

About sixty of these were upon the sandy plain east of the 
Merrimack and were covered with pitch pines {Pinus rigida)^ 
some of which were of primeval growth. The remainder of 
the farm's forest was upon the high ground rising up from the 
interval to the westward. This consisted of deciduous trees 
with which were mingled, more or less, pines and hemlocks, 
with now and then a spruce. They were of all ages. Many 
of them, however, having attained maturity were declining in 
vigor and value. ^ 

1 The following is a list of the principal trees and shrubs growing upon the 
First Minister's Farm in November, 1895: 

American Linden, Tilia Ainericana; Rock Maple, Acer saccharinum; Red 
Maple, Acer ruhrum; White Maple, Acer dasycarpum; Striped Maple, Acer 
Pennsylvannicum; Hornbeam, Nyssa silvaHca; White Ash, Fraximis Ameri- 
cana; Brown Ash, Fraxinus sanibucifolia ; American Elm, Ulmus Americana; 
Slippery Elm, Ulmus fulva; Butternut, Juglans cinnerea; Hickory, Carya 
alba; White Oak, Quercus alba; Black Oak, Quercus tinctorea; Red Oak, 
Quercus rubra; Beech, Fagus ferruginea; Chestnut, Casianea vulgaris; Lever 
Wood, Ostrya Virginnica; Black Birch, Betula lenta; Yellow Birch, Betula 
lutea; White Birch, Betula papyrifera; Grey Birch, Betula alba; White Wil- 
low, Salix alba, and several other species; American Aspen, Populus tremu- 
loides; White Pine, Piniis Strobus; Pitch Pine, Pinus rigida; Norway Pine, 
Pinusresinosa; Black Spruce, Picea nigj-a; Balsam Fir, Abies balsamea; Hem- 
lock, Tsuga Canadensis; American Larch, Larix Americana. 

There were also scattered among these trees a few very old white pines 
(Pumpkin Pines), four feet, and often more, in diameter at the butt. Such 
pines were not uncommon in Concord fifty years ago, but very few, if any such, 
now remain. 

Woodbine, Ampelopsis quinquefolia ; Buckthorn, Rhamnus catharticus; 
Climbing Bittersweet, Celastrus scandens; Poison Ivy, Khus toxicodendron: 
Choke Cherry, Prunus Virginiana; Red Hardback, Spirea tomentosa; Wild 
Red Raspberry, Rubus strygosus; High Blackberry, Rubus villosus; Sweet 
Briar, Rosa rubiginosa; Witch Hazel, Hamamelis Virginica; Common Elder, 
Sainbuctis Canadensis; Button Bush, Cephalanthus occidentalis; High Blue, 



30 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

While the present proprietor does not boast of his treatment 
of these forest lands, he is unprepared to criticise it with very 
great severity. He started with a belief entertained by older, 
and, as he thought, wiser men than himself, that a forest of 
miscellaneous trees of all sizes, ages, and conditions, had best 
be swept oft' clean, when visited by the ox team and the axe, 
and the land left bare for the production of a new one. 

In accordance with this belief, he sold for wood and timber 
the entire growth of his pine lot. He also sold the land. In 
this transaction he made two mistakes. The first was in selling 
the land which he could have retained at a small discount from 
the whole price, not then realizing that it costs little to keep 
that which is of little value. The second was in not restricting 
his sale to the mature growth, inasmuch as the remaining trees 
would, in a generation or less, afford a second cutting, being 
then for the most part of sizes sufficient to bear with little 
harm the fires which swept over more or less of that plain 
almost every year.^ 

Much of his upland forest was at first treated in the same 
way, with the single variation that the ground upon which it 
stood was not sold. Consequently his woods are now for the 
most part of recent growths of from twenty to forty years. He 
sincerely hopes that his successors, whomsoever they may be, 
may prove wiser than has he, and adopt a more rational sys- 
tem of forestry. To one who has failed to do as well as he 
might, there is little consolation that his neighbors have done 
no better, or perchance not quite so well. He is, however, 
somewhat comforted by the thought that from a portion of the 
old farm's forest mature trees only have been removed, and that 
on this a second cutting may be made whenever his pocket- 
book shall have a severe attack of that empty belly ache of 

berry, Vaccinium corymbosum; Winter Bush, Ilex verticellata; Sweet Fern, 
Comptonia asplenifolia; Pussy Willow, Salix discolor; Common Alder, Alnus 
serrulata. 

1 Denuded land on the Dark Plain, in Concord, was valued at only one or two 
dollars an acre. If small trees are cut they afford only immature wood, meas- 
ure but little and bring very little money in the market; but it may have taken 
half a generation to produce them and a like time to raise others of equal size. 
With a little care many such trees may be saved in lumbering and afford a 
good start for a new growth. In short, they are worth more to stand than to 
cut. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 3I 

which the late Colonel Clough of Canterbury used to speak in 
early meetings of this honorable Board. Until then they will 
be likely to stand. 

To every New Hampshire farm should belong such an area 
of forest as will afford to its owner as much winter occupation 
as his individual circumstances may suggest. Besides getting 
therefrom his household fuel, he can spend time profitably in 
thinning and pruning his trees, thereby converting much of his 
growing wood to timber. From a thrifty lot well cared for, the 
owner, sooner or later, may annually sell more or less mature 
trees and receive therefrom an income quite as reliable as that 
afforded by any other crop produced upon his farm. 

It is a lamentable fact that all the older nations of Europe 
gave no care to their forests until they lost them. Not until a 
wood and timber famine had come upon them with all the dis- 
astrous accompaniments of denudation did they plant new 
ones. It is a more lamentable fact that the people of the 
United States with all their experiences to warn them should 
persist in following their example. For we are not only reck- 
lessly wasting our forest covering, but, with a madness almost 
incredible, are allowing fire to follow the axe and destroy the 
scant remnant which this insatiable implement may have 
chanced to spare. Conflagrations have been allowed to sweep 
over entire townships and obliterate in their progress entire vil- 
lages with more or less of their inhabitants. 

Mr. Bela Hubbards says in an able article in the March, 
1895, number of the Popular Scietice Monthly: — "Voyagers 
upon the upper lakes in August last, [1894] were involved in 
clouds of smoke which settled over the waters. These were 
often so dense as to render navigation dangerous and to occa- 
sion frequent collisions. They obscured the sun, which ap- 
peared a dull, red ball in the sky. This smoke extended as far 
east as the Atlantic and south to Georgia. The cause was soon 
apparent ; forest fires were raging in the lands about the lakes. 

"• By these fires in Lower Michigan property to the extent of 
thousands of dollars was destroyed ; in the Upper Peninsula 
the burned area is reported at over one thousand square miles. 

" But these devastations were insignificant compared with 
those in Wisconsin and Minnesota, in each of which states the 



32 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

losses amount to many millions of dollars. In Wisconsin the 
areas burned over ranged from fifty to one hundred and forty 
miles in extent. Individual lumbermen lost in standing pine 
from ten thousand to five hundred thousand dollars. All this was 
accompanied with the destruction of entire villages and crops as 
well as great loss of human life. A witness reports, ' the bodies 
which dot the heated and black expanse give the scene the ap- 
pearance of a battlefield.' 

" From Minnesota the news is even more appalling. Be- 
tween Pine City and Carlton, a distance of one hundred and 
thirty miles, whole towns were swept out of existence. In one 
alone, Hinckley, at least two hundred people perished. Nine- 
teen villages are wholly or partially destroyed, and many 
million feet of lumber. It is fairly computed that in this state 
alone five thousand square miles in area have been thus devas- 
tated. Minnesota contains about seventy thousand square miles ; 
supposing two thirds of this area to be timbered land, one may 
count on the fingers of his two hands how many years of such 
devastation will deprive this state of every vestige of its timber. 

" Terrible as has been the destruction from forest fires 
in 1894, the phenomena to which it has borne witness have 
been by no means unprecedented in our history during the last 
half century. I will recall those of a single year only. 

"The present generation cannot have forgotten the year 
1871, made memorable by the great fire in Chicago, preceded 
by forest fires in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and followed by 
similiar fires in Michigan. From July to November, a period 
of five months, the rainfall in the latter state did not exceed six 
inches, and the entire precipitation of the year was only two 
thirds of the normal amount. Early in October disastrous 
fires overspread portions of Wisconsin and Minnesota, burning 
over three thousand miles of territory. On the Sth of October 
occurred the great fire which consumed a large part of Chi- 
cago. On the same night the cities of Holland and Manistee 
were laid in ashes, and during the weeks succeeding came 
news of devastating fires in other parts of the state. The new 
county of Huron was almost entirely swept over, and a large 
part of Sanilac county. Nearly all the villages on the Lake 
Huron coast were destroyed and at least five thousand inhabi- 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 33 

tants left houseless. Houses, fences, crops, timber, all were 
burned ; and many people perished, being unable to escape the 
rapid march of the flames and smoke. Not less than two thous- 
and square miles of country, wholly or partially timbered, were 
completely burned over in Michigan during this disastrous year. 
The Lower Peninsula contains forty-four thousand square miles. 
If we estimate about one half, or twenty thousand square miles 
as timbered, it would require but ten such fires as that of 1S71 to 
sweep the state clean. 

******* 

" The extent and magnificence of the forest growth of the 
United States at the beginning of our existence as a nation 
surpassed that of any land of equal extent on the globe. In 
the number of species and the size of its trees, both deciduous 
and evergreen, it exceeded by five times that of Europe. Such 
a forest spread almost unbroken from the Atlantic to the Mis- 
sissippi. An equally dense forest, mostly conifers, and many 
of a size before unknown, occupied the Pacific slope ; while 
between stretched an almost treeless region comprising nearly 
half the territory of the United States. What a treasury of 
wealth belonged to the new nation in its woodlands if properly 
husbanded ! But to its first possessors these were an incum- 
brance, to be got rid of as speedily as possible, in order that 
place might be made for another source of national wealth — 
agriculture. 

'' Since that early period how great has been the change ! 
The forest area, which seemed to its first possessors so vast, 
and such an obstacle to civilized progress, has in a single century 
almost disappeared. 

"■ Computations have been made, from time to time, by com- 
petent persons, including our efficient forestry chief. Prof. Fer- 
now, of the number of cubic feet of wood of all kinds annually 
used by our people for all purposes. Into these I do not pro- 
pose to enter. It must suffice to say that the total annual con- 
sumption has been variously estimated at from four to eight 
million acres of woodland. Forest fires are responsible for 
ten million acres more, or nearly double all other causes 
combined. 
3 



34 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

" The United States east of the Mississippi contains about 
five hundred million acres. Assuming one half to be timbered 
land, and that ten million acres cover the actual annual con- 
sumption and destruction, our woodlands will practically last 
only another quarter of a century. 

******* 

"The following propositions seem to be well established. 

1. That the temperature is hotter in summer and colder in 
winter than when the country was covered with forests. This 
is a natural result of exposure of the soil to more active radia- 
tion and consequent frost. 

2. The winds have a more uninterrupted sweep, and so the 
countr}^ is both dried up and refrigerated. 

3. The rainfall is less in amount or its advantages are to a 
great degree lost. Forests retain the moisture that falls and do 
not allow it to go to waste. 

4. The humus in the soil, and the soil itself on the hills and 
slopes, are washed away by the rains, and carried to the lower 
lands, and to the rivers, a large part being lost altogether." 

Fortunately, in our own state we have awakened to the folly 
of forest destruction, and are trying to avoid its consequences. 
But as yet, our eyes are but half opened, and we are still pur- 
suing it, to the injury of our climate, the diminution of our 
water power, the waste of our soil, and the impairment of our 
sceneiy. 

One becomes attached to the woods which he often visits and 
cares for. There is companionship in trees, when he gets to 
know them. They have interesting individualities and varying 
characteristics. The stately pine, lifting himself above his fel- 
lows, seems to assert supremacy over all about him ; the oak 
stands ready for struggle and brave endurance ; the scraggy 
hemlock boasts of no beauty and is of coarser fibre. Were we 
to join these to companions of more delicate traits, as man is 
joined in holy wedlock to woman, we might mate the pine 
with the clean-leaved maple ; the oak with the wide spreading 
beech ; the hemlock with the prim and delicate larch. 

If one seeks his best thoughts, he will be surest to find them 
in his woods. A subtle spirit of good, as from on high, settles 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 35 

into his heart of hearts, as he sits in silence and listens to the 
gentle breathing of the winds through their lofty arches. A 
still, small voice, inaudible in the noisy rush of business, is 
heard with distinctness there. As said Mr. Bryant more than 
fifty years ago : — 

" The groves were God's first temples. Ere man learned 
To hew the shaft, and lay the architrave, 
And spread the roof above them, — ere he framed 
The lofty vault, to gather and roll back 
The sound of anthems ; in the darkling wood, 
Amidst the cool and silence, he knelt down 
And offered to the Mightiest, solemn thanks 
And supplication." 

UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES. 

Such are among the ordinary resources of the First Minister's 
Farm. It contains, however, certain others of a more specula- 
tive character, and undeveloped as yet, of which no mention 
has hitherto been made. 

1. It has within its bounds the whole or parts of three fish 
ponds of an aggregate area of some twenty acres, upon which 
important fisheries might be established by men of enterprise, 
as they were two centuries and a half ago at Strawberry Bank, 
by Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason. 

Under the friendly encouragement of our fish commissioners, 
choicest varieties of aquatic food might be successfully raised 
for the ubiquitous small boy and the confident sportsman, fresh 
from the city on his summer vacation, whose large outlay for 
tackle is generally out of all proportion to the value of his 
catches. 

2. It is also possible that the fur trade might be revived 
within its bounds, and flourish at the capital city of New Hamp- 
shire, as it formerly did when Concord was the headquarters of 
the ancient Penacooks. It is true that the fox and the bear, the 
beaver and the mink, have departed long ago, but their old 
companions, the wood-chucks and the skunks and the muskrats 
still remain, to burrow in the fields and ditches of the present 
proprietor and sorely tempt him at times to use stronger lan- 
guage than is decorous or pious. 



^6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The latter particularly abound, and build their houses on 
the edge of Horse Shoe pond, where the land and water meet.-^ 
These are of graceful outlines and modelled after the dwellings 
of their unctuous cousins, the Esquimaux, who live to the north 
of us and owe allegiance to Qiieen Victoria. I must modestly 
leave to your better judgment than mine, the value of this 
great peltry interest, if fully developed. 

3. But still another resource, rare and as yet undeveloped, 
is the farm's important pearl fishery. From Cleopatra's time 
and long before, the pearl has been esteemed one of the fairest 
adornments of our fairest sex. While oftenest brought by 
breathless divers from the black depths of oriental seas, it is 
sometimes found in shallow, New England brooks; concealed 
within the shells of the dark bivalves, known to science as the 
" UnioidEe," but to an ordinary farmer, like your speaker, as 
the common, black, fresh water clams. 

While it was known to the present proprietor that pearls of 
considerable value had been found in New Hampshire 
streams, the fact had awakened but slight interest in his plod- 
ding mind, until he was aroused from his indifference by the 
captivating suggestion that a proper development of this neg- 
lected bonanza, through the aid of enterprising " promoters " 
and the facilities of modern financiering, might exalt his farm 
to fame and its owner to fortune. 

For reasons which your own good sense will supply, these 
three important resources are little likely to find development 
under the farm's present ownership. 

The small boy must not be deprived of the privilege of 
catching, now and then, his string of pouts and perch, which he 
has asserted and constantly maintained for more than one hun- 
dred and fifty years. 

Neither can the mighty hunter, descendant of Nimrod, booted 
and armed, be kept from striding along the margin of the mead- 
ow, in search of snipes and ducks; while his empty game bag 
affords disagreeable evidence that his realizations have not 
equalled his expectations. 

And, too, international courtesy requires that the Italian gen- 

1 Nine such houses may now (November, 1895) be counted on the north shore 
of this pond, either finished or partly so. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 37 

tlemen, who have nobly expatriated themselves for the sake of 
digging our sewer ditches, should be allowed to add a few 
black bivalves to the luxuries of their native cuisine. The pres- 
ent proprietor prefers rather to adopt the legend once displayed 
over the open door-way of the late Mr. Hart's inviting saloon, 
" Live and let live !" 

CONCLUSIONS FROM AN EXPERIENCE OF FORTY YEARS. 

t 

An experience of forty years and more has convinced the 
present owner of the First Minister's Farm that success in 
farming is attainable only on certain conditions, among which 
are these : 

1. The farmer's heart must be in his business. He will fail 
to do his best if it is not. 

2. He must possess a fair amount of broad common sense. 
This comes not from the schools, but is the gift of God. 

3. He must get the most he can from every resource of his 
farm : from his stock, from his fields and low meadows ; from 
his pastures and his woods. 

4. He must make free use of courage, enterprise, energy and 
industry. Without these he cannot successfully meet the sharp 
competition he will encounter on every hand. 

5. He must remember that brute power is cheaper than 
human power, and overcome the high price of labor by the use 
of animals and machinery, whenever and wherever he profita- 
bly can. The time may not be far away when steam and elec- 
tricity will come to his aid. The ensilage used at the N. H. 
Asylum for the Insane was all cut by electric power the 
present (1S95) season. 

6. He must so manage as to have appropriate employment 
twelve months in each year. If he does little or nothing in 
winter, when everyone engaged in other occupations is at 
work, he will not get rich by farming. 

7. He must possess a fair knowledge of the principles of ag- 
ricultural science. Without this he will make costly mistakes. 

8. He must understand the practical application of these 
principles in all their details. If he does not, it will be as vain 
for him to anticipate success as to expect good digestion and 
peace of mind when his wife does n't know how to cook. 



38 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

While your speaker yields to no one in high appreciation of 
the value of agricultural science, he has been led by personal 
experience and observation to emphasize the importance of 
knowing how to use it. Theory and practice must go hand in 
hand. Why, my dear brother farmers, we need art as well as 
science in our business. 

I have sometimes thought that our agricultural institutions 
gave too much attention to the science and too little to the prac- 
tice of farming. Particularly has this idea been impressed 
upon my mind when I have seen a great farm, which some- 
times sold hay, obliged to buy it, on account of the lack of a 
practical remembrance of the productive capacities of its soils, 
on the part of its scientific manager. And still deeper has 
sunk the impress, w^hen I have learned that the ensilage on an 
important farm had been partially spoiled because its scientific 
overseer had refused to have it cut before a magical 25th day 
of September, notwithstanding it was, long before that day, 
drying up to its injury. 

Our chairman, Mr. Humphrey, is preeminently a practical 
man, and I have imagined that if some confident, young 
graduate, fresh from a great agricultural college outside of 
New Hampshire, with his head crammed with ill-digested, 
rural science, but empty of all skill in the practical use of it, 
were to apply to him for the position of manager of his farm, 
the interview might be, possibly, something like this : 

Graduate. — " Mr. Humphrey, inasmuch as you have be- 
come too old to work, it has occtirred to me that 3'ou needed a 
foreman on your farm, and that I am the man you need." (He 
has rubbed our chairman's fur the wrong way.) 

Mr. H. — " It has occurred to you .'' A most wonderful oc- 
currence ! It is true that I no longer boast of extreme youth ; 
for I am fifty years old and a trifle over ; as is also Mr. Glad- 
stone, and Prince Bismarck, and Senator Morrill of Vermont, 
but none of us think that we are past doing something. 
However, I do want a foreman, and I'll hire you if there is a 
fair probability that your '•occurrence^ will materialize to my 
advantage. What are your qualifications ?" 

Graduate. — " There is my diploma, read it for yourself! 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 39 

You will see that I am a Bachelor of Science." (Thereupon 
he hands him a sheet of parchment, half as large as a bed blan- 
ket, adorned with a great seal, a broad, blue ribbon and official 
signatures.) 

Mr. H. — "A Bachelor of Science ! What is that? Science 
is a large word. ' Bachelor of Science !' Does it mean that 
you are an unmarried man, and know everything? Do you 
know how how to drive a four ox-team?" 

Graduate. — '' You would hardly expect, Mr. Humphrey, a 
learned college professor to teach the driving of oxen, would 
you.?" 

Mr. H. — " I would if his students were not good teamsters ; 
and also how to hitch to a plow, or a log, or a stone, or any- 
thing else, so as to accomplish a given amount of work with 
the least expenditure of power. Power on a farm is expensive. 
But, if you know no teaming, you, doubtless, know all about 
botany for that is a science. Can you tell me whether a hog- 
weed is an annual or a perennial plant?" 

Graduate. — "We studied botany at our college in the win- 
ter, and I do n't quite remember. My recollection is, that it is 
a perennial plant." 

Mr. H. — " Then this weed must have changed its nature. I 
have known it and fought it in my garden and fields for half a 
century and it has always heretofore been an annual one. 
Science is progressing, however, and I have doubtless got be- 
hindhand. But never mind the hog weed ! I want to drain 
that narrow belt of ground, which you see sloping to the pond 
on one side, and kept wet on the other by springs discharging 
upon it, at the base of the hill which rises above it. Can you 
tell me how to do it ?" 

Graduate. — "Oh, yes, Mr. Humphrey, just have an hydraulic 
engineer make you a drainage plan, and put in your drains as 
he directs." 

Mr. U. — " Can you make me such a plan?" 

Graduate. — " Well, I have never done such work. A for- 
mer president of your New Hampshire College of Agriculture 
said, some years ago, at a meeting of farmers, that drainage 
could be learned in five minutes, and for that reason I did not 
study drainage." 



40 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. H. — " If the president was right, you can easily post 
yourself on that branch of farming. If you will pardon my 
curiosity, I will ask what did your great diploma cost you .'"' 

Graduate. — " I do n't quite like to say. I fear from your 
questions that you think it covers only about half of what it 
ought to, and that, like a fifty cent silver dollar, it is worth but 
half of what it claims to be. However, I will answer your 
question, and say that my degree of Bachelor of Science cost me 
three years' study and about one thousand dollars." 

Mr. H. — " Go and study two or three years more with some 
intelligent, practical farmer who understands his business. If, 
at the end of that time, you see fit to return to me, with a cer- 
tificate from him, in two lines, that you have come to know less 
than you thought you did, and have become a middling good 
farmer, I 'II hire you." 

If the wings of the young " diplomatist" were plucked a lit- 
tle by this interview, it was far less his fault than that of his 
teachers. Our chairman doubtless recognized this fact, and 
would have pardoned him had he ventured to say of them, what 
the great German statesman has recently said of the landless 
rulers of his country, " Each minister [professor] ought to be put 
on a farm and forced to subsist on the products thereof. Then 
would farming be better cared for."^ 

In the general study of the great laws which govern indus- 
trial processes, the present trend of thought is toward practi- 
cality. Many of the principles of electricity were well known 
an hundred years ago, but that knowledge benefited mankind 
but little. Now that this most subtle and powerful of all known 
agencies has been tamed and harnessed to the rail car and the 
mill wheel, its value has become incalculable. And, when all 
the hidden forces of nature applicable to agriculture shall have 
been made available, the results of our labors will have been 
enlarged and our welfare correspondingly advanced. 

John Lord has somewhere said that, during the reign of the 
Caesars and their successors, great elevating and depressing 
forces were constantly active, the latter of which eventually 
prevailed and rendered the ruin of the empire as complete as it 

1 Boston Daily Advertiser, June 10, 1895, p. 1. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 4I 

was inglorious. It is equally true, that strong uplifting and 
depressing influences are now operating upon the welfare of 
our agriculture. 

Among the latter, may be enumerated a distaste for farm life, 
due largely to bad farming ; the farmer's imperfect apprecia- 
tion of the importance of his calling and of his position as an 
owner of land ; as well as an exaggerated idea of the desirable- 
ness of large wealth and the superior advantages of city life. 

Among the former, we may recognize as uplifting influences, 
our agricultural journals and schools, our agricultural boards, 
and the great organization of the Patrons of Husbandry ; all 
accompanied by the activity of men of mechanical talent, by 
whose inventions the results of labor ai'e enhanced and its cost 
diminished. 

The contest between these two forces is everywhere active, 
and bids fair to continue to be. Malthus and Buckle may 
tell us that states, like men, are born and grow to maturity, 
only to decline to decrepitude and death ; and, in proof of this, 
point to Babylon and Assyria, to Egypt, Persia, Greece, and 
Rome. And in harmony with them Lord Byron may have 

said, 

" When falls the Colosseum, Rome falls, 
And when falls Rome, the world." 

The Colosseum is now a ruin, and the empire perished fif- 
teen centuries ago ; but the world still endures. So does Agri- 
culture, man's primal calling and our own chosen pursuit. 
This great industrial interest, which underlies and supports all 
others, will last as long as God's great experiment of human 
regeneration continues. For while " man cannot live by bread 
alone," he cannot live without it. When that fails, man fails 
and the world will be divested of human occupancy. Such 
is the character, and importance of the calling to which our 
energies have been consecrated. 

Let us therefore appreciate the importance of our calling and 
love our acres, never forgetting the remark to her son by that 
shrewd, old Virginia matron, the mother of John Randolph of 
Roanoke : 

" Never part with your land. Keep your land and your land 
will keep you." 



APPENDIX A. 

THE STATE AND CONDITION OF THE SETTLEMENT OF 
PENNYCOOK IN OCTOBER, 1731. 

Nathaniel Abbott, He had a house built and his family 
there. 

Jacob Abbott. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Austin. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Samuel Ayer. He had a house framed, and twelve acres 
of land fenced, mowed, and ploughed. 

Obadiah Ayer. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Ayer. He had a house inhabited. 

John Bayley. He had a house erected but not finished. 

Nathaniel Barker. He had a house built, and the lot 
improved by James Varnum, an inhabitant. 

Zebediah Barker. He had a house and barn well fin- 
ished and inhabited. 

William Barker. He had a house well finished and in- 
habited, and a good barn. 

Joshua Bayley. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Thomas Blanchard. He had a house built and inhab- 
ited. 

Moses Boardman. He had a house built, but not quite 
finished, but tenantable — six-acre lot fenced in and under im- 
provement. 

Nathan Blodgett. He had a house inhabited. 

Christopher Carlton. He had a house built and inhab- 
ited. 

Benjamin Carlton. He had a house built, and the orders 
of the Court complied with by Jeremiah Stickney, an inhab- 
itant. 

Nehemiah Carlton. He had a house erected, and the 
order complied with, by Abner Hoit, an inhabitant. 

John Chandler. A house built and inhabited — the order 
fully complied with. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 43 

Nathaniel Clement. He had no house and no inhab- 
itant — three acres ploughed. 

John Coggin. He had a house erected, but not finished — 
twelve acres of land fenced and improved. 

Edward Clark. He had a house built, not finished, a 
man inhabiting there — twelve acres within fence, mowed and 
ploughed. 

Enoch Coffin. He had a house built, and the order com- 
plied with by Jonathan Danforth. 

Thomas Colman. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Richard Coolidge. He had no house, but land improved 
and order otherwise complied with by Ens. John Chandler. 

Joseph Davis. He had a house built and well finished. 

Ephraim Davis. He had a house built, and the order was 
complied with by his own son. 

Samuel Davis. [Blank.] 

Moses Day. He had a house built and inhabited. 

David Dodge. He had a house built — not finished. 

Jacob Eames. He had a good dwelling-house — six acre 
lot, fenced in and broke up. 

Ebenezer Eastman. He had six sons on the spot — six 
men in his family. He paid the charge of building a corn- 
mill ; and he has broke up, cleared and mowed upward of eighty 
acres of land, and had very considerable buildings, out houses, 
barns, etc., there. 

Stephen Emerson. He had a house built, and the order 
complied with — no inhabitant. 

Ephraim Farnum. He was an inhabitant and had a house 
built. 

Nathan Fisk. He had a house built and inhabited, and 
the order complied with by Z. Chandler. 

Abraham Foster. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Foster. He had a house built, and the order com- 
plied with by his son. 

Benjamin Gage. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Granger. He had a house built and finished — order 
complied with by John Russ, inhabitant. 

Samuel Grainger. He had a house built — order com- 
plied with by George Abbott. 



44 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE, 

William Gutterson. He had a house built, and the 
order complied with by John Merrill. 

Joseph Hale. He had a frame standing on the house lot. 

John Hall. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Moses Hazzen. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Richard Hazzen, Jun. He had a house built and the 
order complied with by Deacon Osgood. 

Nehemiah Heath. [Blank.] 

Ephraim Hildreth. He had a frame, not raised, but 
ready, and land ploughed. 

Jonathan Hubbard for Daniel Davis. He had a house 
built and inhabited. 

John Jaques. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Timothy Johnson. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Nathaniel Jones. He had a house built, and order com- 
plied with by his son. 

David Kimball. He had a house built — an inhabitant. 

Robert Kimball. He had a house — the order complied 
with — his son an inhabitant. 

Samuel Kimball. He had a house built — not finished — 
the order complied with by his son. 

Isaac Learned. He had a house — man dead. 

Ebenezer Lovejoy. He had a house, but uninhabited. 

Nathaniel Lovejoy. He had a house erected — not fin- 
ished. 

John Mattis. He had a house and barn, and inhabited. 

John Merrill. He had a house built — an inhabitant. 

Andrew Mitchell. He had a house erected — not finished 
— twelve acres fenced and ploughed. 

Benjamin Nichols. He had a house and inhabited. 

John Osgood. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Stephen Osgood. He had a house — ten acres fenced and 
mowed — cleared — nothing ploughed. 

Thomas Page. [Blank.] 

Joseph Page. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Nathaniel Page. He had a house built, finished and 
inhabited. 

Joseph Parker. He had a house but not finished — orders 
otherwise complied with by Ezekiel Walker, an inhabitant. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 45 

Nathan Parker. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Benjamin Parker. He had a house partly covered — ten 
acres fenced and improved by ploughing and mowing. 

James Parker. He had no house — the land ploughed, 
mowed and fenced by Lt. Farrington, an inhabitant. 

John Peabody. He had a house up — negro man, inhabi- 
tant — orders otherwise complied with. 

Nathaniel Peaslee. He had a house — order complied 
with by John Merrill. 

Robert Peaslee. He had a house and inhabited. 

John Pecker. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Rev. Samuel Phillips. He had a house up — not finished, 
order for improvement complied with by William Peters. 

Jonathan Pulsipher. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Thomas Perley for Nathaniel Cogswell. He had a house 
built and was an inhabitant. 

Samuel Reynolds. He had a house erected, but not 
finished, and land fenced and improved — no inhabitant. 

Henry Rolfe. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Sanders. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Nathaniel Sanders. He had a house built and inhabited. 

John Sanders, Jr. He had a house built — land ploughed, 
mowed and fenced. 

Jonathan Shipley. [Blank.] 

James Simonds. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Nathan Simonds. [Blank.] 

Ebenezer Stevens. He had a house and barn built, fin- 
ished and inhabited. 

Zerubbabel Snow. He had a house up, inhabited by 
Isaac Walker. 

Benjamin Stevens, Esq.. He had a house and barn — 
improved by Ebenezer Stevens. 

Bezaleel Toppan. He had a house built and inhabited. 

Samuel Toppan. He had a house inhabited — order com- 
plied with by Danforth. 

Richard Uran. He was an inhabitant, and had land 
mowed, ploughed and fenced. 

Ebenezer Virgin. He had a house and inhabited it. 

Isaac Walker. He had a house up — not finished — was an 



46 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

inhabitant, with his family — twelve acres fenced, mowed and 
ploughed. 

William White. No house frame ready — three acres 
ploughed — that's all. 

Nicholas White. Frame raised — possessed by Call, an 
inhabitant there. 

Thomas Wilcomb. He had a house built, and had a man 
there. 

William Whittier. No house nor inhabitant. 

Edward Winn. He had a house up not finished. 

John Wright. He had a house almost finished — an inhab- 
itant. 

Ammi Ruhamah Wise. He had a house built and inhabited. 

David Wood. He had a house and a man on the spot — 
ten acres fenced, mowed and ploughed. 

Total 100. 

The above is the account of the present state and circum- 
stances of the Plantation of Penny Cook, taken there by as 
careful a view as we could, and the best information of the 
principal settlers and inhabitants. 



October 20, 1731. 



John Wainwright. 
Jno. Sanders. 



APPENDIX B. 

HON. TIMOTHY WALKER. 

Hon. Timothy Walker was the only son of Rev. Timothy 
Walker, the first minister of Concord, N. H., where he was 
born June 26, 17271 3"^ died May 5th, 1S22. He bore in suc- 
cession the titles of Reverend, Colonel, and Judge Timothy 
Walker, but longest the latter; by which he was designated 
for some forty-five years. He was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1756,^ studied theology and preached, more or less, for 

1 Up to the Revolution, or thereabouts, the names of the students of Harvard 
College were entered upon its catalogues according to the presumed social 
positions of the families to which they severally belonged and not alphabeti- 
cally or according to scholarship. Judge Walker's name stands as the eighth 
on the roll of his class of twenty-five ; while that of his father was the twentj'- 
eighth in a class of forty-five. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 47 

ten years, but was never settled. A little before the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary War, he relinquished the sacred 
duties of the pulpit for those of civil life. 

On the fifth day of September, 1775, he was commissioned 
by the Congress of the Colony of New Hampshire, Colonel of 
the Third Regiment of Minute men of this Colony.^ He was 
a Paymaster of the New Hampshire forces, stationed at Winter 
Hill in the early part of the Revolutionary War, and served a 
campaign under General Sullivan. Later, he was a member of 
the Committee of Safety. He was also a member of the Fourth 
and Fifth Provincial Congresses, the latter of which assumed 
civil government by the adoption of a State Constitution, Janu- 
ary 5th, 1776. He was also a member of the committee which 
drafted and reported to the House of Representatives the mem- 
orable Declaration of Independence which was passed by this 
resolute body on the fifteenth day of June, 1776."^ 

1 His commission, which has been preserved, has upon it the old Colonial 
seal, bearing upon its face the device of a bundle of arrows, flanked on the 
left by a fish and on the right by a pine tree; together with the legend, ''Vis 
Unita Fortior." It is signed by Matthew Thornton, President, and counter- 
signed by E. Thompson, Secretary. 

2 This Declaration was as follows: 

" Whereas it now appears an undoubted Fact, That Notwithstanding all the 
dutiful Peticions and Decent Remonstrances from the American Colonies, and 
the utmost Exertions of their best Friends in England on their Behalf, the 
British Ministry, arbitrary and vindictive are yet Determined to Reduce by 
Fire and Sword our Bleeding Country, to their absolute obedience; and for 
this Purpose in addition to their own forces, have Engaged great numbers of 
Foreign Mercenaries, who may now be on their passage here, accompanied 
by a Formidable Fleet to Ravage and Plunder the Sea Coast; From all which 
we may reasonably Expect the most Dismal Scenes of Distress the ensuing 
year, unless we Exert ourselves by everj' means and Precaution possible; And 
Whereas as We of this Colony of New Hampshire have the Example of several 
of the most Respectable of our Sister Colonies before us for Entering upon 
that most Important Step of a Disunion from Great Britain, and Declaring 
ourselves Free and Independent of the Crown thereof, — being propelled 
thereto by the most violent and injurious Treatment; and it appearing abso- 
lutely Necessary in this most Critical Juncture of our Public Affairs, that the 
Honble the Continental Congress, who have this Important object under 
Immediate Consideration, should be also Informed of our Resolutions thereon 
without loss of time: We Do, therefore Declare that it is the opinion of this 
Assembly that our Delegates at the Continental Congress should be Instructed, 
and they are hereby Instructed to join with the other Colonies in Declaring 
The Thirteen United Colonies, A Free and Independent State: Solemnly 
Pledging our Faith and Honour, That we will on our parts Support the measure 
with our lives and Fortunes;— and that in consequence thereof, They, the 
Continental Congress, on whose Wisdom, Fidelity & Integrity we rely, may 
enter into and form such Alliances as they may judge most conducive to the 



48 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The adoption of the State Constitution involved the estab- 
lishment of a State government with its legislative, executive, 
and judicial departments. To the latter he was cj>lled, as a 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas for Rockingham County. 
This position he held for more than twenty years. 

He lived nearly all his life upon the Farm of the First Minis- 
ter and for many years superintended its operations. But so 
absorbed by other duties were his time and thoughts that he 
attempted but little in the line of husbandry beyond the ordi- 
nary routine of the farm work of his period. In fact, the time 
for important improvements in agriculture has not yet come. 

Early in the present century, feeling somewhat the weight of 
years and desirous of establishing him in a settled business, he 
transferred to his youngest son, Capt. Joseph Walker, the farm 
which he had occupied for a generation. 

He died at his paternal homestead on the fifth day of May, 
1822, at the age of eighty-five years. 



APPENDIX C. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH WALKER. 

Captain Joseph Walker, its third proprietor, was born on 
the Farm of the First Minister on the 12th day of January, 1782, 
and reared under the traditions and usages of the period follow- 
ing the American Revolution. He received a fair English 
education in the common school of his native town and at the 
academy in Fryeburg, Maine, in anticipation of an agricultural 
career. 

A few years after the attainment of his majority, his father 
transferred to him the ownership of the farm and he thereupon 
assumed its management. He repaired its buildings and in- 
creased their number. He added to its acreage and, about 1820, 
lessened greatly the distance to its fields by the construction of 

Present Safety and Future advantage of These American Colonies: Pro- 
vided, the Regulation of our Internal Police be under the direction of our own 
Assembly. 

Entered according to the Original, 

Att; Noah Emery, Clk. D. Reps. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 49 

a bridge across Horse Shoe pond. He also improved its sheep 
husbandry by the infusion of foreign blood into his flock, ^ and 
facilitated some of the farm labors by the introduction of the corn 
sheller, the horse rake, and the horse pitch fork. The latter, 
consisting of two very heavy iron tines held in place by a wood- 
en cross bar, is still preserved. 

Captain Walker held various town ofiices from time to time 
and shared with his neighbors the official honors which his 
town had at its disposal. But he had no desire for political pre- 
ferment. He was a clear sighted, level headed man who pos- 
sessed the courage of his convictions and acted in accordance 
therewith. 

He was engaged more or less, at times, in business other than 
that of his farm, being a member of several financial cor- 
porations and manager of an extensive land holding on the 
Androscoggin river, at Rumford, Maine, a township which had 
been granted by the state of Massachusetts to the proprietors 
of Concord, in consideration of expenses incurred by them in 
quieting the title to their township, against the claims of the so- 
called proprietors of Bow, after the determination of the bound- 
ary line between New Hampshire and Massachusetts. 

He possessed a military taste and was for many years an 
officer of a company of cavalry attached to the Eleventh Regi- 
ment of the New Hampshire militia ; having been appointed 
its second lieutenant December S, 1804, its first lieutenant 
September 23, 1808, and its captain, September 22, 1809. His 
successive commissions are signed, the first by Gov. John Tay- 
lor Oilman, the second by Gov. John Langdon, and the third by 
Gov. Jeremiah Smith. 

Endowed with bonhomie in large measure, he was ever in close 
touch with the members of his company. These lived in dif- 
ferent sections of Concord and several of the neighboring 

iMr. Rowland E. Robinson says in his tiistory of Vermont that, " Early in the 
century, Vermont flocks were greatly improved by the introduction of the 
Spanish merinos. During 1809 and 1810 William Jarvis, our consul at Lisbon, 
obtained about 4,000 merinos from the confiscated flocks of the Spanish nobles, 
and imported them to this country. . . . From the Jarvis importation, and 
from a small flock of the Infantado family imported about the same time by 
Colonel Humphreys, our minister to Spain, the most valued merinos are de- 
scended." More or less of our New Hampshire flocks w^ere greatly improved 
bj' these importations. 
4 



50 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

towns. Company meetings were warned by verbal notices 
given to members present at the Concord meeting-house on 
some Sunday previous to the day appointed therefor, and by 
them forwarded to those absent. 

Some of these, living at long distances from the place of pa- 
rade, which was generally Concord, made their appearance the 
evening before the day of training, and found at the home of their 
captain a soldier's welcome to themselves and horses. For the 
latter sleeping accommodations were always abundant. For 
their riders, these did not always suffice. But if the number of 
beds in the house fell short, the late comers took to the floors 
and, wrapped in their blankets, " endured hardness as good 
soldiers." 

Before their marriage, the Captain's wife had been a school 
teacher and may have increased his interest in the welfare of 
the rising generation. However that may be, soon after he had 
relinquished the celibacy which had too long enthralled him, 
he was directed by his district to procure the erection of a new 
school house, to supersede the low, wooden structure in which 
his wife had painfully labored to enlighten the children com- 
mitted to her tutelage. 

In due time, a two-story, brick building, surmounted by a 
tin-covered belfry of graceful outlines and fully supplied with 
the best furniture then in use, challenged the admiration of all 
lovers of good schools and school-houses. It was by far the 
best building of its kind in the county and few, if any, sur- 
passed elsewhere in the state. 

Some members of the district, who thought more of their 
taxes than of their children's welfare, complained of its costli- 
ness and objected to the payment of the outstanding bills in- 
curred in its construction. During this ferment, the house was 
opened for use and the late Judge George W. Nesmith, then a 
student of Dartmouth college, was employed to teach the win- 
ter school. 

One day, as he has said, he was met upon the street by Cap- 
tain Walker who asked him for the loan of the school-house 
key. He at once handed it to him, supposing that entrance 
was wanted for the completion of something which had been 
left unfinished and that it would be seasonably returned to him. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 5 1 

But, when the succeeding evening had passed and much of the 
following morning with no tidings of the key, he sought the 
Captain, whom he readily found, and asked for it. He was 
suavely told, in reply, that a short vacation would harm neither 
him nor his scholars, and that its length would be governed by 
the obstinacy of the parties who withheld the money raised for 
the payment of the few outstanding bills incurred in the con- 
struction of the school-house. The money was soon advanced 
and the interruption of the school exercises was but a brief 
one. 

Tradition has preserved various anecdotes relating to Captain 
Walker which attest the kindly humor which he often dis- 
played. One of them was to this effect: 

At a parade in Loudon, his company of cavalry had been drawn 
up to receive the hospitality of its commanding officer. The 
bottle was started at one end of the line and each man helped 
himself to its contents as it passed along. In due time it 
reached the other end where the chaplain was stationed. He 
manfully followed the example of his predecessors, and was 
about to start the beverage on its return course when the quick 
eye of the captain detected his intent, and a peremptory order, 
prompt and clear, was issued, that his reverence must turn a 
double corner and take a second drink before sending the bot- 
tle back, as his comrades were about to do. The chaplain was 
a strict disciplinarian and obeyed promptly. Total abstinence 
was not then a martial virtue. 

Captain Walker was the only one of the farm's four proprie- 
tors who has devoted to it the main energies of his life. He 
loved his paternal acres. He loved his flock and his herd. 
He was fond of a good yoke of oxen and delighted in a good 
horse. He also rejoiced in a straight, even, and well-turned 
furrow. He raised good crops of hay and oats, of corn, rye, 
and potatoes. 

But the early loss of his wife cast a shadow over his last 
years from which he never fully emerged. He died March 3, 
1833, at the age of fifty-one years. 



52 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

APPEl^DIX D. 

AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS FROM 1782 TO 1S33. 

During the long period extending from the death of the first, 
in 1782, to that of the third proprietor of the First Minister's 
Farm, in 1833, New Hampshire farming made few marked ad- 
vances. The time was largely one of recovery from the ex- 
haustion of war and financial embarrassments. The farmers 
lived isolated on their individual holdings. They rarely left 
their homes except as they went occasionally to market or to 
mill and on Sundays to meeting. 

But while this period of about fifty years was not fruitful in 
very obvious advances in the state's farming, it was, neverthe- 
less, important as the forerunner of a succeeding one of won- 
drous progress; just as the ministry of John the Baptist was of 
the grander one of the Messiah. In other words, it was the ag- 
ricultural daybreak of the full-orbed agricultural day. 

On the 1 6th of December, 181 2, the governor of the state of 
New Hampshire approved an act of the Legislature making 
Jedediah K. Smith of Amherst, Nathaniel Upham of Roches- 
ter, Samuel Sparhawk of Concord, Ithamar Chase of Cornish, 
Thomas D. Merrill of Epsom, Timothy Walker of Concord, 
Joshua Darling of Henniker, Samuel Qiiarles of Ossipee, John 
F. Parrot of Portsmouth, Edward Cutts of Portsmouth, John 
Bradley of Concord, Joseph Sawyer of Piermont, William 
Badger of Gilmanton, John Hodgdon, Levi Hutchins of Cc n- 
cord, Nathaniel Gilman of Exeter, Richard Odell of Conway, 
John Dame of Portsmouth, and Peter Stow, their associates 
and successors a body politic and corporate, "■ To promote and 
encourage agriculture, economy and husbandry and useful 
domestic manufactures the objects of their association [and] and 
shall have right and power to ordain and grant premiums and 
medals or other gratuities as rewards of merit, exertion, dis- 
covery or improvement on the several objects aforesaid."^ 

How far this society was active in promoting the objects for 
which it vv^as instituted I am unable to say. It was soon fol- 

iPam. Laws, 1812, p. 27. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 53 

lowed bv the establishment of kindred organizations in several 
counties: In Rockingham in 1814, in Cheshire in 1816, in 
Strafford and Grafton in 18 18, in Coos in 1819, and in Merri- 
mack in 1824. All of these were instrumental for many years 
in stimulating agricultural improvement in their several locali- 
ties by exhibitions of choice farm products and domestic manu- 
factures and by the payment of premiums therefor. 

In 1820 the way seemed open to a further advance, and the 
Legislature created a State Board of Agriculture, to consist of 
the presidents of the several county societies and of one dele- 
gate from each who " Shall receive and examine all such re- 
ports and returns as have been or shall be made by the county 
societies within the state ; and select for publication such of 
them and such other essays relative to improvements in agri- 
culture as they may think will conduce to the advancement of 
agriculture. 

"And shall annually publish a pamphlet at the expense of the 
state, to be distributed by means of said agricultural societies to 
the people of this state." 

At a meeting of the Board, holden on the nineteenth day of 
June, 1821, Hon. William Badger of Gilmanton was chosen 
President ; Hon. Matthew Harvey of Hopkinton, Secretary ; 
Hon. Samuel Grant of Walpole, Treasurer ; and Hon. Amos 
Kent of Chester, Rev. Humphrey Moore of Milford, and Hon. 
Samuel Grant, a Committee of Publication. 

This Board had but a short career. In 1822 it issued a very 
creditable report of one hundred and thirty-five octavo pages, des- 
ignated "The New Hampshire Agricultural Repository, No. i." 
It contains eight well-written papers, all from the pens of two 
members of the Board. This first Report was its last and the 
Board ceased to exist a year or two after its issue. It was, 
however, the precursor by half a century of the Board, which, 
instituted at a more auspicious time, has achieved a high and 
lasting success. 



54 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



APPENDIX E. 

THE CONDITION OF THE FIRST MINISTER'S FARM AND 
BUILDINGS IN 1853. 

When the fourth proprietor of the First Minister's Farm as- 
sumed its management its condition was not one to be proud 
of. For about twenty years it had been occupied by tenants. 
The arable section had yielded successive croppings for one 
hundred and twenty years. It was annually producing some 
fifty to sixty tons of English grass. This varied in quality, all 
the way from the best to the poorest, which could be made to 
pass under that designation. It also gave medium crops of 
grain and vegetables on a yearly area of seven or eight acres. 
In short, for that of a rented farm, the tillage portion was in 
fair condition, the leases having provided for the return to the 
farm of a specified amount of manure for each ton of hay sold 
therefrom, as well as the expenditure upon it of all produced 
thereon. The tenants had always been honorable men and had 
fulfilled the stipulations of their covenants. 

There were three pastures upon the farm. The first was a 
small one, of seven or eight acres, for the occasional use of 
oxen. The second was a cow pasture of some twenty-five 
acres. The third was upon the upland, two miles distant from 
the buildings of the farm. 

The first of these had been cultivated at some previous time 
and was in fair condition. Much of the second had never felt 
the pressure of the plow. It consisted of semi-circular ridges 
and intervening hollows. The former were dry and bore more 
hardback bushes than grass. The latter were moist, and their 
herbage was largely mixed with brakes and polypod. The 
third was an upland pasture of about thirty-six acres, which 
had been cleai-ed many years before and was somewhat stony 
but of good soil. It had never been ploughed but produced a 
fair amount of good feed. It was almost entirely inclosed by 
a good stone wall, and had been used at one period as a sheep 
pasture.^ 

I When sheep husbandry was common in Concord, the owners of flocks had 
their individual marks for the recognition of their sheep, which were recorded 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 55 

The nearly fifty acres of bog land was a part of an abandoned 
channel of Merrimack river, whose surface bad been raised by 
successive deposits of aquatic vegetation and freshet silt some 
six feet above the average height of the river. For the want of 
proper drainage it was impassable by teams, and produced only 
bushes, sedges, and the poorest kind of meadow grass. It sur- 
rounded the main body of the tillage land by a belt, varying in 
width all the way from two to twenty rods, parallel with which 
extended much of the w'ay an outer belt of water of varying 
width. 

At some remote period a ditch had been cut through a sec- 
tion of this bog in the direction of Horse Shoe pond, but its 
channel had been so obstructed by freshets, aquatic plants, and 
bushes as to greatly impair its efficiency for drainage. 

Some seven or eight acres of this bog had been mowed from 
time to time, but the crops had hardly paid the cost of their 
removal. The whole tract was underlaid by a water table, 
whose surface rose and fell with that of the adjacent pond. At 
the same time, it was the most conspicuous part of the farm and 
was partially occupied by a belt of bushes, which previous 
neglect had allowed to grow thereon ; but while this sodden 
section had few attractions for the farmer, sportsmen and their 
dogs were drawn to it and knew far better all the mazes of its 
thickets than did its owner. 

Sixty acres of the farm's wood and timber land was covered 
with a sparse growth of pitch pine ( Pinus rigida)^ and formed 
a part of the sandy plain on the east side of the Merrimack 
river. Some of the trees were of primeval growth. So free of 
underbrush was it that a carriage might pass through it in all 
directions. Fires had swept over it repeatedly, but its trees 
had been large enough to successfully withstand their ravages. 
It is greatly to be regretted that this valuable inhabitant of our 
forests seems destined to become virtually extinct in New 
Hampshire, and at a day not far distant. 

The remainder of the farm's forest land was covered with the 
common deciduous trees found in our upland woods, mixed 

by the town clerk. That designating those kept upon the First Minister's Farm 
was "A Swallow's Tail in the off Ear and a half Penny the under side of the 
near Ear, entered June 9th 1770." 

Concord Town Records, printed Vol., p. 630. 



56 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

with pines and hemlocks. Here and there could be found old 
growth white pines ( Pinus strobus) four or five feet in diameter 
at the ground, whose ages reached back to the Indian occupa- 
tion of the country ; the last survivors of a noble company from 
which the second and third Georges had selected masts for the 
English navy. It is doubtless true that not one such is now 
standing within the limits of ancient Penny Cook, and very 
few, indeed, in this state. 

Through the largest tract of the farm's forest the great cyclone 
of 1 816 had cut its way, prostrating everything before it. Its 
course could be plainly traced by the decaying trunks, which 
have ever since lain undisturbed where they had fallen, — pines, 
oaks, chestnuts, maples, hemlocks, etc., gradually returning 
to the soil the elements which they had formerly withdrawn 
from it. 

The farm's water surface, of some twenty acres, constituted 
the whole or parts of three ponds, severally known as Horse- 
shoe, Back, and Little ponds. While this territory belonged 
legally to the owner of the farm, its occupancy had always been 
maintained by a class of men and boys, who delight in the cap- 
ture of shiners, flatsides, perch, pouts, with now and then a 
pickerel and a slippery eel. They were mostly persons of 
leisure, whose time was not considered very precious either by 
themselves or bv anyone else. 

The buildings on the Farm of the First Minister have always 
been simple and unpretentious. 

The house occupied by the several proprietors is a plain, 
gambrel-roof structure of wood. It has been changed but little 
since its erection in 1734, and has sheltered six generations of 
the family. 

In his history of the town of Concord, pp. 556-558, Dr. 
Bouton gives the following historical sketch of it : 

"■THE WALKER HOUSE. 

" This house is [said to be] the oldest two-story dwelling house 
between Haverhill, Mass., and Canada.^ It was erected by the 
Rev. Mr. Walker on [or near] the house lot drawn to the first 

1 Watson's Concord Directory, 1850, p. 6. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 57 

minister in the year i733-'34i the town having generously voted 
him ' fifty pounds for building a dwelling house in Pennycook.' 
Its dimensions were forty by twenty feet, two stories in height, 
with an ell adjoining on the east, of one story, both parts being 
covered with a gambrel roof. The chimneys were very large 
and of stone. One of them, which remained as originally built 
until 1847, was found upon its removal to be about five feet 
square, and constructed of flat, ledge stones, laid in clay mortar 
and plastered on the inside with a composition of clay and 
chopped straw. Only the ell part was entirely finished at first 
and contained but three rooms on the first floor. The front 
part remained in an unfinished state until 1757, when, with the 
assistance of Lieutenant Webster of Bradford, a joiner of high 
repute in those days, it was also completed. The wood-work 
being near to completion, it appears from a letter dated the 9th 
of September, i759i addressed by Rev. Mr. Walker to his son, 
Timothy, then teaching school at Bradford, Mass., that a grave 
question arose as to the propriety ' of painting ye outside.' 
The decision arrived at is not now known, but, either at that 
time or a few years subsequent, it was painted a light yellow, 
which continued to be its uniform color for at least seventy 
years. The interior was finished in a style similar to that 
found in the better class of houses of that period. Most of the 
partitions were of wooden panel work ; the front hall was 
dadoed with panelling, and the front stairs were in three short 
flights, conducting to broad landings and guarded by a moulded 
rail, supported upon curiously- wrought balusters. The rooms 
were painted various colors, the north parlor and south parlor 
chamber being green, the south parlor blue, the north parlor 
chamber and the old people's bed-room white, and the kitchen 
red. Thus constructed and finished it remained without alter- 
ation, with the exception of an enlargement of the ell, until 
184S, when it was modified in some particulars and thoroughly 
repaired by the present proprietor. In 1739,^ it was appointed 

1 Should be 1746. 

The precise year when the garrison around the house of the Rev. Mr Walker 
was built is uncertain. On the 7th of November, 1739, the town " voted that 
there shall be a good and sufficient garrison built around the Rev. Mr. Timothy- 
Walker's dwelling-house, as soon as may be conveniently, at the town's cost." 
It must have been sometime between 1739 and 1746. 



58 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

a garrison-house, and fortified ' at the town's cost ' by the 
erection about it of a wall of timbers lying in contact, one upon 
another, and held in position by tenon-ends let into grooved 
posts set in the ground. Eight families besides Mr. Walker's 
were assigned to it and occupied it more or less of the time 
until the close of the second French war. When, in 1782, the 
legislature met in Concord for the first time and held its ses- 
sions in the hall over Judge Walker's store, which was near by, 
the president of the state with his council occupied the north 
parlor of this house, while the south parlor served as a general 
committee room, and the room above it as the oflice of the treas- 
urer of state. It was the residence of Rev. Mr. Walker until 
his death : and his son, the late Judge Walker, lived in it 
during almost the entire period of his life. It is now owned 
and occupied by Joseph B. Walker, Esq., a great-grandson of 
Rev. Mr. Walker." 

The barn erected by the First Minister was a fair type of the 
larger New Hampshire barns of the middle of the last century. 
It was some eighty or ninety feet long and forty feet wide, 
boarded up and down with unplaued pine boards. The cart 
entrances were upon the north side and its driveways were 
across its longitudinal axis, flanked by bays for hay. In its west 
end was a granary, slatted on the outside wall. It was en- 
larged on the south side by the addition of a lean-to for cattle. 

This barn stood at the corner of Main and Fenacook streets 
until 1830, when it gave place to the more modern structure 
still in use. This, which is eighty feet long by forty feet wide, 
is entered at the ends and has a driveway twelve feet wide 
extending through its entire length, on each side of which are 
bays for the storage of hay. As originally constructed, it had 
a stable for cattle on the east side of the driveway, and a small 
stable for horses in the south-west section. Its main timbers 
are of sawed hard pine, and its roof boards, which extend 
without piecing from the ridge to the eaves, are of the same 
material. The other timbers, plank, and boards are of white 
pine. These, delivered upon the site and ready for use, cost in 
1830, seven dollars per thousand. 

The erection of this barn was preceded by that of two others, 
one of them smaller but similar in construction, and the other. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 59 

some forty feet long and thirty feet wide, designed and used for 
a sheep barn, which was divided into two stories, the upper 
being used for the storage of hay, and the lower one for the 
sheltering of sheep and for a cider mill. When sheep hus- 
bandry and cider making were abandoned, this barn was 
removed and when, ere long, an increase of crops required 
more storage room, another structure of better design and 
larger proportions was erected. 

These, together with two houses not mentioned, a horse 
stable, corn barn, wood shed, and other small structures, con- 
stitute the present buildings upon the First Minister's Farm. If 
none of them are very fine, they are as good as the farm profits 
will support, and are adequate to all the demands made upon 
them. When, some years ago, the president of the old Perth 
Amboy railroad in New Jersey, was asked why he did not 
build a better station at Trenton, the capital of the state, he 
quietly replied that " hemlock boards yielded very good divi- 
dends to the stockholders." 



APPENDIX F. 

EXTRACTS FROM A DIARY KEPT BY BENJAMIN KIMBALL 
AT KIMBALL'S FERRY, SO CALLED, CONCORD, N. H. 

18 15. March 25. Last passing the river on the ice. 
May 18. First planting. 

May 30. Apple Trees in full blossom. 

Sept. 23. A high gale of wind, (September gales,) 
which destroyed buildings, fences and trees to an im- 
mense amount. 

1816. June 6-12. Six days very cold weather; snow fell, 

ground froze, and corn killed. 
Sept. 23. A hard freeze, ears of corn froze through. 
July 7. A hard frost ; cold for six days. 

181 7. April I. Good passing on the ice with horses. 
Sept. 30. The first frost. 

Dec. 23. First passing the river on the ice. 



60 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

i8iS, February. A very cold month. 

March i. A heavy rain, and on the third, river over- 
flowed. 
March 22. Good boating. 

1818. December. Very cold. 

1819. January and February. Very warm, with very little 

snow, the ground being bare the whole time, and no 

sledding but all business and journeys performed with 

wagons. 
April 5. A great freshet, which carried oft' Federal 

bridge. 
May 19. High water over all the interval. 
August 12. The warmest day for twenty years. 

1820. March 30. First boating. 

May 26. Apple trees in blossom ; also a storm of rain, 
hail and snow, the snow lying two inches deep after 
the storm. 

Oct. 17. The highest freshet for thirty-six years. 

Nov. 12. A severe snowstorm; snow fell six inches 
deep, and good sledding for several days. 

1821. Dec. 14. Last boating for the season. 

Dec. 17. Ice on the river; passed with teams. 

1822. Maich 6. Ice out of the river, boating commenced. 
Dec. 16. River frozen over and boating ceased. 

1823. April 2. Could pass the river on the ice. 
April 3. Commenced boating. 

Nov. 18. Passing on the ice; very cold fall. 
Nov. 29. Teams passed the river on the ice. 

1824. Feb. 4. Coldest day for the winter. 

Feb. lo-ii. A great thaw, and on the 12th the ice left 
the river and carried oft' Federal bridge. 

March 10. First boating with the small boat. 

Sept. 25. The first frost. 

Nov. 3. Considered the coldest day ever known for the 
season, or time of the year. 

Dec. 6. Last boating. 

1825. March 7. Horses passing the river on the ice fell in. 
March 18. Commenced boating. 



THE FARM OF THE FIRST MINISTER. 6l 

June 32. The great day of Lafayette in Concord. The 
warmest and dryest summer for many years until the 
I2th of August, when commenced a great rain. 

Nov. 23. People on foot passed the river on the ice. 

Dec. 13. The coldest day ever known for the season. 

Dec. 19. The ground all bare. 
1826. Feb. 2. The first snow to make sledding. 

Jan. 31. The coldest day for many years. 

March 14. First boating. 

April II. The coldest day ever known at this season. 

June. The season very warm and dry until the 24th of 
June, when a great rain commenced, and there fell 
four or five inches of water, followed by frequent and 
heavy showers, until the 30th of August, when the 
river rose twenty feet above low water mark, cover- 
ing nearly all the interval, and on the 31st of August 
the bank went oft', and the house in danger. 

1826. Sept. 2. Potatoes rotting in the ground and forty seven 

men digging potatoes this day at Sugar-Ball. 
Sept. 8. There has not been a good hay day for four 

weeks. On the 15th of September the first North-west 

wind for five weeks. 
Nov. 21. First snow, when there fell six inches. 
Dec. 7- River frozen over and boating ceased. 

1827. Jan. I, 2, 3. Snowed for three days; there fell sixteen 

inches from the ist. of January to the 20th of February : 

very cold, with numerous severe snow-storms, and the 

snow three to four feet deep. 
March 23. Commenced boating, great rains, high winds 

and very backward spring; first sowing. May loth ; 

planted corn, 19th. 
July 26. Great rain; six inches of water fell, but did 

not produce a great freshet. 
Sept. 30. First frost. 
Nov. 9, 10, II. Three coldest days ever known at this 

time of the year ; the river froze over ; extremely cold 

month ; not a pleasant day from the 13th to the 28th 

day ; uninterrupted succession of cold N. W. wind for 

fifteen days. 



62 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Nov. 24, 30. Rainy. 

Nov. 28. Passed the river on the ice with horses. 

Dec. I. Ice went out of the river. 

Dec. 2. Boating, and continued until the i6th. 

Dec. 18. First snow to make sleighing — six inches. 

1828. Moderate winter, with but little snow, but there were 

frequent thaws. 
Feb. 19. A large rain — carried oft' all the snow ; the 

ice went out of the river. 
Sept. 6. Great freshet, the water covering the whole 

interval. 

1829. Extremely cold for seven weeks — from January i to 

February 21, and but little snow ; then there was a 
cold and severe storm, and sixteen inches of snow fell. 

1831. Jan. I. River fell to the top of the banks. 

Dec. 2. Water covered the whole interval, and came 

within ten feet of the house. 
June 5. More rain ; cannot pass to the house without a 

boat. 
June 6. A raft went down river, straight over the gulf. 

183"^. Nov. 20. First snow for the season. 

1836. A cold winter; the snow four feet deep on a level, and 
no bare ground to be seen until the 15th of April. 
March 31. The ice sufficiently strong to bear a horse 
team and two ton's load. Passing on the ice on foot 
as late as April 7. 

1839. Jan. 26. Rained for twenty four hours; the river rose 
fifteen feet in fifteen hours ; and came within three feet 
of the door-steps of the house, and to the top of the 
sills of the barn, which was occasioned by the river 
being dammed up by the ice. It carried oft' all the 
bridges on the river except Federal bridge, and that 
so damaged as to be impassable. 

1841. Jan. 8. A great freshet; the water in the river rose 
fifteen feet, broke up the ice and carried off" Federal 
bridge and Free bridge within about half an hour of 
each other; the river rose four feet in thirty minutes, 
and kept up so that we could not pass to the other 
house for four days. 



FRUIT GROWING. 



BY ABEL F. STEVENS, WELLESLEY, MASS. 



Horticulture, the earliest employment of man, is also one 
of the most attractive. A taste for this delightful vocation is 
almost universal in this country. That garden in which Adam 
and Eve were placed was the primitive paradise, and to this 
day a tastefully planned, judiciously planted garden, with fra- 
grant flowers and delicious fruits, has still lingering about it 
manv of the charms we are wont to attribute to the original 
Eden, and to every true lover of horticulture it seems in the 
fulness of its summer beauty and autumn fruitage to be indeed 
almost a Paradise regained. 

PROGRESS IN FRUIT CULTURE. 

Among the most gratifying evidences of progress are the 
numerous acquisitions of new and valuable varieties by which 
the season of our fruits is greatly prolonged. With the acces- 
sions of early and late varieties, by the better knowledge in 
keeping and packing of fruits, and the facilities of transporta- 
tion, our markets and tables are now supplied with delicious 
fruits throughout the whole year. From the early strawber- 
ries to the late apples we can thus replenish our tables daily with 
such a variety as no other nation can produce. The progress of 
invention, the developments of science, and the spur of enterprise 
are indeed grand in other departments of industry, but the fruit 
culture of our dear, own New England is to have its full share. 
The first seeds sown by man were the germs from which sprung 
the civilization, elevation, and refinement of the human race ; 
so it is with the amelioration and improvements of our fruits. 
From the sour, wild crab, the puckery pear, the bitter almond, 



64 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

and the austere plum, came the tender, spicy apple, the melt- 
ing, juicy pear, the velvety, luscious peach, and the delicious 
plum, and from our rank and "foxy" grape came the splendid 
varieties which now adorn our tables, and " make glad the 
heart of man." 

THE PROGRESSIVE CULTURIST. 

The great need of our horticulture in all of its departments 
is "brains," for the progressive, practical cultivator of to-day 
must be a man of broad education. To be successful he should 
have a good knowledge of chemistry, botany, and entomology ; 
in fact, there is no employment on earth which calls for men 
with more enlightened minds than that of the progressive hor- 
ticulturist. We fully believe that our agriculture will never 
take the high rank it should until men everywhere recognize it 
as the most learned of all the learned professions, and as the 
vocation upon the success of which depends the whole fabric 
of human society. Fruit growers are the benefactors of man- 
kind. Who can estimate the importance and value of a new 
variety of fruit which shall be adapted to the wide range of our 
rapidly extending cultivation? The one who shall originate a 
new apple, pear, or grape which shall be worthy of being 
handed down to posterity will be held in remembrance as a 
benefactor of mankind, and he who shall discover an unfailing 
remedy for the destructive pear blight, or grape i*ot, or the 
baneful mildew of the foliage that affects our trees, or an easy 
method for the destruction of the horde of insects that are so 
injurious to our fruits, shall have his name transmitted to future 
generations as a true benefactor to his race. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD FRUIT. 

As all fruits are raised to eat we must give the place of honor 
to its eating qualities. Next in importance is durability, or 
keeping properties. The third requisite is size, which should 
be of good, uniform shape, neither monstrous nor small. As 
beauty in form, as well as in color, will always be of great 
value in market fruit, brilliant colors will always charm the 
eye, although they may not gratify the taste. So in our en- 



FRUIT GROWING. 65 

deavors to pei'fect new varieties of delicious fruits we must 
regard as the chief requisites: first, quality; second, value for 
general cultivation ; third, uniformity of shape ; fourth, beauty 
of color. All of these special points of a good variety of fruit 
should be the standard of every grower. All these combined 
with vigor of growth, hardiness, and productiveness in the 
trees or vines will be an invaluable acquisition to our list of 
standard fruits. 

NEW^ VARIETIES. 

It should be the aim of every progressive grower of fine 
fruits to produce new and improved varieties, which may 
be better adapted to general cultivation or to particular loca- 
tion, for, as a rule, a variety succeeds best in the locality of its 
origin. There are two methods of producing new kinds, viz. : 
by seeds and by hybridization. The whole horticultural world 
is indebted to the renowned Van Mons for his enterprise in 
developing, and his success in originating, new and improved 
varieties of pears ; and more than all for his repeated advice 
''to sow, re-sow, and sow again, the seeds of your best fruits 
as the only means of obtaining good fruits." Let us now com- 
mence the sowing of the seeds from our best varieties, that we 
may produce an abundance of excellent kinds better adapted to 
our respective localities. 

HYBRIDIZATION. 

This process is simple whether by the wind, or by insects, 
or by the hand of man. It is simply the commingling of the 
pollen of two species and the production of a seedling from 
this union. Care, skill, and judgment must be used in this 
work, having due regard to the characteristics of the parents 
from which we breed. Hear the words of the lamented 
Wilder — " Let me impress on your minds the importance of 
this branch of our science, and as it was my first, so it shall be 
my last advice : Plant the most mature and perfect seeds of 
the most hardy, vigorous, and valuable varieties ; and as a 
shorter process, insuring more certain and happy results, cross 
or hybridize your best fruits." These are the only methods by 
which we can expect to obtain new and improved kinds and 



66 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

to produce substitutes for those which in time become deteri- 
orated and unprofitable for cultivation. 

HOW TO MARKET. 

There is always room at the top for the successful fruit- 
grower, and there always will be. There is no escape from 
over-production, and ruinous competition from every point, 
except through higher and better production. Raise fruit 
that readily catches the eye by its fine form and bright color, 
put it up in A No. i style, in neat, clean boxes or barrels, 
neatly stencilled with the grower's full name and fruit farm on 
each. Before putting in the fruit, place a circular piece of 
white paper as large as the head of the barrel or box with your 
advertisement as a fruit-grower neatly printed upon it. Now 
face the first three layers of apples stem downward, then fill to 
the top with the same quality. Fill and shake often. Round 
up the top and press firmly. Cover with another heading of 
printed paper. Secure firmly the head. Now turn the barrel 
on the other end and brand it with the quality, variety, and 
address of the grower. When the high quality of your fruit 
is known it will find its own buyer and name its own price. 

PRACTICAL POINTS. 

In fruit-growing the pleasure and profit derived from plant- 
ing fruits under any circumstances depend upon the judicious 
selection of soil, location, varieties, and their proper manage- 
ment. These are the essential points of successful fruit culture. 
The best soil is a rich, mellow loam, on a strong, clayey, sub- 
soil. On such soils we find the greatest and most enduring 
vigor and fertility ; the healthiest and hardiest trees, and finest 
and best-flavored fruits. The best location is one having a 
southern exposure. Abundance of bright sunlight and live air 
are essential to high-colored fruit. Select good, vigorous trees 
from a reliable nursery. Set them in form of a square, thirty 
feet apart, in straight rows each way. Give good cultivation 
during the summer season, clean surface, and keep a good 
mulch around each tree during freezing weather. Apply annu- 
ally per acre three hundred pounds muriate potash and two 



FRUIT GROWING. 67 

hundred pounds fine bone. Spread the above about the trees 
as far as the limbs extend. 

PRUNING. 

This is one of the most important operations connected with 
the management of trees. It is a surgical operation and should 
be done with care and judgment. The advice of many to 
prune "at any time or place" is slovenly, injudicious, and out- 
rageous advice. We say no ; most emphatically no ! The season 
of pruning is very important, as the true theory is based on the 
condition of the sap, for the removal of large limbs from the 
trees. The best time is just after the fall of the leaves in 
November, for it is the proper time as regards the science of 
life, health, and action in the trees. The objects of pruning 
are three-fold, viz.: — form, vigor, and fruitfulness ; observe 
two maxims in pruning : first, never prune when the sap is 
thin, as it will injure the tree. Second, always cut close and 
clean and cover large wounds with lead paint to preserve the 
tree. 

THE APPLE. 

New England is eminently the home of the apple. On no 
place, from the broad Atlantic to the golden slope of the 
Pacific coast, does better flavored fruit grow than in these 
states. Had not our soil been congenial to the apple how 
could we have produced such sterling varieties as the Williams, 
Hubbardston, Baldwin, Pippins, Russet, etc. .^ It is proverbial 
that the apples grown in New England are not equalled in 
flavor by any grown in the Union. At the great markets of 
Boston the fairest and the best are grown in this good old state. 
May she ever hold the banner ! 

SELECTION OF VARIETIES. 

For the local market very early sorts are the best, but for a 
distant market late varieties command the most remunerative 
prices. For home use the highest flavored should be chosen. 
Bright-colored varieties bring the best prices in the markets. 
For a list of twelve sorts, covering the entire year, we name 
for summer — Yellow Transparent, Red Astrachan, Oldenburg, 



68 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Sweet Bough ; Fall — Gravenstein, Fall Pippin, Hubbardston, 
Rolfe ; Winter — Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Falla- 
water, and Roxbury Russet. This list for market is the best 
for profit. 

CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 

The great excellence of the fruit and its nearly continuous 
season of perfection, some being late-keeping varieties, nearly 
meeting the earliest sorts, and its great beauty as a tree have 
always maintained its culture as one of the most refined. Its 
value as a domestic fruit is second only to that of the apple. 
It is one of the most luscious esculents, and as a table fruit is 
indispensable. The pear delights in a deep, rich, mellow, 
moist soil, with a deep clay sub-soil. A sloping hillside, fac- 
ing south, forms the best site for a pear orchard. A good shel- 
ter to the trees is very important to protect the fruit from 
autumn gales, and the trees from cold, drying winds in winter. 
In selecting trees for settings, secure good, young, vigorous 
trees with good roots, straight trunks, and open heads. Have 
the soil carefully sifted around the small roots and when filled 
in press firmly down with the feet. Mulch in mid-summer 
and for good protection for winter. Set the trees sixteen feet 
apart for standard and eight feet apart for dwarf varieties. 
The latter are budded on the quince roots. The pyramidal 
form is the best for the pear. The desideratum in fruit culture 
is well-ripened wood. All the pruning that is required is to 
keep the proper symmetry and open-headedness of the trees, 
so as to let in light and air. 

VARIETIES. 

With all the proper modes of culture, care in selection of 
site and soil, judicious planting and pruning, unless there is a 
careful selection of varieties success will not be attained. For 
a list to be grown as standards, or on the pear stock, we name 
for Summer — Early Wilder, Comet, Clapps. Fall — Bartlett, 
Beurre Bosc, Sheldon. Winter — Beurre d'Anjou, Lawrence, 
Josephine de Malines. On the dwarf stock, Louise Bonne, Duch- 
esse. Vicar of Wakefield. All pears should be picked before 
" dead " ripe and placed in a cool, dry cellar in boxes and kept 



FRUIT GROWING. 69 

from light and heat until a few days before using them, when 
they should be brought into a warm room. Nice ripe pears 
are among the very best table and dessert fruit. 

THE PEACH. 

Of the many luscious fruits none equals in its own exquisite 
flavor the rich, delicious peach. No days are looked forward 
to with greater interest than the ripening season of the golden 
peach. For the fresh fruit from the trees and the preserved 
fruit in cans there is a great demand. The outlook to-day is 
very encouraging to the peach grower, and by careful culture 
and a proper selection of the best hardy varieties, especially 
adapted for this locality, there is no reason why it cannot be 
had in its fresh state throughout its season ; and by the varied 
methods of preserving and canning, a supply can be had the 
entire year. I trust this charming fruit will be grown through- 
out this section with gratifying success, and believe the time 
near at hand when we shall have the tree in its pristine vigor, 
and its fruit in the old-time abundance. 

LOCATION. 

The first step to take in the successful culture of the peach 
is that of the proper location. The best for this section is on 
elevated rolling ground with a northern exposure, as such wmII, 
to some degree, retard the swelling of the early fruit buds and 
thus escape the late spring frosts which are very destructive. The 
soil should be of a good, warm, rich, loamy nature. The tree is 
a vigorous grower and needs good, liberal feeding. It needs 
the right kind of mineral manures. It requires for its rampant 
growth and the perfecting of its fruit a very liberal supply of pot- 
ash, lime, and soda ; and the best form to applv these fertiliz- 
ers is that of good wood ashes, pure bone meal, or muriate of 
potash. Apply per acre one thousand pounds bone meal and 
five hundred pounds potash. Have it thoroughly incorpor- 
ated into the soil with a disc harrow. Alternate early with 
fifty bushels wood ashes and twentj'-five bushels of air-slacked 
lime. By this method the trees will be in a good, healthy state 
and give an abundance of the finest large fruit. 



70 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

PLANTING. 

Set out the trees sixteen feet apart. Strike out straiglit fur- 
rows at right angles to each other, and have the holes amply 
large. Cut clean all broken roots, and have them well " pud- 
dled " or dipped into thick, clayey mud before setting. Have 
fine soil placed around the roots and firmly trodden down. 
Here is a very valuable point to be observed, as thousands of 
trees, vines, and plants are lost annually for the want of this 
foot firming at the time of setting. 

MULCHING. 

As soon as the hot, dry weather comes on place a good 
mulch of meadow ha}^ around each tree, and as soon as the 
ground is frozen cover the ground out beyond the roots to be 
left on late in spring for safety of fruit buds. Then remove, 
apply the mineral fertilizers, and give good cultivation. 

PRUNING THE PEACH. 

This tree from its mode of growth and bearing requires con- 
stant pruning to maintain it in a thrifty and productive state. 
Cut back at time of planting the main stem to three feet and 
trim off all branches below. Select from the new shoots three 
of the strongest on different sides of the tree for the future 
frame-work of the tree head. Rub off all other sprouts. The 
annual growth must be shortened in one half each fall. This 
is very important, as the peach bears only on the wood of the 
previous year. Alw'ays keep the top of the tree open to admit 
air and sun for the development of fruit and foliage. 

The greatest enemies of the peach tree are the borer and yel- 
lows. To prevent the borer, keep ashes and lime around the 
trunks of the trees from June till late in August. To destroy 
them, take a sharp, flexible wire and follow the holes made by 
them till reached. A wash is made by mixing two quarts soft 
soap, four ounces carbolic acid, dissolved in two quarts of hot 
water, then adding six gallons of cold water. Apply to trunks in 
June or July. It will prevent the mother moth from laying her 
eggs in the tender bark. Always destroy these moths. 



FRUIT GROWING. 7 1 

PEACH YELLOWS. 

This dreaded disease will be known by the thin, wiry laterals 
on which grow slender, pale yellowish leaves, the fruit drop- 
ping or decaying prematurely. No sure remedy is known to 
be efficacious except to dig and burn root and branch at once. 
It can be prevented in a degree by only planting healthy trees. 
Give clean culture, judicious pruning, keeping the soil well 
fertilized with potash and lime. By following the above 
advise all can enjoy delicious peaches. Best varieties are: 

Early. Medium. Canning. 

Hale's Early. Crosby. Hills. 

Mt. Rose. Old Mixon. Chili. 

Elberta. Stevens. Snow. 

Champion. Globe. Morris. 

SPRAYING. 

How and when shall it be done is the question that every 
successful fruit-grower must answer. He has come to fully 
realize that he must protect his trees and vines from the ravages 
of the insects and fungoid diseases. Remedies have been pro- 
duced by actual experiment in the Government Stations and the 
proper poisons have been designated. When applied at the 
proper time they have proven invaluable to the growers. After 
many trials of different compounds of poisons it has been found 
that nothing is as efficacious as the famous " Bordeaux Mix- 
ture." The formula from which this mixture is made is: — 
copper sulphate blue vitriol, four pounds, quick lime, four 
pounds. The vitriol is quickly soluble in hot water. The 
caustic lime is slaked slowly by adding water till all is reduced 
to a lime wash. When the two liquids are cold they are slowly 
mixed together. Then add water enough to make fifty gallons. 
After many experiments the above mixture has superseded all 
others for its cheapness, effectiveness, and lasting qualities. We 
believe it to be the very best fungicide known to the orchardist 
to-day. For the treatment of the apple scab use this mixture 
for the first application just before the leaves open, and the 
second soon after the blossoms fall, and at which time four 
ounces of paris green should be added to each fiftv gallons of 



72 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

the mixture in order to kill the apple worm. A third spraying 
with the combined mixture is to be given in about ten days 
later; and still another in ten days in case of continued wet 
weather. For the treatment of leaf-blight of the pear, cherry, 
and plum, give the first spraying when these trees are in flower^ 
the second in ten days, and a third application in fifteen days. 
If wet weather prevails another spraying will be required. 

INSECTICIDES. 

The United States Entomological Department estimates that 
the loss from insects to all the crops of the United States annually 
amounts to $400,000,000, and the loss to our fruit crops from the 
fungous pests amounts to nearly one half as much. We find that 
those insects that attack the apple are principally the tent cater- 
pillar, canker worm, bud moth, codling moth, gypsy moth, 
maggot, and curculio. With the exception of the maggot all of 
the above insects are known as the chewing insects and can be 
poisoned and destroyed by spraying the trees with the 
" Bordeaux Mixture," combining with it one pound of paris 
green to one hundred gallons. This will destroy the scab and 
rust as well as the destructive insects, but the spraying must be 
applied early, just before the leaves open, then follow just before 
the blossoms open, and the third time directly after the petals 
fall. Generally these three applications are found to be enough 
but if the weather is moist it is better and safer to spray once 
or twice later. Make thorough work and see that all parts of 
the trees are reached. A wise plan is to apply to the trunks 
of tall trees strips of tarred paper covered with printer's ink. 
If put on October 15, and kept till April 15, it will trap the 
female moth of the destructive canker worm. Also another 
plan we have used, is to band the trees with burlap during the 
larvae season, thereby destroj'ing myriads of caterpillars which 
are so destructive to the foliage. 

KEROSENE EMULSION. 

For all sucking insects we have found" the emulsion far more 
efficacious than either of the other preparations. We make this 
emulsion as follows — viz. : Dissolve one half pound of bar soap 



FRUIT GROWING, 73 

in two gallons of hot water and add two gallons of kerosene oil. 
Agitate this until a paste is formed, then dilute to twenty gal- 
lons — in using this see that it is constantly stirred. This 
remedy is very valuable in the treatment of pear tree Psylla 
and the peach and cherry black aphis, also rose chafer on 
rose bushes and grape vines. In the application of any or all 
of the specific remedies it is highly important that a first class 
pump be used ; the whole surface of the foliage should be 
covered. Be sure to use a nozzle that will produce very fine 
mist. Good work must be done if we are to make a success 
of it. The cost of spraying is very small and when we con- 
sider its beneficial results we trust to see every live, practical 
fruit-grower adopting this indispensable system. In coming 
years may the hillsides of the old Granite state be adorned with 
young, vigorous, fruitful orchards, and we again have all the 
standard fruits in the same abundance as in their pristine days. 
Let us go on planting and raising varieties to replace the excellent 
kinds that are so fast disappearing, having filled their missions 
like the noble men that planted them. When I reflect upon 
the progress of horticulture and its benign influence on the 
health and happiness of mankind, I am most grateful to those 
noble men who did so much to help the cause in its earliest 
days ; and by their laborious sowings we are now reaping such 
rich rewards, and enjoying the fruits of their toil, which con- 
tributes so much to our happiness and welfare to-day. Let us- 
in " our day and generation," contribute something to the 
shrine of Pomona, that will be beneficial to those that may 
come after us. For as we have enjoyed what others have 
planted, let us plant for others to enjoy. 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 



BY GEORGE M. TWITCHELL, AUGUSTA, ME., SECRETARY STATE AGRICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



Measured by superficial signs and it seems the rankest folly 
to stand before an audience to-day to urge any line of action in 
horse breeding. The fever of fictitious values has passed, the 
pendulum has swung from one extreme to another and its equi- 
librium is not yet established. Breeding establishments are 
being closed and the record of the auction sales is calculated to 
bring sorrow to stockholders or investors who planted their 
establishments upon spasmodic sentiment and unreal founda- 
tions. 

As we look below the surface and weigh conditions in the 
balances of reasonable judgment there is every reason impell- 
ing the thoughtful student of the field to go before his fellow 
farmers and urge the re-establishment of the industry at the 
earliest possible moment. 

The horse industry has for the past twenty years rested on a 
foundation insecure, not firmly planted and liable to crumble at 
any moment. The demand has been abnormal and the prices 
realized purely fictitious. The craze for speed has dominated, 
and the possible or probable earning capacity of a horse on the 
race track has controlled the public mind. What was proper 
and legitimate for the wealthy specialist and breeder came to 
be considered necessary for the farmer, until finally the fever of 
the race course and pool box carried service fees into the thou- 
sands and selling price into tens and hundreds of thousands. 
To win in this lottery has been the desire of far too many farm- 
ers. The enormous prices paid for undeveloped youngsters 
have driven reason and good judgment from its throne, until 
finally the bubble burst and the barns are left crowded with 
stock which has no value because it has no individuality. 

Recognizing the drift of the hour, and the signs of the times 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 75 

it is my desire to plant myself by the side of the every day, hard 
working farmer, he who has the mortgage to lift, the children 
to educate, the home to make brighter and whose every step 
must be made to tell for results. Hemmed in as he is and is 
to be, meeting and to meet sharper and still sharper compe- 
tition, is there a horse for to-morrow which he may breed and 
from which he may realize a profit? Fanciers, specialists, breed- 
ers can take care of their own interests : it is the farmer to whom 
I wish to address myself, and from whose standpoint I would 
draw conclusions. First, that we may fully understand each 
other, I want to lay down this proposition, that from one hun- 
dred and fifty to two hundred dollars marks the real value of 
any horse, unless it be a brood mare or stallion ; below this we 
shall find animals having form, size, and general appearance, 
able to do fair service, while above is the whole field, limited 
only by the fancy of the purchaser. I fix this value as a basis 
upon which to argue the question of to-morrow's operations. 

Can you feed your hay, grain, and pasturage to your colts so 
that at four years, or the ^winter before they are four, you can, 
at the price named, realize over and above the service fee, what 
these products would have brought in the mow, the bin, or the 
pasture ? 

If you can you have just as good a business as any man de- 
serves to have, you are realizing a larger measure of profit than 
ninety per cent, of the business men in any city. My claim is 
that these figures can be secured. The only question then to 
be solved is that of capacity on your part to enlarge the sphere 
of operations, maintain the same watchful care over details, 
and make intelligent selection of breeding stock. 

What of the outlook.'* The past ten years have witnessed a 
revolution in this industry. Then there was a call for a general 
purpose animal. To-day there is none, and I doubt if there 
ever will be again. General purpose means mediocrity. It 
signifies nothing of excellence. Cursed is the man who in any 
department allows "general average" and purpose to hover 
about him. Ten years ago the horse capable of showing a three 
minute gait was sought after — to-day he passes by unnoticed 
Then there was a chance for the eastern farmer to mate his 
cross-bred mares to a Percheron, and sell the product when 



76 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

three years old at a profit. Had the farmers held to this line 
of operations until to-day, thousjh prices are below those paid 
for eastern beef or hogs, they would have more to show for 
their breeding operations than trotting stock has given. This 
not against the stock but because men failed to comprehend the 
situation. At the same time we must not overlook the fact that 
prairie grasses and dent corn can and will produce gross weight 
cheaper than we. Something more is called for than bones, 
flesh, muscle, hoof, hair, and frame, whether it be trotting or 
draft stock. Present conditions are chiefly the legitimate out- 
come of purposeless or one idea breeding. It has been a sur- 
render of brains to hoped for speed. 

Bicycles have come rapidly into use, street railroads have 
been turned over to the electric current, but these only close the 
door against ordinary stock ; they do not compete with the 
horse for to-morrow. 

Before a move is made to introduce new lines of breeding 
those who desire to follow the business must first come to a 
realization of the present condition of the industry. Business 
reverses, the change in political parties in power, the modifica- 
tion of the tariff', and the depression resulting from all these, 
may be accepted as contributory causes, but the chief must be 
sought in the craze to draw a prize in the trotting horse lottery, 
with no adequate knowledge of the rigid conditions under 
which speed is produced. 

It is comparatively easy to reconstruct an animal and establish 
a breed after one's own fixed purpose, but far more difficult to 
build over a man. The force of habit, the power of heredity, the 
controlling influence of one's environments render it impossible 
for one not constantly in touch with moving currents to realize 
their force or the direction they may take. Purposeless breed- 
ing, then, may be accepted as the one great cause for present 
conditions in the horse industry. 

There are men to-day who will persist in breeding the dear, 
old family mare, spavined, floundered, blind though she be, 
the mare with a four mile limit, to a three dollar stallion, called 
a Hambletonian — because it possesses three to six per cent, of 
the blood of the Hero of Chester — and then confidently expect 
a Nelson, an Alix or Directum. 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 77 

In the estimation of these hide-bound rut followers " Nancy 
Hanks a'int a sarcumstance to my old mare." 

What are we to do ? 

First, stop breeding entirely unless we know that we are in 
line to produce what will be called for. Don't swell this vol- 
ume of indifferent stock. Stop right here before another step is 
taken in the wrong direction. The horse of to-morrow must 
stand for an idea, must have special fitness for special service 
somewhere or it will be produced at a loss. 

What the field to be occupied in breeding, must depend 
entirely upon the individual breeder, his tastes, his natural in- 
clinations. We must have the horse bred, built, educated for 
some special service. We must have the cow, not an accident, 
but out of her inherited and acquired individuality capable of 
yielding 8,000 pounds of milk yearly and making 300 pounds 
of butter. We want the hen bred and educated to produce at 
least fifteen dozen eggs. We want the man, not the jack-at- 
all trades; men like those described by Emerson as "ap- 
pointed by God to stand for a fact." This is what the world 
is calling after to-day as never before, and nothing short of this 
individuality will meet the requirements. If you have not 
come up to a full realization of this and are seeking foundation 
stock fitted for this special service, stop breeding, for there is 
not a dollar for you in the horse you w^ill breed. 

The horse for to-morrow must excel in one of three essentials, 
as trotters or pacers, for both are to have a place and divide the 
honors, as gents' drivers or what may more properly be called 
road horses, and as draft-stock. Profitable breeding in the 
future will be found in seeking after and intensifying one of 
these three classes. The lines of breeding for each, will diverge 
more and more as one reaches after individual excellence in 
either direction. Size, conformation, disposition, distribution 
of nervous energy, will vary more and more as we enter the 
parting ways and begin specialized effort, which centers in form 
adapted to purpose. The speed sentiment has so enveloped us 
that the full force of the position taken will become apparent 
only as one breaks from the circle and reviews the situation. 
I must emphasize this divergence of classes and consequent 



yS NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

separation of form because to my mind it becomes of funda- 
mental importance. 

There must be an ideal form for the race horse where the 
expenditure of nervous energy may be utilized to the utmost 
with the least waste to the individual. It may be found in the 
low gliding motion of the Electioneers or the longer sweep of 
the Wilkes family, but surely not in the round, stylish, trappy 
action of the road horse. There must be a point where the 
maximum of speed and the minimum of waste maybe found 
and this will be the objective point with the speed producer. 
With the speed standard being reduced so rapidly all things 
must be made to conserve a given purpose, and that is to get 
there. The gulf between a 2 : 40 and a 2 : 20 horse is a great one 
yet the interest of the trotting-horse breeder must centre about 
the latter standard. 

Does the farmer want to attack this problem, rendered com- 
plex as it is by tracks, bike sulkies, boots, straps, weights, hop- 
ples, and an education having for its ultimate end one single 
thought? The answer must be emphatically No I 

The field belongs to the specialist, the enthusiast, the man 
bred himself in trotting horse lines. In the development of the 
trotter or pacer all that science can give us is necessary to aid 
the breeder in educating, and feeding, and balancing the coming 
wonder. In the marvelous strides made towards the limit of 
speed it has been the transfer of the higher intelligence and pur- 
pose of the breeder which has given success. Speed is not an 
accident. It comes only in return for patient toil. Read the 
daily telegraphic correspondence between Mr. Bonner and Mr. 
Marvin, when Sunol was being fitted for her supreme effort 
and one may catch a faint idea of the patience and skill neces- 
sary to bring a horse to the test in the best possible condition. 

Nothing less will suffice, and because after all the education 
possible, all the patient training, the fact that only a small per 
cent, ever hear the word " Go," because these requirements 
command the time, thought, and study of the breeder it is a field 
not open to the farmer. It is the farm which must claim his 
attention, it is the farm which must engross his thought, it is 
the farm and its manifold operations which must be first in his 
mind, and other problems conh-ibutory to his success there will 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 79 

SO occupy his spare moments that no opportunity is offered for 
a study of the speed problem. Boots, straps, sulkies, have no 
place in the farmer's inventory, and when found, they foretell 
that the last days of that man will not be the most peaceful. 

I have dwelt at length upon this point because of the natural 
love for contests between man and man, or beast and beast, and 
the danger that this may swerve us from the real aims and pur- 
poses of life. 

Again, it may seriously be questioned whether there is room 
in New England to-day to engage extensively in the breeding 
of purely draft stock. One fundamental fact must not be over- 
looked and that is the natural tastes and trend of the indivi- 
dual. The problem is not to ascertain where may be found 
the most profitable branch of farm husbandry but rather to 
find the one for which the individual is best suited. It is this 
which will yield him the most. For this reason there may be 
an opportunity for the lover of the larger, more blocky, slower 
motioned Percherou, to breed this class with fair profit. It 
only needs that men keep clear in mind the distinction between 
gross weight and a horse. 

Chunks from the west are selling for five cents per lb. live 
weight, — less than pig pork, — but they carry no thought of 
more than indifferent service. There's nothing positive about 
them, and positiveness is as necessary in a horse as a man, no 
matter the class. 

A great and disastrous blow is being dealt over New England 
agriculture by the introduction of these western chunks. 
They are taking the place of the home grown product and no 
comparison can be made between the two. The outgoing of 
the nervy, trappy, hardy, intelligent New England bred horse 
and incoming of the softer, coarser boned, slower, western bred 
animal, heavier though it be, will prove one of the most lasting 
injuries inflicted upon New England farms in this generation. 

Boys bred on these farms, full of life and energy, will not 
remain here to follow a dead metalled team. Better by far 
return to the oxen and steers. 

The field for successful operations narrows to the road horse 
but fortunately this field has wide borders and stretches away 
before us. 



So NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Not in the history of this generation has there been such a 
searching through New England for road horses as during the 
past few years and especially the last few months. 

While market sales have ranged from $40 to $125, or $150, 
and the stables have been crowded, there's hardly a settlement 
in Maine, New Hampshire, or Vermont, which has not been 
searched again and again by buyers ready to pay twice the 
prices indicated. 

Why this failure to supply.? The answer must be found in 
the fact already presented that, seeking for speed, size, confor- 
mation, action, and by that I mean the walking and road gait, 
substance and education have all been made subservient to a 
single purpose. 

Large or small, ringed, streaked, or speckled, coarse or fine, 
if the colt promised to be fast, or the horse could beat his 
record, there was value. As a result we have narrow chested, 
slim waisted, long bodied, angularly built horses which are not 
wanted outside the race track. Let bicycles multiply, and elec- 
tric roads stretch out, there never will come a time when the 
stylish, symmetrical, fast walking, free, easy moving, road 
horse, weighing 1,050 to 1,100, possessing round, pleasing 
knee action and a graceful flexibility of hocks, will not be 
wanted at a price above that indicated at the opening of this 
paper. 

The field narrows to this one class but here the demand will 
always be active because, as is the case with every other indus- 
try, only a certain per cent, have a well-defined ideal, and 
strengh of purpose to pursue it. 

Professor Sanborn lately declared that the agriculture of 
muscle is behind us. That is true but in the future lies a 
higher and better, the agriculture of brains. 

If there is to-day an educated demand for a better product, 
the brains which can meet that demand will sell at a premium. 
This is the field I want to see the New England farmer enter 
and occupy. The service fee, hay, grain, and pasturage which 
will grow a chunk, will grow a roadster, the difference between 
the two being the ability to receive and assimilate ideas. 

The man who can sell his brain power in the form of a w^ell- 
disciplined, thoroughly educated colt, is a double gainer, he 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 8l 

gains in increased profit and increasing brain capacity- It is 
this doing the best of which we are capable which enables us 
to do more. Make the distinction clean cut between a horse 
and a horse. 

The 15-2 to i6-hand horse of solid color, with broad forehead, 
ears of good size and well proportioned, good length from base of 
ear to eye, eyes full and expressive, with lids free from meati- 
ness, face straight, nostrils well rounded, full, large, and thin, lips 
not thick, and well closed, neck of good length, shapely, clean 
cut at Jowl and fitting well at shoulders, which can hardly be too 
sloping, the point of the wethers being well back to the saddle, 
chest of good width, forearm long and heavily muscled, knees 
firm, broad, straight and strong, cannons short, flat, broad and 
flinty, pasterns, good length, muscular and nervy, free from meat- 
iness, the ankle from toe to ankle joint being about 45 degrees, 
feet round, of size proportionate to the animal, free from con- 
tracted heels, of good material and with elastic frog, barrel 
shaped like an inverted egg deep at girth as well as waist, 
allowing full use of lungs without infringing upon other organs, 
back short, the point of coupling on a line with that of hip, thus 
allowing for the extension of the muscles of attachment well 
forward over the kidneys giving greater strength to the weakest 
spot in the animal anatomy as well as in man, quarters of good 
length, not too sloping, thus affording room for that free stifle 
action so necessary in the ideal driver. Stifles and gaskins 
long, of good width, abounding in muscular attachments, hocks 
free from meatiness, sound, strong, neither straight nor having 
a decided angle, and not cut under too sharply at base. 

Such a horse, going smooth and true, neither paddling or 
toeing in forward, nor as we say straddling behind, will always 
command a top price in the market, provided he has been edu- 
cated, and abounds in nervous energy. Form, size, color, 
symmetry, and substance are essentials, but these do not insure 
the road horse. To these must be added individuality, the result 
of breeding. It manifests itself in what we term nervous 
energy, the up and get there. It is the power of heredity, so 
desirable, so necessary. To secure this there must be a high 
ideal and a fixed determination in breeding. 

A writer says, — " Absolute perfection of form in the horse 



82 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

is unknown. However numerous his good qualities may be, 
there are certain to be some defects. It is fortunate if the 
defects are such as are, in some degree, compensated by supe- 
rior formation of other parts of the body — especially of those 
bearing close relation to the defective point. A good quality 
may sometimes tend to annul a defect in proximity to it. A 
short neck, for instance, is not so objectionable if the head is 
light, gay, and well attached, the withers prominent, and the 
shoulders fine and well set. A head common-looking in other 
respects is greatly relieved if the ears are well placed, tiie ej'es 
expressive, and the countenance bright. A long back is some- 
what compensated by a muscular body, short, well-attached 
loins, and strong croup ; and a short and narrow back by a 
deep and long chest. The same theory holds good in other 
parts of the bodily mechanism where strength of muscle and 
the character of the joints are concerned. There are some 
•defects, that are impossible to remed}'. Nothing will compen- 
sate for want of volume of lung, or a defective digestive appa- 
ratus, not forgetting the old proverb, 'No hoof, no horse.' 

" To look for absolute perfection in a horse, then, is but to 
chase a will o' the wisp, according to the scientists." 

It is an uncommon thing to find a choice roadster and a 
race winner in the same animal. They are to be seen but they 
are rare. Success on the track with the horse, as in the 
gj'mnasium with the athlete, depends upon the excessive devel- 
opment of certain muscles. The moment the work of balanc- 
ln<y begins there must be a falling away from the extreme in 
anv. The two-minute trotter cannot be expected to take a 
carriage over the hills at the rate of eight or ten miles an hour. 
In either case something must be sacrificed. The horse on the 
plow or cart develops muscles which retard action at the trot 
and acquires habits which restrict and control, one being that 
of slow walking. The eternal fitness of things enters in to 
protect as well as prevent. 

Admitting the nature of the demand the important question 
presenting itself is " What line of breeding will insure the road- 
horse .'' " 

Unfortunately there are no established lines of breeding in 
the American horse industry. It has been a leap-frog method. 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 83 

There has been an utter want of continuity in this field. I do 
not recall a breeder who has by systematic line breeding 
established a pre-potent family. While France, for at least 
two hundred years, has been carrying forward this work under 
strict governmental supervision, the custom here has been to 
patronize one stallion after another, hoping for a fortunate 
" nick." Violent outcrosses have been made but the acciden- 
tal results secured have not been followed to a conclusion or a 
certainty. The next decade will witness a marked change as 
speed producers narrow their operations to certain specific 
lines in sires and dams and thereby increase racing possibilities. 
Likewise the great majority owning trotting bred mares, not 
extreme speed producers, must seek moi^e diligently for pre-po- 
tent road horse sires and occupy the field always open for 
choice road horses of the type just described . 

For this reason I am forced to suggest types rather than 
breeds or families, and believing that greater importance should 
be attached to the breeding of the brood- mares, it may be 
strongly urged that their individual characteristics be carefully 
studied, and also those of their dams and grand-dams. If as 
Professor Robertson well says the time to begin the education 
of a heifer is four years before it is born, the time to begin the 
training of the colts should be at least six years prior to their 
appearance. 

The influence of mothers must be exalted. You never saw 
a good horse or man having a poor mother. It is the unselfish- 
ness of motherhood which gives us speed, road qualities, milk, 
butter, eggs. In each the animal serves others. In the beefy 
or draft type the opposite appears. Keep this thought con- 
stantly in mind and always avoid brood mares possessing cold 
blood. 

At some time during the twelve months, that beefy type, 
manifest in depth and fullness of brisket, in thickness of shoul- 
der, straightness of back, roundness of ribs or symmetry of 
parts in your dairy cow will control milk production, and you 
will be the loser. 

No power of yours, no ration you may feed, will overcome 
the influence of blood. Some time it will show itself. So the 
horse tracing to the colder blood of the draft type, showing its 



84 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

presence in hair, quality of bone, lack of firmness in Jips, 
straightness of shoulder, and thickness of wethers will fail when 
the test of present standards is applied, simply because there is 
wanting the pre-potent influence of established road-horse 
sires. Mares are called for to-day, weighing 1,025 to 1,075, 
standing 15-2, of solid color, bay, brown, chestnut, or black, 
fast walkers, ^^ to 5 miles an hour, free roadsters, ready to take 
a carriage and two over these hilly roads, eight miles an hour, 
four or five hours in succession and come home the same da}'. 
Mares with good disposition, sound, intelligent^ and possessing 
an abundance of courage, — the general type approaching that 
found in the well-nigh extinct Morgans. To-day we may well 
sav the Hackney type, though I would not say the Hackney 
mare. The type is almost our ideal for the road horse. vStudy 
the stallion well before patronizing. He should have more of 
size, substance, smoothness of parts, be kind in disposition, 
intelligent, a fast walker, a free, easy, stylish, natural roadster, 
going to his clip without boots or straps or weights, and be- 
cause so large a per cent, of our mares fail in length of back, 
he should be extremely short and strong in coupling. No trot- 
ting family better illustrates the type demanded to-day than the 
Mambrino Patchens. 

Remember I am dealing with types, not animals. The bettei* 
class of Hackneys, like Matchless of Loundessboro, lack only 
the "out and on," as the English put it, to meet the require- 
ment, though a little too beefy in outline to give us the exten- 
sion compatible with road service. The trotting bred French 
Coach are proving with us most valuable sires of road 
horses, the half-blood colts, from mares coming from the 
farms of Maine, not selected, being remarkably uniform in 
conformation, and possessinggreat road powers, unbounded cour- 
age, and free and easy action. Some of the sons of Red Wilkes 
are proving exceptional in their reproductive capacity in this 
direction, as are sons of Almont when crossed with our Knox 
mares. So I might name others, but it is not my province to 
advertise families but indicate lines of breeding for the type 
wanted. 

With our trotting stock there is wanting the power of hered- 
ity, flowing from continuous lines, to control size, disposition. 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 85 

courage and style for road purposes. Individuals may possess 
it but not families. The breeding of the immediate future 
should be to fix pre-potent powers by direct line breeding, thus 
insuring results otherwise impossible. Then we would expect 
uniformity, whereas now one waits to see if there was a fortu- 
nate " flick." 

If your mares are of the lighter build, the lower and more 
gliding action, be sure that they as individuals are what you 
want to perpetuate. Do n't breed a mare unless the colt, if as 
good as its dam, would be wanted. The day has come when 
the standard of breeding must be raised. The exception to this 
rule would be the passive mare whose colts partake largely of 
the characteristics of the sire. Having this class of mares, 
strong in their trotting proclivities, look for sires to the Ben 
Franklin-Knox, Daniel Lamberts, or other Morgan families or 
the French Coach. I firmly believe that in this way a class of 
superior gentlemen's drivers may be forthcoming. 

Remember that, if the farmer is raising horses for his own 
use only he has a perfect right, it is his duty, to raise those that 
suit his individual taste and requirements; but if he expects to 
sell horses oft' the farm, it is his duty, and will certainly be to 
his greater profit, to raise horses that suit the taste and the 
requirements of his customers. 

For this reason I have outlined the lines of breeding which, 
followed intelligently, will insure greater uniformity, in type, 
meet the demands of the higher market, and still furnish the 
farmer with the opportunity to avail himself of all the labors of 
the specialist. This is trotting stock and if speed is promised 
buyers will always stand ready to purchase and speculate on the 
same, but base your operations on the road-horse standard. 
If this seems high it is so because the market calls for nothing 
else, and coming years will prove that quality hi the individ- 
ual is, after all, the prime essential, whether in man or beast. 
Horses have sold on pedigree, but pedigree must be relegated 
to its proper sphere. Horses have sold high on registered 
numbers, but this standard is getting crowded, and room must 
be made for the individual. If pedigree insures merit, we need 
it; if the standard number tells of real worth, it is an essential 
not to be overlooked ; but the day for these, indepentlent of the 



86 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

animal, to have any value has gone with the "tin-cup" records. 
It is the individual carrying evidence of worth which is called 
for. 

Which class you will breed must depend upon your surround- 
ings, pasturage, and especially your own individual tastes and 
leanings. If four miles an hour is your capacity, do n't breed 
trotters, for it will be a constant struggle not to yoke them ; if 
the plow team is your fancy, do n't try for roadsters — as five 
miles an hour will be their limit. If the sulky seat is the dear- 
est spot on earth to you, do n't breed sheep or Percherons, else 
you will wake some day to find them booted, strapped, and 
hitched to a " bike." 

Wreck and ruin may be seen all along the way, simply be- 
cause men have attempted to bore a square hole with an auger. 
It has been the curse of agriculture that men have persisted in 
staying in while all the time their thoughts and desires were 
somewhere else. There must be enthusiasm born of genuine 
love for the occupation, in order for success to be possible, and, 
in this industry, a sub-division which will establish distinct 
classes. Possessing the mares and having made the matings, 
the question of care and feeding enters in. 

Give the brood mare regular service, and along the line 
you desire the offspring should excel in. If speed or the road, 
let her out for short distances, and always at the highest rate. 
Keep in good healthy condition. Avoid extremes. Grain-feed 
as well as hay. When colt appears be sure it has an abun- 
dance of nourishing food. Commence its education at an early 
date, establishing friendly relations with each one the first 
day. Keep oats in the pasture where the colts can find them. 
Do n't crowd in winter. Do n't neglect. Give regular rations- 
Look rather to steady growth than to extended abdomens. Feed 
oats and roots if possible daily, also skimmed milk ; but let the 
quantity be tempered with judgment. Early cut, clean hay for 
the colts. Protect from exposure. An hour in the cold rain or 
bleak winds of winter will cost the owners dollars. There can 
be no such thing as remaining stationary ; the colt will either 
gain or lose, every day. If it gains the cost may be ten cents 
a pound, if it loses it will cost four times as much to recover. 
Looking at the problem solely as a source of revenue the only 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 8/ 

course to follow is to make growth every clay. Instead of wait- 
ing six years for maturity the colt must go on the market fully 
grown, well developed, and educated when four. There 
is no time to discuss the result of early maturity, the proces- 
sion is marching and we must keep step if we would be in at 
the finish. Make it a rule, without exceptions, that nothing is 
to be taught the colts which afterwards you would have them 
forget. Do as you like with the children but be honest with the 
colts. Let every step be positive and definite. This applies to all 
stock. The first jear should tell the story. Begin early with the 
horse alphabet and do n't be in a hurry to put the youngsters 
into advanced classes. Steady work, steady growth, and 
steady improvement should be the motto. The colt thus taught 
is ready for the road as soon as large enough to haul the cart. 

Never break a colt. You will always spoil it if you attempt. 
You can educate up, but you always break doxvn. The more 
active the brain power of the colt, the more completely its ed- 
ucation is balanced, the safer it is in every place. There is 
reason to fear man or beast with only a single idea, but as intel- 
ligence increases there is safety. This puts a premium on 
brains and it is about the only thing which should be above 
par. In the profitable horse-breeding of to-morrow the brains 
of both man and animal will play a more important part than 
in the past. Hence it cannot be urged too strongly upon breed- 
ers, in order that, appreciating the situation fully, they may be 
prepared to act understandingly. 

The horse of to-morrow for the specialist will have its nose 
turned toward the two minute mark, and some dav that will be 
reached, but not the limit of speed. That is an unknown 
quantity and ever will be. The horse of to-morrow will be 
found by the farmer among the other classes. Nothing short 
of diligent searching, with intelligent eyes, sharpened by 
an active spirit of competition, will reveal the hidden treasure. 
In this search will come the fullest recompense, not alone in 
financial returns, the profit resulting from selling the raw 
products at home for more than market prices, but also because 
he who focuses all his thought and energy upon any of the prob- 
lems of nature touching the hidden springs of life, reaches out 
into the infinite ocean of knowledgre and brings back food 



bo NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICUI.TURE. 

which strengthens and stimulates the latent powers and swells 
the volume of individual knowledge and happiness. 

If you love the noble horse, that grand friend of humanity, 
go out and breed with one thought and purpose, that of im- 
provement ; discard the faulty, unsound, indiflerently bred 
mares. Intensify desirable traits, avoiding extremes. Look 
well to dispositions in sire and dam. Stand by your purpose. 
Crowd it full of enthusiasm. Hold closely to your ideal. 
Study your animals b}' parts. Forget the whole and as you 
look for excellencies watch closely for defects. Think of every 
part as you would have it were it possible for you to build to 
suit your standards. Keep close touch with others in same 
line of breeding, and especially with speeialists on whom all 
must depend for fresh blood. Earnest, honest, intelligent, 
continuous effort will win success. 

One great want with our agricultural workers is continuity 
of effort. Frequent changes destroy all standards and prevent 
tiiat fixedness of purpose which gives character and permanence 
to any business. Finally: Make it a rule never to let the op- 
portunity pass to sell at a fair profit. If the stock has any merit 
or individualitv such opportunities will come — and the wise 
breeder will accept them. Do n't blame the industry if, holding 
after offer is made, you lose. Keep the best fillies for breeding. 

In these ways there are dollars for the New England farmers. 
You must have horses. Why not keep trappy, active, nervy 
mares, every one of which will give you a colt yearly and thus 
add to the income without loss or injury to your business? The 
conditionssurrounding the farmer are more favorable than those 
which hem in the manufacturer, but they are exacting. There are 
no rich plums lying at your feet, no fortunes to be made in a day. 
Only by patient toil, by intelligent, well-directed effort, by fix- 
edness of purpose and faithful continuance in well doing, only 
by being your best and doing your best, every day, in every 
spot and place can there be any true measure of success. This 
applies alike to the horse industry, the dairy, the orchard, the 
sheep-fold, everywhere. Sometimes I wonder if we are thank- 
ful as we ought to be for competition which seems to push us 
to the wall but really lifts us out of the ruts and sends us forth 
on higher levels to reap a better harvest. Exacting as are the 



THE HORSE FOR TO-MORROW. 89 

conditions which hem us in to-day the farmer of New England, 
bred upon these hills and under the shadow of the great moun- 
tains, is master, or may be, and out of the toil and study and 
application better days will come, days richer in manhood, 
richer in our appreciation of life and its opportunities, and rich- 
er in financial results coined out of the trained brain, the hands 
being willing servants. 



GOOD ROADS. 



BY ALONZO TOWLE, M. D., FREEDOM, MEMBER OF STATE BOARD OF 
AGRICULTURE. 



An eminent writer has said : " The road is that physical sign 
or symbol by which you will best understand any age or 
people. If they have no I'oads they ai^e savages, for the road is 
the creation of man, and the type of civilized society." 

This statement seems to have been based upon the hypothesis 
that the highways are a living power of themselves, and the 
state of civilization of a people depends largely upon their con- 
struction and maintenance. Two questions present themselves 
at once for solution, viz. : 

1. Is this statement true .^ 

2. If true ought so important a matter as the building of our 
highways be left to local caprice as they have been and are 
to-day in our own State, or should it be systematized by compe- 
tent legislation and made compulsory upon the people.? 

I. Are the roadways not only the index, but the agents as 
well, of the culture to which a commonwealth has attained? 
If a people have no roads they are savages. This is true, and 
the first advance in social life and interchange of commerce 
necessitates roads, — first it is a path of the footman upon 
whose shoulders the burdens are carried, — then the paths of the 
pack animals which hav5 been substituted for man as a beast of 
burden, — another step in advance and it is the rude road for 
wheeled vehicles with their dead axles, then the better road for 
the thorough-brace, and still better for the " elliptic" spring, 
and now the demand has come for the pneumatic tire. A 
glance over the past and it is easy to see how your highways 
in Belknap county have been the index of the advance of civili- 
zation, but to what extent have they been a means to increase 



GOOD ROADS. 9I 

that advance? Certainly a very powerful means. For of what 
practical benefit would our wheeled vehicles, with all their 
modern appurtenances, be to us to-day, if we had no roads over 
which they could be worked? Inventive genius may give us 
improved machinery for the cultivation of our farms, but unless 
we first fit our land for the working of the same we can derive 
no benefit from it. It is conceded that the Romans were the 
best road builders in the ancient world, and when a hundred 
million people acknowledged her military and political power, 
it was a common saying " all roaHs lead to Rome." Her roads 
were a part of the machinery by which she governed the 
world. The Appian Way of historic renown is typical of the 
Roman roads and extended from Rome to Brindusium, a dis- 
tance of 350 miles. Under the first Napoleon a system of road 
building was developed which has no superior. Under this 
system some sixty-eight thousand miles of national and state 
roads have been constructed which make travel by the high- 
way a pleasure, and has reduced the cost of transportation 
of freight to a minimum. The superb roads of France give her 
at once a source of national strength and national pride. 
Napoleon's military achievements were largely due to roads he 
had previously constructed. 

Mr. Studebaker says : " If there had been a government road 
as good as the old national post road leading from Fortress- 
Monroe through Yorktown and Williamsburg to Richmond, 
McClellen might have ended the war in 1863. As it was, his 
army not only had to struggle against a gallant opposing force 
in its advance on the confederate capitol, but to contend as 
well, foot, horse, and artillery, for every rod of the way through 
unfathomable mud." 

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, England's 
system of road building was similar to that of our own. 
Macaulay describes the roads of England during the last of the 
17th century and the first of the iSth in these words : " On the 
best lines of communication the ruts were deep, the descents 
precipitous. Often the mud lay deep on the right and the left, 
and onlv a narrow tract of firm ground rose above the quag- 
mire. It happened almost every day that coaches stuck fast 
until a team of cattle could be procured from a neighboring; 



92 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



farm to tug them out of the slough." This state of things con- 
tinued until the commencement of the present century when 
Macadam and Talford revolutionized the whole system of road 
construction. To-day no authority fails to recognize the supe- 
riority of the highways of England in these roads, and no one 
fails to appreciate the contrast between the condition of her 
rural people. 

In Germany and the neighboring kingdoms of Belgium and 
Holland the highway is the product of centuries. Every im- 
portant highway in the Empi're is now a graded, macadamized 
road with massive stone culverts and a ditch on either side. 
And they sustain the densest rural population of the world. 

I have mentioned these things that we may get some idea 
of the power behind the people, the condition the highways 
have been in other countries than our own. What of our own 
country and state ? 

If the condition of the highways is an index of the culture of 
the people, then the United Slates as compared with other 
countries has a very low ranking and our own state, which in 
consequence of her summer boarding should rank first, when 
compared with her sister states is far below the average. That 
we as a people rank so far below other nationalities in point of 
civilization and culture we are unwilling to admit and we look 
for a cause why our highways comparatively have received so 
little attention. So long as the needs of our great cities could 
be supplied only by wagons, and the commerce of the state and 
nation depended upon long and well-constructed roads, the 
interest in ordinary roads was necessarily maintained. But the 
modern development of the railway, which affords a much quick- 
er and easier means of transportation, has tended to destroy the 
interest in common roads, and they have become matters which 
appear at first sight to be only of local importance, and hence 
have been committed to the care of the people of the district in 
which they lie. It is now, however, evident that railways can- 
not take the place of wagon roads ; on the contrary they 
require an improvement of our common roads. For of the five 
hundred million tons of freight annually hauled over the rail- 
ways is not the greater part hauled over our common roads 
either one or both ways to and from? And while from skilled 



GOOD ROADS. 93 

engineering the cost of freight on the railway has been reduced 
to 6-IO of one cent per mile per ton we are hauling the same 
over our roads at a cost of from 5 to 20 cents per ton per mile. 

General Stone, at the head of the Government Office of Road 
Inquiry at Washington, says : " The loss to the people of the 
United States in consequence of poor roads, in transporting 
freight, is $623,000,000 annually." You and I, fellow farmers,^ 
are sharers of this loss. How? Well, let's see. Carefully con- 
ducted experiments show that the number of pounds traction 
required to move a ton on level pavement is 33 lbs. ; on macad- 
amized road 44 pounds ; on thin macadam 62 ; on gravel road 
of good character 140 ; showing that it requires about five 
times the amount of traction to move a ton on a good gravel 
road than it does on a pavement, and I will allow you to judge 
what is the probable number of pounds required on your roads 
to move the same. 

General Gilmore says: " If we assume that the amount of 
traffic between two towns ten miles apart requires the constant 
service of fifty horses with carts weighing 2^ tons inclusive of 
load, upon a good Macadamized road, the additional horses 
required to perform the same labor on other roads will be 
shown by the following table : 

Good Macadarnlzed road, 50 

Dirt road in good hard condition, 93 

Broken stone road with ruts and mud, 112 

Dirt road covered with one and one half inches of sand, 245 

Inasmuch as the Macadam may not seem within our reach I 
cite your attention to the comparison between the dirt road in 
good, hard condition and the dirt road covered with i^ in. of 
sand much like our own — 93 to 245 — a ratio of about i to 3 ; 
or in other words it requires 3 times the number of horses to 
do the certain amount of labor specified, upon such roads as 
we have, than it would upon such roads as it is our privilege 
to have. 

Every unit of friction which is encountered is a measurable 
element of cost, either in time, power, or damage, to the road 
and carriage. Every foot of distance he traverses, the wagoner 
is incurring a tax, and were it possible to estimate the imper- 



94 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ceptible tax we are annually paying in unnecessary wear and 
tear of horses, wagons, and harnesses, it would exceed the 
amount of state, county, and town taxes combined. It is not 
only an individual loss, but a loss to all, for no one receives 
any benefit from time or money thus expended. The concep- 
tion of a road tax and a clear idea as to the frequent enormity 
of the imposition are the fundamental notions which we should 
fix in our minds. The question of common ways has been 
treated incidentally and with no emphasis at all commensurate 
with its importance. 

I am proud to say that our legislators of two years ago took 
the first step in advance. In time it will come to be perceived 
that the construction of highwa3'S demands a range of knowl- 
edge, and a capacit}' of adapting means to ends, which are re- 
quired in but few of the branches of engineering. 

Properly to construct or repair a highway demands an inti- 
mate knowledge of the geology of the country which it trav- 
erses. To most men a rock is a rock, whether adhesive in nature 
or fragile ; and soil is soil whether it is retentive of water or 
porous, and even experience seldom tells them the difference 
in the value of the substances in road building. The system of 
choosing the road surveyors which consists simply in the tax- 
payers of a road district taking the otiice in turn., without refer- 
ence to fitness for the work, tends to perpetuate itself, and render 
any progress impossible. There would be just as much sense 
in intrusting the construction of railroads to the inexperienced 
and uneducated man, as there is in leaving the construction of 
the country roads to men selected by such a system. 

The builder of the country road should be as well educated 
as the railroad engineer, and the money appropriated for high- 
ways should be expended each year in such a manner, that the 
road so far as constructed would be a continual object lesson to 
the people. A lack of means prevents a complete revolution 
at once in all of our highways, and this leads me to another 
division of my subject. 

Our system of raising money is not right. Our roads are 
common property. They are for the benefit of all ; the mer- 
chant, the banker, the manufacturer, the lawyer, the doctor, 
everybody, and everybodv should help to pay for them. As it 



GOOD ROADS. 95 

is now the people of a given town or district are assessed to 
pay for tlie construction and raaintenance of their own roads. 
Owing to the sparcity of population, and comparatively small 
amount of taxable pioperty, with a large mileage of road, it is 
beyond question an impossibility for the rural people to construct 
and maintain good roads. 

" If every city in the state should construct many miles of the 
best Macadam roads into the richest and most productive of its 
outlying towns, the increased traffic caused by the improved 
facilities for getting into said town would increase the volume 
of business to such an extent as to amply repay them for their 
outlay." The highways of our municipalities, in many in- 
stances, are as much used by those who dwell without their 
borders, as by their own inhabitants, and we may with reason 
entertain the idea that the state has a right to protect its people 
against the vile, discriminating taxation which bad highways 
inflict. 

Says John C. Tanner : "I firmly believe that the great hindrance 
to the prosperity of the farmers of the United States to-day is the 
lack of good and substantial national, state, and county roads. 
Wherever such roads have been constructed they have enhanced 
the value of the farmer's land, and have given increased value 
to all the products of his labor. If a highway can be provided 
by which a farmer can haul to market with one horse that which 
at the present time requires two, and if this can be done in one 
day instead of three or four, it is palpable that he is benefited 
just in that proportion. If they are given good roadways, de- 
pend upon it, half of what they complain of will be removed." 

Hear then the summary : Good roads practically shorten dis- 
tances, encourage inter-communication between town and coun- 
try, increase social intercourse, invite summer visitors, benefit 
trade, give better attendance at church and school, enhance 
the value of all adjacent properties, and eftect a large saving 
in money, uselessly expended as an imperceptible tax. How 
to obtain such roads is the great question which confronts us. 

In all foreign countries where wagon roads are maintained at 
a high state of perfection the expense of the roads is shared by 
the general government, by the state government, by the county, 
and by individuals whose property is adjacent to the roadway. 



96 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

There is an official of recognized ability, who takes charge of 
the main roads and requires of his subordinates a complete re- 
port at frequent intervals. Julius Caesar at one time had charge 
of the roads of the Roman empire. Under Trisaquet the 
famous roads of France were built, and Thomas Telford was 
the first competent road commissioner of England. 

In like manner in Germany, Belgium, and Holland the prin- 
cipal roads are built and maintained by the general government. 
We might include also British Columbia. In Baden the duty 
of maintaining the highway falls }^ upon the parish (or town), 
^ upon the district or county in which the road is situated, and 
y^ upon the state. 

But it is evident that our state government is the largest unit 
of a legislative nature from which we can reasonably expect 
direct help. That it may not seem that we are the pioneers in 
the effort to secure such help I call your attention to the fact 
that already eighteen of our sister states have enacted legislative 
measures to this end, not taking the same step but all moving 
in the same line. 

1. Substitution of money for labor tax. 

2. Local assessment for road construction according to 
benefits. 

3. Construction by township with power to issue bonds. 

4. Construction by counties. 

5. State highway commissioners. 

6. Direct state aid to road building. 

7. Building of state roads. 

New Jersey and Massachusetts have taken the lead, in New 
Jersey the abutting land owners paying one tenth of the cost, 
the state one third, and the county the remainder. 

Under this law two miles of road was built in 1892, twenty- 
five in 1S93, and sixty-four in 1894. 

In Massachusetts a permanent highway commission has been 
constituted having authority to adopt any road as a state high- 
way when petitioned, to be constructed and maintained as such, 
if the legislature make appropriation therefor, one fourth of the 
cost to be borne by the county in which the road is built and 
three fourths by the state. In view of the precedent established 
long ago by foreign countries and the interest now manifested 



GOOD ROADS. 97 

by many of our sister states in favor of good roads, it remains 
for us to determine what the public necessity and convenience 
of our commonwealth require. So strong is the motive of self- 
government that we must expect a certain amount of resistance 
against an invasion into an ancient custom of a people. Some- 
one says, " Men will not bend their wits to examine whether 
the things wherewith they have been accustomed be good or 
evil." They must be taught to see that improved roads will in- 
crease the value of their farms ; that the products will thereby 
be increased ; that the cost of the goods they consume will 
thereby be diminished ; and finally that their social condition 
will thereby be greatly improved. 

Hon. Edward Burrough, president of the State Board of New 
Jersey, says that on the new stone road from Merchantville to 
Camden, his teams haul eighty-five to one hundred baskets of 
potatoes where they formerly hauled only twenty-five. Mr. 
Burrough says further that one of their counties has issued 
$450,000 of 4 per cent, bonds and put down sixty miles of stone 
roads averaging sixteen feet wide, and though they pay the 
taxes to meet the interest on these bonds their tax rate is now 
lower than it was before the roads were built. This happens 
in consequence of the appreciated value of adjoining lands. 

Mr. Garfield, speaking at the Michigan Engineers' Conven- 
tion in 1S93, said that in his township while farms have gen- 
erally been declining in value, the building of a gravel road 
four miles in length has increased the value of those adjoining 
25 to 40 per cent. That similar results would pertain to the 
farms of New Hampshire needs no convincing argument. 

The people must be taught that the burden of taxation will 
not be materially increased. Of course we cannot expect to get 
something for nothing. Neither is it expected that we should 
construct highways which will be substantially good for fifty 
years without the future generations who are to enjoy them 
sharing the expense of construction. Authorize the state to 
issue scrip to the amount necessary for the purpose, payable in 
twenty or thirty years, the premium of their sale would so far 
balance the interest on the same together with a sinking fund 
sufficient to cancel them at maturity, that the average farmer 
would never realize the increase of taxation. Make figures for 



pS NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

yourself and be convinced of the truths of this statement, and 
while you are thus improving them, I venture to make some 
suggestions of improvements for the benefit of those to whom 
has been given the charge of maintaining our highways. 

Water is the greatest enemy to our roads. There are two rules 
which must be observed in order to maintain a road in good 
condition: i, take the water out; and 2, keep the water out. 
Thorough drainage, both surface and subsoil, is the basis of all 
road improvement. The first is accomplished by building an 
embankment of sufficient height to be at least above the water 
flow from extraordinary rainfalls, and sufficiently crowned to 
shed the water readily and wide enough to accommodate the 
travel and not of greater width. The road should have 
open ditches on each side of sufficient capacity to carry all flood 
waters from the roadway and from lands adjoining into the 
nearest water course. The open ditches should have such a 
perfect grade that no water will find a lodgment along the line 
of the road on either side. The second is accomplished by two 
lines of tile drains placed parallel with the road, one on each 
side at the base of the embankment. The ideal surface for the 
wheels is that which is obtained in the continuous steel bar of a 
well-constructed railway, and the aim in building the common 
road should be to approach as nearly as possible the conditions 
which are aflbrded by such a track. A pebble in the road over 
which the wagon has to be lifted requires an unnecessary ex- 
penditure of traction. Sands are essentially unsuited for use as 
road material. Scraping the mud from the gutters into the 
cradle-holes which the wheels have formed in the trackway 
proves totally unserviceable. Coarse gravel with rough sur- 
faces, heavily rolled, is always well suited for road making. 
As many pounds can be hauled over a hard clay road in a dry 
condition as on a stone road. 

I cannot expect to exhaust a subject of so much importance 
in a single hour, but rather to awaken an interest in the neces- 
sity of legislative measures to the end that the money appropri- 
ated for road purposes may be more judiciously expended, 
our highways made better, and the tax for the same more 
equally distributed. I would not be understood to ask the state 
to assume entire control of our highways. But it seems justice 



GOOD ROADS. 99 

and equity to the rural people that the main thoroughfares in 
every county be built and maintained by funds from the public 
treasury, allowing the county in which the road is built and the 
property adjacent to bear a part in proportion to the peculiar 
benefits derived thereby. I will not attempt further to dicuss de- 
tails at this time but urge you to give heed to the voice that 
crieth, — " Prepare ye the way of the people, make straight in 
the desert an highway. Every valley shall be exalted and every 
mountain and hill shall be made low, and the crooked shall be 
made straight, and the rough places plain ; — cast up the high- 
way ; — gather out the stones and lift up a standard among the* 
people." 



THE GRANGE. 



BY HON. ALPHA MESSER, ROCHESTER, VT., LECTURER NATIONAL GRANGE. 



• The Grange came into existence a little more than a quarter 
of a century ago as a necessity of the times. It originated in 
the mind of Mr. O. H. Kelley, a man of New England birth 
and education, who went to Minnesota in his early manhood 
and engaged in farming. In 1864 he became connected with 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington, and at the close 
of the war he was commissioned to visit the Southern states, 
which had been in hostility to the government, for the purpose 
of obtaining reliable information in regard to the condition of 
the South, more especially the rural population, and report the 
same to the Department at Washington. It was while engaged 
in this work, that Mr. Kelley conceived the idea of a secret 
society of agriculturists as a means of restoring kindly feelings 
between these two sections of the country, which, from almost 
the first formation of the government, had been more or less 
divided upon sectional issues ; he intended it also as a means of 
social enjoyment and for the protection and advancement of 
farming interests in all parts of the country. In his experiences 
of New England life, Mr. Kelley could see the necessity of a 
fraternal organization in this section of the country as a means 
of bringing the farming population in closer touch and sympa- 
thy with each other, to break up the isolation of farm life, and 
to bring the rural population nearer to the front in social, busi- 
ness, and political life. And if New England needed such an 
organization, much more was it needed in the great West, with 
its more sparse and much less homogeneous population. 

The farmers of the South, passing from the cruel ravages of war, 
disheartened, discouraged, and seemingly abandoned to their fate, 
surely needed all the sympathy, encouragement, and fraternity 



THE GRANGE. lOI 

that it would be possible for them to get by coming in closer 
touch with each other, and from the influence of a kindly spirit 
which would emanate from a great fraternal organization, em- 
bracing all parts of our country. Associated with Mr. Kelley at 
the formation of the order were six other men, namely, William 
Saunders, Rev. A. B. Grosh, William M. Ireland, J. R. 
Thompson, F. M. McDowell, and Rev. John Trimble, the 
present efficient secretary of the National Grange. These men 
were the founders of the order. But in giving this bit of history 
in regard to the Grange it would not be just if I did not men- 
tion the name of Miss Carrie A. Hall, of Boston, Mass., a niece 
of Mr. Kelley, who was a most important factor in the forma- 
tion of the organization, and who merits an honorable place by 
the side of the founders of the order, because it was Miss Hall 
who suggested the idea of giving woman full membership in 
the new organization, which in my judgment is its crowning 
glory. After much consideration it was decided to call the 
new organization the Patrons of Husbandry. The units of the 
organization were to be called granges and as the word grange 
means home, the granges would be the community homes of 
the members. 

Unlike most other organizations of a similar nature, the 
National Grange was first organized, at Washington, D. C, 
December 4, 1S67. It was not until the following year, April 
16, 1868, that the first subordinate grange was organized at 
Fredonia, N. Y. For several years the growth of the order 
was very slow. The farmers of the nation could not be 
made to see the necessity of organization. They were not 
accustomed to organizations of any kind. They knew that 
in the preceding years which followed the close of the war, 
when classes were being organized, they knew that corpora- 
tions, trusts, monopolies, and companies of various kinds were 
springing into existence on every hand, and that the unorgan- 
ized farming class were largely the prey of them all. They 
also knew that the lawyers, the doctors, the merchants, the 
manufacturers, and almost every other class in the community 
had their organizations for the protection and advancement of the 
various industries involved, but still the farmers held aloof from 
organization. The time did come, however, when they broke 



I02 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

loose from the self-imposed chains of isolation and distrust of 
themselves and their abilities, which had bound them down in 
semi-servitude to other classes and which were growing more 
and more burdensome and exacting as the years went by. The 
tenets and principles of the grange as formulated and proclaim- 
ed by the founders of the order and other kindred minds, 
which had been drawn around them, both men and women, 
took root in the hearts and minds of the farming population in 
all parts of the country from the great lakes to the Gulf, from 
the turbulent Atlantic to the golden shores of the Pacific, 
granges springing up as if by magic all over this broad expanse 
of country, and during the compai'atively short period of the 
existence of the order, nearly 37,000 subordinate granges have 
been organized with more than a million and a half of mem- 
bers. But it should not be understood that there are at the 
present time this number of subordinate granges, or that the 
existing membership reaches these enormous figures. Very 
many who joined the order in its early days have passed to 
the other shore, and many others for various causes have 
ceased to be active workers, but wherever the grange became 
firmly established, whether in the north or south, in the east 
or west, and its truths and principles became implanted in the 
minds of the farming population, therein it exists to-day with 
greater or less activity, because principles never die. In the 
South and in portions of the West the order from various causes 
has become weak. In many instances its scope and mission 
were not fully comprehended by the membership. In some 
sections it was used as a financial scheme, in others it was used 
as a farmers' political organization, but in either case the 
result was a failure because the grange was not intended for 
these purposes and the granges became dormant. 

Other farmers' organizations, oft-shoots of the grange, sprung 
into existence and for the time being claimed and received the 
attention and support of a large body of the farming popula- 
tion. The Farmers' Wheel, the Farmers' Alliance, North and 
South, The Farmers' Mutual Relief Association, the Patrons 
of Industry and other similar organizations of less note, lived, 
flourished, and have passed away, hai'dly a vestige of any of 
them remaining at the present time. While these organiza- 



THE GRANGE. IO3 

tions were a great injury to the grange in those sections where 
they flourished, retarding its growth and depleting its ranks, 
yet they were not altogether a lasting injury to the order. In 
a measure at least they taught the farmers the value of organi- 
zation, and what can be accomplished by farmers when unity of 
thought prevails in regard to the object or objects sought ; and 
as these organizations went down, hundreds and thousands of 
their members have returned, and are returning, to renew their 
allegiance and pledge their fealty to the grand old grange 
organization which has survived all others and is to-day 
stronger than ever before. There never has been a time in the 
history of the order when the grange was as popular among all 
classes as it is to-day. Its unpopularity in its early days arose 
over a misconception of the objects and aims of the order 
which are so clearly implied in its declaration of purposes. 
To-day the membership realize that the grange stands for what 
is noblest and best in farm life, and to this end they strive to 
increase their social enjo_vments, to add to their usefulness and 
capabilities by intellectual culture and development, by coopera- 
tion and a better knowledge of trade and commerce to increase 
their national prosperity and to have a better knowledge and 
greater care for their political interests. These perhaps are 
the leading characteristics or features of the grange. 

The conditions of farm life are such that in the very nature 
of things farmers cannot have the opportunities for social cul- 
ture and enjoyment, that are within the easy reach of most 
other classes in society. In daily life farmers live away from 
each other and they need some special means to enable 
them to break up the isolation of their lives and the lives 
of their families and give them the social enjoyments which 
their natures so much crave. Statistics have been given to 
show that insanity among the farming population, and espe- 
cially among women on the farm, is greater in proportion to 
numbers than in most other classes. Experts and those who 
have made a study of this fearful malady and its causes, do not 
hesitate to say that this increase of insanity from farm life over 
other occupations is due wholly to a lack of social privileges and 
enjoyments and they also say that in these states where the 
grange has broken up the isolation of farm life there has been 



I04 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

a perceptible decrease of the number of insane from the farming 
population, showing most conclusively that the grange is of 
almost infinite value to farmers in this direction alone. The 
grange has a grand record for usefulness in the past. It may 
have made mistakes, but to err is human. No other civil 
organization covering the same period of time has ever drawn 
to itself such a vast membership covering such a wide expanse 
of territory with such diverse economic and political views. 

The wonder is that during the period of its existence, in some 
respects the most important in the history of the nation, that 
more mistakes were not made and that the diverse views of the 
members on political and economic questions should have had 
so little effect upon its progress and influence as an order, and 
produced so little dissension in its ranks. This significant fact, 
however, most closely demonstrates the truth of the claim that 
the Order of Patrons of Husbandry is non-partisan and non- 
sectarian, and that it is in deed, as well as in word and theory, 
a great national fraternity of farmers with a membership now 
numbered by the tens of thousands in nearly every state in our 
broad domain. Not only in its work of building up farm 
homes and making them purer and better and their inmates 
the real possessors of a higher and better manhood and woman- 
hood does it present its claims for recognition and support 
from the farming class, but it also has claims upon every other 
class in the community for its successful efforts for reform in 
legislation and for the enactment of many wise and judicious 
laws, both state and national, which are for the best interests of 
all the people. 

The grange to-day has a bright future before it, and if its 
members are but true to the principles of the order, true to 
themselves, and their convictions of right and duty, what has 
been accomplished in the years that have passed, is but the 
beginning of a more glorious record for the education and ele- 
vation of the farming population, and for the interests of 
humanity at large, more than has ever been achieved by any 
other order or association which the world has ever known. 



FRUIT INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. 



BY C. C. SHAW, MILFORD, PRESIDENT STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The subject assigned for our consideration for the next few 
moments is that of the fruit industry of New England, a sub- 
ject upon which we are not likely to say too much or pay 
undeserved attention. It is the beautiful handmaid of agri- 
culture. And in the words of Wilder, " Fruits are the overflow 
of Nature's bounty, gems from the skies, dropped down to 
beautify the earth, charm the sight, gratify the taste, and admin- 
ister to the enjoyments of life," and the more we realize this, 
the more shall we appreciate the divine goodness to us and our 
duty of providing them to others. 

Fine fruit is the flower of commodities. It is the most per- 
fect union of the useful and the beautiful known to man. Trees 
full of soft green foliage, blossoms fresh with spring's beauty, 
fruits rich and beautiful in color, melting and luscious to the 
palate, — such are the treasures of the orchard and garden 
temptingly offered to every landholder in this broad domain. 
He who owns a I'od of land in this country in the presence of 
all the pomological wealth of the day and raises only crab apples 
and choke cherries, or none at all, shows a great want of infor- 
mation, or a lamentable lack of enterprise and industry. 

The culture of fruits in New England as an industry is of 
comparatively recent date, scarcely antedating the memory of 
many persons present, while as a luxury its cultivation is co- 
temporaneous with ancient history, and may be said to be a 
prominent factor in the domestic relations of our ancestors, who 
occupied the first garden. There is no doubt that most of the 
fruits of our acquaintance were indigenous to this country in 
their original types, while the pear is undoubtedly of foreign 



I06 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

growth ; and the apple, while our ancestors found a species of 
the tree growing wild, they did not find it tractable and failed 
to make use of it to any extent and i"elied almost entirely upon 
the stock of the old country for their supplies. 

Edward Winslow in writing home to his friends in England 
in 1621 of the beauties of his new country, said : "Here are 
grapes, white and red, and very sweet and strong ; also straw- 
berries, gooseberries, raspberries and plums of three sorts, 
white, black, and red, being almost as good as damsons ; and 
an abundance of roses, white, red, and damask, single but very 
sweet indeed." 

William Wood in a letter to his friends in 1635, said : " The 
strawberries were very abundant and very large, some of them 
being two inches about, and one might gather half a bushel in 
a forenoon : so also of gooseberries, raspberries, whortleberries, 
and currants, which being dried in the sun were little inferior 
to those sold by grocerymen in England." Of cherries he said 
they yielded great stores, which grow in clusters like grapes, 
and much smaller than the English cherry and not as good. 
Of the plums he said they were much better for plums than 
the cherries were for cherries, and black and yellow and about 
the size of damsons, and of reasonable good taste. It is said 
that upon the arrival of the ship Arabella^ at Salem, June 12, 
1630, the common people immediately went ashore and regaled 
themselves with strawberries, which were said to be very fine, 
and were perfection. 

Roger Williams speaking of the strawberry, said it was " the 
wonder of the fruits growing naturally in these parts. In some 
places where the natives have planted I have many times seen 
as many as would fill a good ship within a few miles compass." 
The Rev. Francis Higginson, writing home to England in 1629, 
said : " Excellent vines are here up and down in the woods. 
Our governor hath already planted a vineyard with great hope 
of increase." 

Master Graves in a letter the same year said : " Vines do 
grow here plentifully laden with the biggest grape I have ever 
seen, some of them being four inches about." He further said : 
"■We abound with such things which, next under God, do 
make us subsist, as fish, fowl, deer, and sundry sorts of fruits as 



FRUIT INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. IO7 

muskmelons, watermelons, Indian pumpkins, Indian pease, 
beans and many other odd fruits that I cannot name." 

Under date of March 16, 1629, I find a memorandum of arti- 
cles sent home to England for, including stones of many sorts 
of fruits, as peaches, plums, filberts, cherries, pears, apples, 
quinces, pomegranates ; also wheat, rye, barley, oats, safiron, 
liquorice seed and madder roots, potatoes, hop roots, currants, 
and plants. 

John Josselyn, in an account of his voyage to New England 
in 1663, said : ••' Our fruit trees prosper abundantly, apple trees, 
pear trees, quince, cherry, plum, and barberry trees. I have 
observed with admiration that the kernels sown, suckers 
planted produce as fair and good fruit without grafting as the 
trees from which they were taken." He further said that the 
country was replenished with fair and large orchards, and that 
it was affirmed that a magistrate of the Connecticut colony had 
made five hundred hogsheads of cider from his orchard in one 
year, and that cider was very plentiful in the country, ordinarily 
selling for ten shillings a hogshead and that he had at the tap- 
houses in Boston had an ale quart spiced and sweetened with 
sugar for a groat. 

The first pear tree I find any record of was imported in the 
ship Arabella from England by and with Gov. Winthrop, 
June, 1630. The tree was never grafted and its fruit coarse and 
of inferior quality. 

About 1640 Gov. Prince imported a pear tree and planted it 
on his homestead at Eastham on Cape Cod, which was de- 
scribed in 1S36, nearly two hundred years later, as being a floui"- 
ishing lofty tree, producing on an average fifteen bushels of 
fruit a year. Its fruit was medium in size and poor in quality. 
A part of this tree was standing as late as 1S80, and for aught 
I know, may be still. Another pear tree planted by Mr. 
Anthony Thatcher, Yarmouth, in 1640, produced a fine crop 
of fruit as late as 1872. The first apple tree I find any special 
reference to was planted at Marshfield by a Mr. White in 1648, 
and was alive and bearing fruit as late as 1846. 

From records of the colonies of Massachusetts it seems that 
Governors Endicott and Winthrop were about the first to en- 
gage in the cultivation or propagation of fruit trees. It is 



I08 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

recorded that in 1648 Gov. Endicott traded five hundred three- 
year-old apple trees to Wm. Trask for two hundred and fifty 
acres of land, thus showing the great value of apple trees or 
low value of land, or more probably both. It also appears 
that Gov. Winthrop was propagating trees as early as 1644, 
from a letter to him from Gov. Endicott under date of Feb. 22, 
of that year, in which Mr. Endicott humbly and heartily 
thanked him for the trees sent him, and further said he had not 
sent him any trees because he had not heard from him, but he 
had trees for him, if he pleased to accept of them, etc. 

In April, 1632, Conant's Island in Boston Harbor was 
granted to Governor Winthrop for forty shillings and a yearly 
rent of twelve pence, he promising to plant a vineyard and an 
orchard, of which the fifth of the fruits was to be paid to the 
governor. On the 4th of March, 1634, two years later, the 
general court changed the rent to a hogshead of the best wine 
that shall grow there, to be paid yearly after the death of John 
Winthrop, and nothing before. The grape culture undoubted- 
ly proved a failure, for in 1640, six years later, the general court 
again changed the rent from a hogshead of the best wine to 
two bushels of apples, one to the governor and one to the gen- 
eral court in the winter. 

Paul Dudley, later chief justice of Massachusetts, wrote in 
1726, saying the plants of England, as well as those of the 
field and orchard that have been brought hither, suit mighty 
well with our soil and grow here to perfection. Our apples 
are without doubt as good as those of England and much 
fairer to look to, and so are our pears but we have not all the 
sorts. Our peaches do rather excel those of England, though 
we have not the trouble or expense of walls for our peach 
trees are all standard trees. Mr. Dudley further says : " Our 
people have of late years run so much upon orchards that a 
village near Boston consisting of about forty families made 
nearly three thousand hogsheads of cider in i72i,and in anoth- 
er town of two hundred inhabitants the same year near ten 
thousand hogsheads were made. Some of our trees will make 
six, some seven barrels of cider, but this is not common, and 
the apples will yield from seven to nine bushels for a barrel of 
cider." Of the size of the trees he said he had seen a fine pear- 



FRUIT INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. IO9 

main apple tree that measured, one foot from the ground, 10 
feet and 4 inches round, and had borne 38 bushels of as fine 
pearmains as he had ever seen in one year. Of pear trees he 
knew of one that measured 6 feet 6 inches in girt a yard from 
the ground, and had yielded 30 bushels in one year. 

While the art of grafting and budding was known and prac- 
tised in the old country previous to the settlement of this coun- 
try, it does not appear to have been much, if any, practised 
here previous to 1700, and, it may be said, but very little dur- 
ing the seventeenth century. Indeed, some of the first grafts set 
in my town are still yielding fruit upon my farm and are not 
yet a century old. Cider seems to have been a recognized and 
highly popular beverage of our ancestors up to and well into 
the present century, and the orchards of early New England 
seem to have been planted and cultivated mainly for its pro- 
duction. 

A writer in the Massachusetts Agricultural Repository in 
1814 remarks that much greater encouragement had been given 
to the raising of good fruit than previously, and as the inhabi- 
tants of the great towns began to discriminate in varieties, and 
to pay liberal prices for the best, it was hoped and expected 
that greater attention would be paid by cultivators to the quali- 
ty of their fruits. In 1822 Joseph Breck wrote in his recollec- 
tions that seedling plums, pears, peaches, and cherries, as well 
as apples, were to be found in abundance where there was any 
market, and a portion of them were very good, but down to 
1S20 he did not find any record of fruit trees or scions having 
been imported to any considerable extent. Among the recog- 
nized varieties of apples grown by the early settlers are found 
the names of Hightop Sweet, Pearmain, Red Nonesuch, Non- 
pareil, Long Apple, Blackstone, Tankard, Kreton Pippin, 
Russet, etc. Of the most valuable apples of to-day we find 
the Roxbury Russet, originating at Roxbury, Mass., was intro- 
duced very early in the seventeenth century having been intro- 
duced into the Connecticut colony in 1649, ^he Newtown Pippin, 
originating in Newtown, Long Island, the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. So also the Baldwin, the most valuable 
and popular of all New England apples, originating in Wil- 
mington, Mass., about the middle of the eighteenth century. 



no NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

was not generally introduced to the public until the expiration 
of the first quarter of the present century. It was written by 
Michael Collinson Feb. 20, 1773, that apples were exported to 
England in great quantities for the reason of the failure of the 
English crop that year, but that they, while being an admira- 
ble substitute, were too expensive for common eating, being 
sold for two, three, and even four pence each ; their flavor was, 
however, said to be superior to any produced in England and 
as good as the apples of Italy. It was also written by Ibid 
that apples were exported to the West Indies in considerable 
quantities as early as 1741. In view of our experience and 
modern methods of exporting apples, I am led to think there 
must be a large margin of difference between their views and 
ours relating to quantities. 

The art of hybridizing was first discovered in this country 
undoubtedly by John Bartram in 1739, but as an art was 
not applied in this country to any extent until within the last 
half century, while to-day we are indebted to its practice for 
some of the finest varieties of our small fruits and within the 
last very few years for splendid specimens of the larger fruit. 
There are many nurserymen practising the art at this time and 
one very extensively, who does nothing else, devoting his 
whole time and interest to the producing of new fruits. Have 
we not reason for great hopes for the future of pomology .'' 

The first hothouse built in New England was built by 
Andrew Faneuil and located upon Tremont street, Boston, 
near the present store of Messrs. Houghton & Dutton, while 
the finest of the very early establishments of the kind was that 
of Thomas Hancock, situated upon Beacon street, with the 
hothouse located where the Massachusetts state house now 
stands, and the nursery down the hill on the ground now occu- 
pied by the new extension of the state house and Hancock 
sti^eet. The first nursery in this state to which I find any 
reference was that of John A. and Samuel Wilson of Derry. 
In 1822 Mr. John Lowell of Boston said: "We are utterly 
destitute in New England of nurseries of fruit trees on an 
extensive scale. We have no cultivators on whom we can call 
for a supply of the most common plants of the smaller fruits 
such as strawberries, gooseberries, etc., of the superior kinds. 



FRUIT INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. Ill 

We have no place to which we can go for plants to ornament 
our grounds. We have not a single seedsman who can furnish 
us with fresh seeds or annual flowers on which we can place 
reliance." A year later he asked, " Shall it be said that from 
June to September in our scorching summer a traveler may 
traverse Massachusetts from Boston to Albany and not be able 
to procure a plate of fruit except wild strawberries, blackberries, 
and whortleberries, unless from the hospitality of private 
gentlemen?" 

Again, in 1824, Mr. Lowell, in concluding an address before 
the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, said : 
"As to horticulture the field has been newly explored. From a 
barren wilderness it has become a fertile garden." In my short 
residence in this mutable world, I remember when the Mayduke 
and Kentist cherry could alone be seen in our market, while 
to-day there is no market in the world better supplied than ours 
with every variety of the most delicious cherries. I remember 
when our strawberries were only gathered from the grass fields. 
I remember the first box of cultivated strawberries sent into 
the Boston market. They are now in profusion and of excel- 
lent quality, but still susceptible of vast improvement. Who 
ever heard of an English or Dutch gooseberry or raspberry at 
market twenty-five years since.'' The Geniting, Cattern, Minot 
and Iron pears, some of them execrable, were often seen, but 
not a single delicious variety was known outside the gardens of 
the rich. It was in 1S33 that the newer and finer varieties, 
etc., began to be more generally imported and diffused among 
the people, and from this date I think we may safely assume 
that the interest in improved pomology takes its rise. 

In reviewing the history of fruit culture in New England we 
find that our first settlers were not only impressed with the 
importance of having good supplies of fruits, but immediately 
set themselves to work developing the resources calculated to 
produce the desired results. We find they immediately began 
to cultivate and extend the native fruits, and at the first 
opportunity sent home for supplies of seeds, cuttings, and 
plants of those left behind. The propagating and planting of 
orchards and vineyards was at once commenced ; and while 
vineyards did not seem to flourish to any great extent, apple 



112 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

orchards became very common, and the homesteads were 
scarce that were not supplied with a few pear trees, some of 
which may be found alive to-day, I am told. During all this 
early activity numbers seems to have been the main object, 
wholly regardless of quality ; and here let me say that this con- 
dition of affairs seems to have continued for about two hundred 
years, or to the close of the first quarter of the present century, 
at which time the knowledge of and desire for the better varie- 
ties began to manifest an influence, which finally led to the 
organization of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1828, 
if my memory serves me correctly, from which date orchards 
for the production of cider mainly have given place to the 
orchards of Astrachans, Gravensteins, Baldwins, Spys, etc., 
which now claim the attention of so many of the most enter- 
prising farmers of New England. 

I fear I have already exceeded my allotted time, but before 
closing I want to say to my brother farmers, who have an abun- 
dance of land lying compai'atively idle, and hundreds of seed- 
ling apple trees bearing only cider apples who failed to plant 
their land to trees or graft the trees already grown, and are wast- 
ing their energies upon worthless fruit through a fear of an 
over production, that their fear is entirely unfounded ; that if 
all the laud of the state was devoted to the culture of apples 
there would still be an almost undiminished demand. New 
England and the Middle States together in the last census pro- 
duced only one fifth of the apples grown in the country. 
Think, if you please, of the enormous quantity grown and con- 
sumed. Realize, if you can, that we as a people, yes, that the 
people of all the civilized world, are very fast becoming lovers 
and consumers of fruit. Take courage, grow good fruits, and 
contribute to society that which is sure to compensate you and 
elevate and refine your fellowman. 



EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES Of THE 
GRANGE. 



BY HON. EDWARD WIGGIN, AUGUSTA, MAINE, MASTER MAINE STATE GRANGE. 



I am to speak to you for a short time on the subject of the 
educational advantages of the grange, — a theme that allows 
considerable latitude, as what we term education is capable of 
a far wider interpretation than is generally accorded to it when 
applied merely to the work of the schools. 

The work of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, and its 
claim to recognition by intelligent men and women, must stand 
the same test as that applied to every other movement that 
claims to be in the interest of progress and for the good of the 
race. Cui Bono? is the world's question in regard to all 
works of this kind. 

In order to maintain our standing and support our claims we 
must be able to show not only that there was need of such an 
organization as ours, but also that the order has furnished to 
the agricultural classes of our country the means of educating 
themselves up to that point where they may be capable of 
assuming and maintaining that high position in the social and 
intellectual scale to which the dignity and nobility of their call- 
ing entitle them. 

In this free land no special rank or position is the birthright 
of any man. We have no law af entail, either of property or 
of rank. Every man or woman and every class of men and! 
women are entitled to that rank, and that only, which they are 
willing to fit themselves to take and hold. 

Patrons, we are members of a grand and noble organization, 
embracing in its membership nearly every state in the Union 
and extending its beneficent influences all over our land. 

What, we may inquire, was the need of this organization,- - 
8 



114 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

what are its purposes and aims? What has it done and what is 
it capable of doing for the farmers and for the sons and daugh- 
ters of toil ? 

In considering the question of the need of the organization of 
the Order of Patrons of Husbandry it becomes necessary to 
glance backward through the ages and note what the condition 
of agriculture and of the tillers of the soil lias been in the past 
and what progress has been made. 

In the long history of our planet, since man first came to in- 
habit the earth, what we term antiquity seems but yesterday. 
But when we compare the laborer of antiquit}' with the toiler 
of our own time, and note the difference in their conditions as 
well as in their social rank and culture, they seem separated by 
an immense interval. 

In the ancient civilization industrial arrangements were based 
on serfdom that sprang from war. 

In the never-ceasing contests that were waged between na- 
tions and tribes the prisoners taken on either side became the 
slaves of their captors and were either put to death or com- 
pelled to do servile labor. When agriculture began to be 
somewhat developed captives were no longer killed, but were 
put to work on the land, and the man who did the actual work 
of tilling the soil was the slave of him who owned or occupied 
the land. 

Later on, as advancement was made in architecture, the cap- 
tive slaves were employed on public works. The most won- 
derful structures of antiquity, those immense piles that have 
invoked the wonder and admiration of all succeeding ages, 
were the product of slave labor. Indeed, the ancient empires 
knew nothing of free labor. The man who toiled was ever a 
slave. 

The Great Wall of China, that immense barrier built 250 
years before the birth of Christ, to arrest the onward march of 
the Tartar invader, was built by slave labor. The Pyramids, 
whose lofty sides first greet and reflect the beams of the rising 
sun on the plains of Egypt, were built by slaves. 

The classic monuments along the Mediterranean are the pro- 
duct of slave labor. All the wonderful works of art and archi- 
tecture, beautiful and imposing though they be and worthy of 



EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF THE GRANGE. II5 

our highest admiration, bear witness to the fact that in the 
olden time the man who toiled was a slave. 

As we follow the footsteps of the race along the path of the 
ages we find that this condition of things, or a condition little 
better, continued for many weary years. 

At the time of the Norman conquest the Saxon lords of 
England carried on their rude agriculture by means of slave 
labor, and the sturdy plowman wore about his neck the collar 
on which was inscribed the legend "Giirth, son of Beowolf, is 
the born thrall of Cedric of Rotherwood." 

Time will not allow us to trace the story in detail ; but we 
note that, even after the advance of civilization abolished to a 
great extent the sj'Stem of slave labor, the condition ot the man 
who toiled for his bread, either in the field or at any kind of 
manual labor, was really little better than that of a slave. In- 
cessant toil was his lot and the scantiest necessities of life were 
its only reward. Of course in this state of affairs there was no 
pride of toil, no culture, social or intellectual, among the labor- 
ing class, no hope of an improved condition. 

As the years and centuries rolled on a partial advancement 
was made, by what methods we have not time to trace, but the 
progress was most discouragingly slow and the improvement in 
the condition of the man who tilled the soil was hardly per- 
ceptible from year to year. 

Since the commencement of what we term the modern era 
this progress has been more marked, but it is a fact within the 
memory even of living men that the farmer was regarded as of 
inferior rank in the social scale. Not only was he of inferior 
rank, but his rights and privileges were little respected, and the 
burdens placed upon him were onerous and unjust. 

That this should be the case in the nineteenth century and in 
this boasted land of freedom, where all men are supposed to be 
equal before the law, was and is largely the fault of farmers 
themselves. Men who, in a free land, will not assert and main- 
tain their rights deserve to be oppressed. 

The farmers of America were brave men and, to a great ex- 
tent, intelligent men, and were numerically strong enough to 
assert their rights. What, then, was the reason of their lack 
of progress? Why was it that, though strong in numbers. 



Il6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

they were weak in influence and unable to assert their rights 
with any degree of success? The chief reason was their lack 
of two important elements, — education and organization. 

Without that culture and training which should fit them to 
assume the rank which was theirs if they would deserve it, they 
continued to be looked down upon by men of other callings as 
beneath them in social and intellectual rank. 

Without organization or any attempt at cooperation each was 
fighting the battle for himself as best he could, and thus, as a 
class, they became the easy prey of designing men who, though 
fewer in numbers, had greater wealth and were organized to 
protect their interests. 

But the time came for a change, and when the hour struck 
the right men were at hand for the work. 

Only a few years more than a quarter of a century ago was 
instituted the first organization that had for its purpose a united 
efibrt among the agricultural classes for an improvement in 
their condition and for the assertion of their rights. 

With no blaze of trumpets nor bombastic proclamations was 
the birth of the new order heralded to the world, nor was its 
cradle surrounded by any strong array of men of wealth or in- 
fluence. Quietly and unobtrusively it entered into life and, 
amid many discouragements, pursued its mission until it won 
its way to power and influence by the force of its inherent 
merit. 

With how much of faith in the permanence of the work they 
were doing the fathers of our order were imbued, I know not. 
But the grandest faith and strongest hope of the most confident 
among them has been far more than realized in the abundant 
success of the organization they so wisely founded. 

Truly thev builded far better than they knew. Little could 
they have conceived, as they met together, a chosen few of them, 
in the capital city of our nation, without wealth or fame or 
political influence, and formed the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry, of the grand and beneficent influences 
that were to extend from that modest work of theirs to bless 
and improve the sons and daughters of toil. 

Many times men seem to have been inspired, as it were, to 
do certain things, which have resulted in immense good to the 



EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF THE GRANGE. II7 

world, without having been themselves aware of the grand im- 
portance of their actions. 

When the proud barons and bold yeomen of England joined 
together at the famous moot at Runymede and wrested from the 
tyrant John the magna charta of English liberty, influenced as 
they were almost solely by a desire to better their own personal 
condition, they little realized the mighty uplift they were giving 
to the cause of human progress, or that by their bold act they 
were setting forward the hands on the dial plate of freedom for 
a space representing many weary years. 

When Martin Luther entered his bold protest against the 
unholy practices and tyrannical usurpations of the Church of 
Rome he little dreamed that he was inaugurating a movement 
that would break the chains that fettered the souls of men, and 
make all liberty of thought and action possible. 

When Columbus, overcoming every obstacle and despite 
every discouragement, boldly sailed across the trackless ocean 
to discover this western continent he little thought that a new 
world was to be opened up on the shores of the land he had 
brought to light and that here the beacon torch of liberty would 
shine forth to cheer the hearts of the oppressed throughout the 
world. 

So the founders of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry seemed 
inspired to do the work they undertook, though they little 
dreamed of the vast and incalculable benefits they were about to 
confer upon the farmers of America. 

In the evolution of events the times become ripe for the inau- 
guration of great reforms, and at the proper time the right men 
seem to stand ready to undertake the work. 

What, then, we may inquire, have been the benefits of the 
grange movement and what are its possibilities.^ 

Many times we are asked the question, — '^ What good do 
your grange meetings do beyond furnishing the means of an 
evening's amusement?" 

In answer to this question we might jooint to the fact that 
many monopolies that had long oppressed the farmers, notably 
of the West, and robbed them of a large share of the earnings 
of their toil, have been broken down through the instrumental- 
ity of the order. 



Il8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

We might point to agricultural colleges and experiment sta- 
tions established and maintained in many states of our Union ; 
to a national department of agriculture with its head a member 
of the cabinet ; to much beneficial legislation, both national and 
state, brought about by the direct influence of the grange ; to 
many local enterprises in the different states fostered and placed 
upon a successful footing by the organized efforts of the 
granges. 

These and many more might be enumei^ated as the great 
achievements secured by our noble order. 

But greater than all and above and beyond all computation 
has been the improvement in the social, intellectual, aye, and 
the material, condition of the farmers of our land, secured to 
them by means of the education received in the grange. To 
many minds the word education is suggestive only of school 
books, and its work is circumscribed by the rules and princi- 
ples of the three R's. But education means far more than this ; 
and when any man or woman, boy or girl, is placed under in- 
fluences that tend to draw forth the latent powers of the mind, 
that teach them to think, to study, and to investigate for them- 
selves, they are then on the highway to that higher and more 
substantial education for which the work and discipline of the 
schools is but a preparation. 

These influences the grange furnishes to a great extent, and, 
combined as they are with the social features of the order, 
brings home to the farmer and his family in a manner that 
induces them to avail themselves of them and to receive the 
benefits afforded. 

Before the organization of the grange the horizon of the 
average farmer was extremely limited, and it was somehow 
taken for granted that with many of the great questions of the 
day and even with those truths which are particularly con- 
nected with the science of his calling he was not to concern 
himself, but was expected to leave them to men in other walks 
of life. Muscle was the grand necessity upon the farm. The 
"bone and sinew of the land" was the term applied to the 
agricultural class and was considered and accepted as a com- 
pliment. 

The teachings and discipline of the grange have vastly ex- 



EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF THE GRANGE. II9 

tended and enlarged the horizon of the farmer. He has been 
led to study and investigate for himself not only those great 
questions of political economy which are so closely connected 
with the theory and practice of government, but also to famil- 
iarize himself to some extent with the simple truths of nature 
which underly his calling and which have heretofore been 
fenced in by the appalling name of Science. He has come to 
see that farmers have too long been content to be mere " bone 
and sinew," and that brains have too long been unrecognized as 
a necessity to successful agriculture. 

The grand benefit, after all, that the grange has conferred 
upon the farmer in an educational direction has been the fact 
that it has set him to thinking. In the pleasant grange meet- 
ings to which he may have been attracted perhaps mainly by 
the social entertainment afforded, questions have been dis- 
cussed which have induced thought and study. 

The friction of mind with mind has brought out ideas from 
each, and has not only given all the benefit of what each one 
knew, but has shown to many a farmer how much there is that 
he does not know and which, to a great extent, he might know 
if he would but devote the time and means at his disposal to 
intelligent study. 

Again, the education received in the grange has not only 
enabled the farmer to think and study intelligently, thereby 
adding to his stock of acquired truths, but it has given him a 
certain amount of self-confidence and convinced him of the fact 
that he need not be obliged to accept a low rank if he will but 
fit himself to take and hold a higher one. 

Time was when men from the so-called learned professions 
were depended upon almost wholly to deliver addresses at far- 
mers' gatherings, and gentlemen whose delicate complexions 
told of more hours spent in the study than in the field and 
whose hands were innocent of those callosities formed bv inti- 
mate acquaintance with the plow handle, were wont to dis- 
course eloquently to farmers upon the dignity of labor and to 
inform them in a patronizing way that they were the " bone 
and sinew " of the land. 

Now, in nearly every community, there are men who, from 
the advantages afforded by the grange, have received an educa- 



I20 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

tion and training, and acquired a degree of confidence which 
fits them to talk intelligently and in a manner both entertaining 
and instructive upon all matters pertaining to their calling and 
to deal effectively with the various questions that are agitating 
agricultural communities throughout the land. 

Through the teachings and experiences of the grange farmers 
are beginning to learn the fact that if they are to be helped they 
must help themselves, and are educating men among their own 
number to represent them in legislative bodies and to champion 
their cause. 

To the younger members of the order the educational advan- 
tages of the grange are of incalculable value. 

The opportunity for debate, for declamation, for reading 
selections and writing essays, and the various literary exercises 
of the lecturer's hour most appropriately supplement the tech- 
nical training of the schools and aftbrd an excellent occasion for 
putting that training to immediate practical use. 

The question box, which embraces an almost endless variety 
of topics, sharpens the mental faculties, begets a keen spirit of 
research and an active and persistent pursuit of information 
from sources outside of the routine of the school text-books. 

In its moral teachings the grange is pure and safe. 

When young men and maidens enter through the inner gate 
into a working grange they are met at the very threshold by 
lectures inculcating the principles of friendship, morality, and 
brotherly love. 

In the education aftbrded by the grange they receive lessons 
in that purest of religion that knov^^s no sectarianism, and are 
instructed in the principles of that highest and noblest of pol- 
itics that admits of no partisanship. 

The grange teaches them that it is better to be honest than to 
be dishonest ; that it is better to be temperate than to indulge 
in dissipation ; that it is more manly and womanly to be truth- 
ful than to be deceitful and false ; that it is better to be virtuous 
and pure than to be licentious and vile; that loyalty in all 
things is one of the chiefest of virtues ; in short, that it is better 
to do right because it is right than to accept a temporary and 
apparent gain for wrong doing. 

Not only are the educational advantages of the grange appar- 



EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF THE GRANGE. 121 

ent along moral and intellectual lines, but most emphatically 
so in matters pertaining to social culture and refinement, in 
home adornment, in the courtesy of personal intercourse, and 
in the acquirement and practice of the many little amenities 
that make social life pleasant and agreeable. 

The typical farmer has long been portrayed as a man with 
coarse and ill-fitting apparel, uncouth in manners, and with 
speech nasal in tone and abounding in ungrammatical phrases 
and frequent provincialisms. 

In former days this portrayal was true to too great an extent. 
But the grange has taught the farmer that, although his calling 
brings him in direct contact with the soil, it is not necessary 
that in his intercourse with his fellow-men he should be distin- 
guished by the roughness and untidyness of his dress, the 
coarseness of his speech and manners, and the general boorish- 
ness of his personal appearance. 

A marked improvement in the appearance and adornment of 
farm homes has been noticed since the advent of the grange. 

There are more and better pictures upon the walls, more 
books and papers upon the shelves and tables, more carpets on 
the floors, and more musical instruments in the homes. 

The effect of the education of the grange upon the women of 
the farm homes is apparent in a more subdued and quiet 
demeanor and a general toning down of that noticeable harsh- 
ness and angularity inevitably induced by continued seclusion 
and almost uninterrupted devotion to household duties. 

How many tired hands have found welcome periods of rest 
and how many careworn countenances among farmeiV wives 
have been brightened and smoothed by the pleasant, social 
intercourse of the grange. 

The comparative isolation and too constant application to 
home duties heretofore common among farmers' wives induced 
selfishness to a certain extent and had a tendency to contract 
and dwarf the finer and more generous instincts of their being. 

The frequent meetings of the grange have taught both the 
farmer and his wife that more can be accomplished on the farm 
and in the home by taking a proper amount of rest and recrea- 
tion than by the practice of incessant toil, while the pleasant 
intercourse with people from all portions of their own town and 



122 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

with those from other towns, with whom they might otherwise 
never have become acquainted, broadens and expands the mind 
and enlarges the horizon of their mental vision as well as giv- 
ing them an increased interest in the happiness and welfare of 
their fellow-men. 

I would not think of closing this brief address without pay- 
ing a deserved tribute to the worth of woman's work and in- 
fluence in the grange. While the educational advantages of 
the grange have been of vast benefit to the women of our farm 
homes, it is a fact that we are glad and proud to acknowledge 
that to the charn) of their presence at our meetings and to their 
untiring courage and devotion are due in a large measure the 
success of our order. 

In fact, without the aid and influence of our faithful sisters 
the order never would have been able to advance to that grand 
and honored position of influence which it to-day occupies and 
to command that degree of confidence and respect which it 
now receives from all worthy classes among our citizens. 

The grange is in one sense a home, and as in the home it is 
woman's presence and influence that makes home the dearest 
spot of all the earth, so in the grange home her genial com- 
pany, her active aid, and her words of counsel and encourage- 
ment have in large measure formed the attraction which has 
drawn so many to our grange meetings and brought them under 
the beneficial teachings and instructions of our order. 

All honor to the noble women of the grange. May we never 
cease to acknowledge their worth and our indebtedness to 
them, and always be ready and willing to protect our sisters 
from harm. 

In conclusion, let me say that an order that has done so 
much for the agricultural classes of our land, and especially of 
our own New England, in improving their minds, their man- 
ners, their hearts and their homes, in making them better men 
and women and therefore better citizens, is a blessing to the 
state and to the nation, and should receive the countenance and 
support of all good citizens of whatever class or calling. 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 



BY HON. WM. R. SESSIONS, OF MASSACHUSETTS, SECRETARY STATE 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



In the year 1870 there appeared in the second volume of the 
American Entomologist, and also in Riley's second Missouri 
Report on Insects, this simple statement, — *' Only a year ago 
the larva of a certain owlet moth ( Hypogyjnna dispar) w^hich 
is a great pest in Europe, both to fruit trees and forest trees, 
was accidentally introduced by a Massachusetts entomologist 
into New England." The statement received no attention from 
the public at large, and very little from entomologists, and was 
soon forgotten. 

After much correspondence and inquiry it has been ascer- 
tained that Mr. L. Trouvelot, a draughtsman by occupation 
and also an amateur entomologist, lived in Medford from 1865 
to 1870, and made extensive experiments with American cater- 
pillars, with the hope and expectation of finding one that would 
be of value in producing silk. It has been learned also that he 
brought the eggs of the gypsy moth from Europe while he was 
experimenting. It is supposed that he hoped to cross this 
insect with some other silk spinning insect, perhaps with the 
foreign silk worm, and thus get a caterpillar that would spin 
cocoons, that would be able to endure our climate without pro- 
tection, and would also be able to live on a variety of food. 
Although it is not known just what use he proposed to make 
of the gypsy moth it is known that they escaped from him. It 
has been said that he was a professor in Harvard University, 
and that institution has been criticised as being thus indirectly 
responsible for the introduction of this new pest. He was not, 
however, connected with Haivard University in any way and 
did not live in Cambridgre. 



124 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

After fifteen years, or about the year 1SS5, a section of the 
town of Medford began to be afflicted with caterpillars of a vor- 
acious sort, which appeared in the spring with the first burst- 
ing of the leaf buds. They devoured the foliage of all sorts of 
trees and shrubs, even stripping pines and Norway spruces. 

No one supposed it to be anything but an outbreak of Amer- 
ican caterpillars of some sort, and as its appearance was in a 
portion of the town inhabited mostly by working people it did 
not attract the attention of entomologists. Its increase from 
year to year was phenomenal and it soon spread toward the 
centre of the village, stripping the beautiful shade trees which 
were the glory and beauty of the town, and devouring the foli- 
iage of fruit trees and shrubbery in the gardens of the wealthy 
and influential inhabitants. The creatures were so abundant 
in the locality in which the pest appeared that they covered 
the sidewalks and dooryard fences, and in some cases the sides 
and roofs of houses. Their presence was a terrible nuisance, 
aside from the destruction of foliage and the permanent dam- 
age to trees. In many cases the young leaves were completely 
devoured and when nature, with an effort to save the trees, put 
forth a new set of leaves, they were again quickly and entirely 
eaten. Often a third crop of leaves would be taken from the 
same trees before the long eating period of these caterpillars had 
ended. Many trees were killed in this way. A few statements 
certified to by the parties making them will describe the con- 
dition in the words of those who were obliged to deal with 
them. 

Statement of Mr. J. C. Clark, station agent at Park Street 
station, Medford, Mass. : 

" I live at No. 1 1 Myrtle Street. The moths ruined me as re- 
gards fruit. They were the worst in 1889. Their ravages caused 
me to lose five nice apple trees, two cherry trees, one pear 
tree, and five plum trees. . . . The caterpillars stripped 
these trees of every particle of vegetation. . . . The spring 
following the ravages of the moth these trees leaved out a little, 
but not much, and finally died. During the summer of which I 

speak (1S89) m}^ currant bushes were also attacked 

The caterpillars covered one side of my house so thickly that 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 1 25 

you could not have told what kind of paint was on it. It 
was impossible to keep them entirely out of the house. The 
women had to shake their clothing when they went into the 
house. People used to come to Myrtle street from other parts 
of Medford just to see the ravages of the insect " 

Statement of Mrs. William Belcher, 29 Myrtle street, Med- 
ford, Mass. : 

"Mr. Trouvelot, who is said to have introduced the gypsy 
moth into this country, was a next-door neighbor of ours. The 
caterpillars troubled us for six or eight vears before they 
attained to their greatest destructiveness. This was in 1S89. 
They were all over the outside of the house as well as the trees. 

All the foliage was eaten ofl' our trees They ate 

nearly every green thing in my yard, killing my rose bushes 
and doing much damage to the vegetables. No one who did 
not see them at that time can form any idea of what a pest 

they were I used to go out with a dust pan and 

brush and sweep them up by the panful 

We killed many with boiling hot water, and would then 

dig a hole and bury them so as to prevent a stench. 

It was impossible to stay long in the garden for they would 

crawl all over one When they hatched out 

in the spring our fence would be one living mass. 

When they were small it was almost impossible to keep 

them oft' one's person. It is a fact that we have scraped 

a quart of eggs at a time off the trees To 

show how the caterpillars seem to strike instinctively towards 
a place where food may be found, my sister cried out one day, 
' They are marching up the street.' I went to the front door, 
and, sure enough, the street was black with them, coming across 
from our neighbor's and heading straight for our yard. They 
had stripped her trees, but our trees at that time were only 
partially eaten." 

Statement of J. P. Hill, 33 Otis street, Medford, Mass. : 

" In the summer of 18S9, while living on Park street, Med- 
ford, we were literally overrun with the gypsy moth caterpil- 
lars. We had four large apple trees in our yard. . . . They 



126 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ate all the leaves oft' the trees until it seemed as if fire had run 
through them. . . . After eating the apple tree leaves they 
attacked a Bartlett pear tree and completely stripped it of its 
leaves. . . . After the caterpillars ate all the leaves oft' the 
trees they went down into the grass where they swarmed. When 
the plague was the worst that summer, I do not exaggerate 
when I say that there was not a place on the outside of the house 
where you could put your hand without touching caterpillars. 
They crawled all over the roof and upon the fence and plank 
walks. We crushed them under foot on the walks. We went 
as little as possible out of the side door, because the caterpillars 
clustered so thickly on that side of the house. The front door 
was not quite so bad. We always tapped the screen doors 
when we opened them and the monstrous great creatures would 
fall down, but in a minute or two would crawl up to the side 

of the house again If we walked under the trees 

we got nothing less than a shower bath of caterpillars. 
The caterpillars spun down from the trees by hundreds even 
when they were of large size. We had tarred paper around the 
trees, but they crawled up the trunks in masses and went right 
over the paper. The bodies of those that got stuck in the prin- 
ter's ink served as a bridge for their brethren. The caterpillars 
were so thick on the trees that they were stuck together like 
cold macaroni. A little later in the season we saw literally 
thousands of moths fluttering in the back yard. In the fall the 
nests were stuck all over the street trees." 

Statement of Mrs. S. J. FoUansbee, 35 Myrtle street, Med- 
ford, Mass. : 

" In 1889 the walks, trees, and fences in the yard and the sides 
of the house were covered with caterpillars. I used to sweep 
them up with a broom and burn them with kerosene, and in 
half an hour they would be just as bad as ever. There were lit- 
erally pecks of them. There was not a leaf on my trees. . 
The caterpillars ate all the young tomato vines and injured my 
rose bushes. The Balm of Gilead trees outside on the street 
were a regular harboring place for the pest. Back of the house 
and across the railroad track was a large tract of young growth, 
oaks and maples. They were all stripped. The caterpillars 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 1 27 

did not leave a leaf. The trunks and branches were covered 
with their cocoons. . . . For three years previous to 1891 
my Baldwin apple tree bore no fruit on account of the ravages 
of the moth. It was stripped every year." 

Statement of Mrs. I. W. Hamlin, corner of Spring and 
Myrtle streets, Medford, Mass. : 

" The gypsy moth caterpillar became quite prominent in our 
neighborhood some six years ago. They were at their worst 
in 1889. One day in June my attention was called to some 
shade trees on Myrtle street the trunks of which were literally 
black with caterpillars. Our yard was overrun with cater- 
pillars. For six weeks a great deal of our time was devoted 
to killing these caterpillars and w'e did not have half as many as 
people farther down the street. When they got their growth 
these caterpillars were bigger than your little finger and would 
crawl very fast. We would go out in our yard for two hours 
at a time during the day and gather the caterpillars in dishes. 
Time and again I have stayed out in the yard for two hours at 
a time catching caterpillars. But in half an hour afterwards 
thev seemed to be just as thick again. It was a common re- 
mark in the house, ' Well, it is time to go out and make our 
rounds again,' and then we would sally out with our pans. 
When the caterpillars were very small we used to kill them 
with hot water. The big ones we killed by pouring kerosene 
over them and burning them. Our one apple tree was stripped 
of its leaves for two or three years running. The trees of our 
next-door neighbor, Mr. Randall, suffered very much. The 
caterpillars got into his evergreens and were so thick that they 
made them look black. The trees have since died. I do not 
know whether or not it was owing to the caterpillars. Mr. 
Randall was on the point of moving to Franklin, but he stayed 
in Medford two months that summer to fight the moths and 
save his trees. There were people on Myrtle street whose 
geraniums and plants were eaten. Many people took much 
time to fight the caterpillars and killed a great many. Others 
would say, ' What is the use.^' and would do nothing." 

Statement of William B. Harmon, 55 Spring street, Med- 
ford, Mass. : 



128 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

" In the summer of 1S90, the caterpiHars destroyed all our 
fruit. They attacked and stripped the apple trees first and then 
turned their attention to the pear trees, which they also stripped. 
The trees in places were actually black with caterpil- 
lars. The}' would collect in great bunches and we would sweep 
them off with a broom. I had quite a little vegetable garden 
which was nearly ruined by the caterpillars. They destroyed 
the cucumbers and ate all the tops of the tomatoes. They also 
stripped some flowering plants. We could not step out of 
doors, either on the grass or on the walk, without crushing the 
caterpillars under foot. Over our front door the house was 
black with them. We would clean them off every morning, 
but in an hour it would be black again. People could not 
come in that way. It is no exaggeration to say that there were 
pecks of the caterpillars under the doorsteps and on the fence. 
We had both the steps and the fence split up and burned so as 
to deprive the pest of its harboring places. I have frequently 
gathered half a coal-hodful of caterpillars from the fence within 
a short space of time. In twenty minutes they seemed to be 
just as thick as ever. We burned many pecks of them in all. 
The next lot to ours was a vacant brush lot. It actually 
swarmed with caterpillars, and they came from there into our 
yard by thousands." 

The summer of 1S89 was a memorable one in the town of 
Medford. The community became alarmed, and a special 
townmeeting was called for July 15, to see what action should 
be taken in view of the pest. Three hundred dollars was 
appropriated and placed in the hands of the road commis- 
sioners to be expended in protecting the shade trees of the town. 
This was expended in scraping oft' and destroying the eggs 
of the gypsy moth which were laid in August and September. 
Individuals expended large amounts on their own premises. 

Meantime it began to be believed that the pest was a new 
one before unknown. Specimens were brought to the secretary 
of the State Board of Agriculture with the question, "What 
is it.'"' Our books on entomology described no such caterpillars 
and specimens were sent to C. H. Fernald, Professor of 
Entomology at the Massachusetts Agricultural College. He 
was absent in Europe, but his wife, who was a thorough ento- 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 1 29 

mologlst as well as her husband, determined it to be the Euro- 
pean Ocneria dispar or gypsy moth. 

Professor Fernald was informed of the fact and that it was 
overrunning the town of Medford, and was requested to learn 
what he could about the habits of the creature and the methods 
of dealing with it in Europe, he being at that time in Germany. 
This he did, but found that there was no organized plan of 
dealing with it there, that it had been for many years with them, 
and that it was attended to by private parties, except that when 
an especially dangerous outbreak was experienced the govern- 
ment took hold, and by the use of the police, the soldiers, or the 
fire departments assisted in reducing the numbers and preventing 
extensive damage. It appeared also that it had enemies among 
the other insect species of Europe, and also that several kinds 
of birds preyed upon the eggs and caterpillars in those coun- 
tries, and thus aided the people in keeping it within bounds. 

On Professor Fernald's return to America, he, with the secre- 
tary of the board of agriculture, made an examination of the 
condition of aflairs in Medford and a special bulletin was pre- 
pared by Professor Fernald and issued by the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, a por- 
tion of the expense being borne by the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and also by the Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture. This bulletin gave what information had been 
collected about the gypsy moth and advised as to methods to 
be used in dealing with it. It also contained cuts of the moth 
in its several stages of life. A copy of the bulletin was sent to 
each real estate owner in Medford and adjoining towns. 

Professor Fernald was convinced that individual or town 
ertbrt could not exterminate the creature, although from the 
best information that could be obtained it had at that time ex- 
tended over only a few square miles. The professor, and all 
who made investigations, were impressed with the importance 
of the matter. Here was a new imported pest that was a seri- 
ous trouble in Europe and bade fair to be a much more serious 
and troublesome one in this country. The short experience 
had with it had proved what it was capable of doing, and it 
was known to be an entomological truth that an imported 
species that becomes acclimated will be more troublesome in its 



130 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

new home than in its native country, because it has left behind 
its native enemies. As illustration I may mention the Phylox- 
era, imported into Europe from this country ; the rabbits car- 
ried from England to Australia ; the Hessian fly, the carpet 
beetle, the cabbage worm, etc., brought from Europe to this 
country. 

It was believed also that all of this species that were on this 
continent were within a few square miles of territory, all within 
sight of the state house in Boston. The power of reproduc- 
tion possessed by this insect was enormous, each female lay- 
ing on an average about five hundred eggs. The creatures had 
in the fifteen years since their introduction become thoroughly 
acclimated and were able to withstand the rigors and change- 
ableness of a New England winter. 

It seemed that it was only a question of a few years when it 
would spread over the whole temperate zone of the North 
American continent and become a menace to all vegetation. 
The road commissioners of Medford reported that they could 
not cope with it and that any expenditure that the town could 
aflbrd would have little efiect. In view of all these conditions 
the people of the infested territory and that adjacent to it were 
advised to petition the state legislature to undertake the ex- 
termination of the creature. 

The governor of the state, who resided near the afliicted 
region, was interested, and in his annual message in January, 
1890, called the attention of the legislature to the matter. 
Petitions from the selectmen of Medford and of the adjoining 
towns of Arlington, Everett, Winchester, Stoneham, and 
Wakefield, from the city officials of Maiden and Somerville, 
the state board of agriculture and the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society were presented to the legislature in January, 
1890, for the extermination of the gypsy moth b}^ the state. 
The matter was referred by the legislature to the committee on 
agriculture. This committee visited Medford, the chairman 
reporting that they " saw walls of buildings and almost every 
tree covered with egg clusters or nests." 

The legislature of 1S90 enacted a law providing for the ap- 
pointment of a commission to take charge of the work whose 
duties were, " to provide and carry into execution all possible 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. I31 

and reasonable measures to prevent the spread and secure the 
extermination of the Ocnerla dlspar or gypsy moth in this 
commonwealth." The law gave the commission full authority 
to provide itself with appliances and to employ such competent 
persons as it should deem needful, and gave the right to enter 
upon the lands of any person in the execution of the purposes 
of the act. Damage suffered by the owner of land so entered 
upon might be recovered of the city or town by action of con- 
tract, and it was provided that the commonwealth should refund 
to the city or town one half the amount of the damages recover- 
ed. Authority was given the commission to make such rules and 
regulations as it should deem needful, and any person violating 
any of the provisions thereof should be punished by a fine not 
exceeding twenty-five dollars. The commission was required 
to keep a record of all its transactions, and a full account of its 
expenditures, and to report to the governor and council when 
directed to do so by them. The salaries of the commissioners 
were to be established by the governor and council and the 
governor was authorized to terminate their commissions at his 
pleasure. The law also provided that any person who resisted 
or obstructed the commissioners, or any person in their employ 
while engaged in the execution of the purposes of the act, 
should be punished by a fine not exceeding twenty-five dollars. 
The carrying of the moth from place to place was forbidden 
under penalty of a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars, or 
by imprisonment not exceeding sixty days. 

The governor appointed Mr. Warren W. Rawson of Arling- 
ton, Dr. Pearl Martin of Medford, and Mr. J. Howard Bradley 
of Maiden, commissioners under the act. Mr. Rawson was 
a prominent member of the board of agriculture and all the 
members were residents of places whose territory had been in- 
vaded by the moth. The commission organized March 23, 1S90, 
with Mr. Rawson as chairman, and work was immediately 
commenced. The commission said in their report made to the 
governor in the winter of 1S91, — " When the commission was 
appointed it was supposed that the district infested did not ex- 
ceed one half mile in width and a mile and a half in length ; 
but it was early discovered that as a matter of fact the moth was 
found in many localities in a district covering nearly fifty square 



132 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICUI>TURE. 

miles ; thus at the very outset were the magnitude and difficulty 
of the work marked out for the commissioners unexpectedly 
vastly increased. The first work was by a close inspection to 
discover the infested trees, shrubs, and fences and these when 
found were marked. When the commission began its work the 
eggs had not begun to hatch and it was deemed of the first im- 
portance to destroy, as far as possible, all the eggs ; to this end 
a large number of men were employed in scraping the eggs 
from the trees. (These eggs were destroyed by burning.) 
Afterwards force pumps and spraying machines were used with 
various preparations and chemicals, of which Paris green, rec- 
ommended by Professor Fernald, was found to be most effica- 
cious, and the spraying of the trees and foliage was continued 
with a large degree of success throughout the feeding time. 
The force of men employed was largely increased 
and the work went steadily on until in May the commissioners 
found the task allotted to them so serious and the infested dis- 
trict so great in extent that a larger appropriation in their 
opinion, became necessary, and an additional amount of $25,000 
was asked for and granted. Early in the spring from their ob- 
servations of the character and habits of the moth, the commis- 
sioners became satisfied that its spread was due in a large degree 
to its conveyance from place to place by teams, and determined 
that a strict watch should be kept over all vehicles passing 
through or out of the infested territory. In June special police- 
men were employed for this work in different parts of Medford 
and Maiden, and so successful were they in their work that, by 
them, hundreds of caterpillars were taken, — not only from 
vehicles and loads, — but even from the manes and tails of 
horses. In July so much hadbeen accomplished that the force 
of men and teams was greatly reduced, but large tracts of infested 
underbrush were burned over, all holes in trees partially decayed 
were filled with cement, and many trees were cut down and 
burned. Soon after the spraying of trees was discontinued and 
by the last of the month but two men only were under employ- 
ment. During the fall months a few men were again employed 
in scraping the eggs from the trees and in investigating closely 
all places where it was thought the pest might find a location. 
Of the total appropriation of $50,000 the following amounts 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 1 33 

have been expended : For labor, $15,270.33 ; for merchandise, 
tools, equipment, office rent, etc., $7,125.73; for salaries of 
commissioners, $3,118.26; total, $25,514.31 ; leaving an unex- 
pended balance of $24,485.69, with which to prosecute the work 
the coming spring. In considering the work of the past year 
it must be remembered that it has of necessity been largely ex- 
perimental. Tiie commissioners had nothing to guide them for 
the reason that no effort has ever been made in other countries 
to eradicate the pest." 

On March 4, 1891, the governor appointed N. S. Shaler and 
Francis H. Appleton, members of the board of agriculture, 
and William R. Sessions, secretary of said board, commission- 
ers, in place of those who had served during the first year and 
recommended to the legislature that the law be changed so that 
the work should be done by the state board of agriculture, 
acting by a committee of the members, which committee were 
to serve without pay. The legislature made the change and 
April 17, 1891, the work passed into the hands of the board of 
agriculture, with all the powers that the first law had conferred 
upon the commissioners. On April 28, the board of agricul- 
ture appointed William R. Sessions, N. S. Shaler, and Francis 
H. Appleton a committee, with full powers to exercise all the 
duties and powers conferred upon the board of agriculture by 
an act to provide against the depredations of the insect known 
as the Ocneria disparox gypsy moth. 

The members of the first commission were consulted. They 
gave such information as they had obtained as to the extent of 
the territory infested and the methods pursued by them in 
their season's work. Prof. C. V. Riley, entomologist of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture ; Prof. C. H. Fernald, 
of the Massachusetts Agricultural College; Prof. Samuel 
Henshaw, of the Boston Natural History Society, and Prof. 
S. H. Scudder of Cambridge, expert entomologists, were con- 
sulted and asked to advise the committee. They acceded to 
the request and gave valuable suggestions and advice, which the 
committee made use of during the work of the season fol- 
lowing. 

Mr. E. H. Forbush of Worcester, a naturalist of reputation 
and experience, who had been for several years president and 



134 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

managing director of the Worcester Natural History Society, 
and president of the Worcester Summer School of Natural 
History, was appointed director of field work. As fast 
as they could be procured competent men were employed, 
and the surrounding territory carefully examined for the eggs of 
.the moth, and to the end that the extent of the infested territory 
might be known with certainty. It was soon found that the 
insect had obtained a foothold in twenty cities and towns and 
that several of them were thoroughly infested. 

This examination proved that the work committed to the 
board of agriculture was a stupendous one, and if success was 
to be achieved a careful, systematic plan of campaign must be 
adopted. Maps of the whole infested territory were procured, 
the territory was divided into sections which were plotted on the 
maps, and, as quickly as men capable of taking charge of gangs 
of workers could be procured and instructed, the several sec- 
tions were assigned to an inspector and squad of workmen. 
The men were trained to distinguish the eggs of the gypsy moth 
and to observe all evidences of the existence of the moth, and 
were directed to secure all possible information in regard to its 
habits. Each inspector was required to make a daily written 
report of the work done by himself and the men under his 
charge, to include names of men, street and number and name 
of owner of property on which work was done, and all observa- 
tions on the habits of the insect. After the men had been 
instructed, and had some practice under the eye of the director, 
there remained only six weeks in which to make a hasty inspec- 
tion of the territory and destroy eggs before the caterpillars 
would begin to hatch. Comparatively little could be expected 
under the circumstances, but so plentiful were the eggs that the 
men did gather and destroy in that short time 756,760 egg clus- 
ters, and as the average number of eggs in a cluster was found 
to be 468, the number of single eggs destroyed was not less than 
353,051,680. If these had all hatched and all the caterpillars 
grown to full size the whole would have weighed nearly 100 
tons and made a sufficient load for seven or eight freight cars. 

On June 3 the legislature appropriated $50,000 in addition to 
what remained of the last year's appropriation. The work of 
spraying with Paris green and water was pushed with all pos- 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. I35 

sible rapidity, the force of employees being increased as rapidly 
as suitable men could be procured. More than thirty teams, each 
with a complete spraying outfit, and not less than two hundred 
and thirty men were employed. 

The spraying was continued until the caterpillars had so far 
ceased to feed that the spraying had little effect upon them. 
Vast numbers were destroyed by the spraying, but from the fact 
that thev were hatching all through the season and that the 
larvK in all stages of growth were present at the same time, 
and also that many had changed into the pupa stage before the 
latest hatching had been completed, it was found that spraying 
could not be depended on to kill them all. Their habit of spin- 
ning down when disturbed and crawling away into the grass or 
other concealed situations also prevented complete destruction 
by the use of poison. It was also ascertained that the caterpil- 
lars of this species had wonderful powers of resistance to the 
effects of poison and that a sufficient proportion to restock a 
locality would survive even though they had eaten large quan- 
tities of foliage that had been most carefully and repeatedly 
sprayed. In fact it was found that a mixture of Paris green 
and water strong enough to kill all caterpillars that fed upon 
sprayed foliage would quickly burn or wilt the leaves, causing 
the caterpillars to cease eating and start in search of fresh food. 

In June of this year Prof. C. H. Fernald of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College was appointed the entomologist of the 
committee and has since then carefully observed the work, advis- 
ing as to methods of procedure and supervising many elaborate 
and expensive experiments to discover more effectual methods of 
destruction, including tests of various combinations of poisons 
that may be used in spraying. Under his direction careful ob- 
servations have been made of the habits of the moth in all its 
stages and a careful watch has been kept for parasites. Several 
parasites have been discovered and their work has been care- 
fully observed under the direction of Professor Fernald, with 
the hope that they would prove valuable assistants in the work 
of destruction. The importing of parasites that prey upon the 
gypsy moth in Europe having been recommended by many 
people the plan was carefully considered by the committee, but 
Professor Fernald advised that these natives be observed and 



136 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

experimented with before incurring the expense of importing 
others, as it was quite possible that the natives might prove as 
valuable as any others that might be imported, and as it was 
also true, that, while the effort was being made to exterminate 
the gyysy moth by killing all that could be found, the increase 
of the imported parasites would be destroyed by the killing of 
the hosts in whose bodies they were propagated. 

After the caterpillars ceased eating and spraying ceased, the 
men were employed searching for and destroying pupaj 
and moths until the eggs were laid, when an effort was made 
to go systematically over the entire territory gathering the eggs, 
but, as only the most trustworthy men who were also careful 
observers could be relied on to do the work, it was necessary 
to reduce the force by discharging all others. The progress 
was necessarily slow as every tree, shrub, wall, fence, pig-pen, 
hen-house, shed, and even houses and barns, in the most thickly 
infested territory, had to be carefully examined by the men and 
afterwards inspected by the most expert among them. In 
doing this work use was made of every possible method to save 
expense. Old stone walls were burned out by the use of crude 
petroleum. The oil was forced among the stones in the form 
of spray by the use of pumps and spraying nozzles. Large 
tracts of land covered with brush were burned over after the 
brush had been cut and sprayed with petroleum, and in some 
cases woodland was cut and burned over after the wood worth 
saving had been examined and removed. 

In all this work the course pursued was to make thorough 
work on the outskirts of the infested territory, endeavoring to 
lessen the area as much as possible, and to keep the number in 
the central part of the territory reduced to a minimum so as to 
prevent damage to trees and also to prevent spreading into new 
territory. 

In pursuance of this purpose the trees along railroads and 
highways were carefully cleaned of eggs and caterpillars, so 
that the creature might not spin down upon passing teams and 
persons. After these trees had been cleaned they were banded 
with tarred paper, which was kept moist with regular applica- 
tions of printer's ink, so as to keep the trees that had been clean- 
ed clear. Late in the fall the men were put to work carefully 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GPYSY MOTH. I37 

inspecting the towns surrounding the territory in which the 
moth was found at the time of the spring inspection, in order 
that it might be certainly known whether the entire infested 
territory had been found out. The eggs were found in a very 
few phices outside the territory where it had been previously 
found, but in no case in very considerable numbers. The dis- 
coveries of the summer, added to those found by previous in- 
spection, had increased the number of infested cities and towns 
to thirty, but careful examination of all the localities left no 
doubt in the minds of the committee that the moth was in 
nearly every one of these places when the committee began 
work. The committeee reported their season's work and its 
results to the legislature of 1S92 early in January, and recom- 
mended that the systematic gathering of the eggs over the en- 
tire territory should be completed before hatching time the 
following spring, and that an appropriation of $75,000 be 
promptly made. 

The report showed that the funds available had been almost 
entirely expended, and although the legislature appropriated 
the sum asked for so that it became available March ist, before 
that date it became necessary to sharply reduce the force em- 
ployed because of lack of funds to pay their wages. Several of 
the best men obtained other employment and their experience, 
so valuable in this work, was thus lost. Another corps of new 
men had to be employed and trained, and the work was con- 
tinued on much the same plan as in 1891. But as the com- 
mittee became familiar with the extent of the territory invaded 
by the moth the magnitude of the task became more apparent. 
As experience was gained methods of attack were changed. 
Much less spraying with Paris green and water was done in 
1892, and this was resorted to only for reducing the number of 
caterpillars in localities where but little work was done in 
1891. The caterpillars were very successfully trapped during 
the feeding season by bands of burlap fastened around infested 
trees, within easy reach of the men detailed to examine them, 
and kill the caterpillars that gathered under them. This scheme 
was adopted on account of the habit of the creature of eating 
only at night and seeking some shelter in which to spend the 
day. To make tiiis plan effectual it was necessary to remove 



138 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

all loose bark, and stop up knot holes and hollow trees with 
cement, so as to prevent the caterpillars from seeking shelter in 
such places. These bands also furnished cover for the cater- 
pillars during the transformation to tiie pupa stage. 

Much et^brt, involving large expenditure, was devoted dur- 
ing the year 1S92 to the inspection of the territory outside the 
infested limit. Very numerous letters were received from 
different parts of the state and from adjoining states, to the 
effect that supposed gypsy moths had been found. In every 
case these notices were responded to by an inspection of the 
locality, but in no case was the gypsy moth found outside the 
limits where they were found in 1891 . 

The request for an appropriation of $75,000 for the work of 
1S92, was made by the committee, believing that sum was as 
much as could be economically expended in one year, but the 
year's experience proved that it was much too small. Much 
work that should have been done promptly was necessarily left 
undone and many faithful, experienced, and efficient men were 
discharged, for want of money to pay their wages. Only such 
men are fit for the greater part of the work. The number em- 
ployed was increased during the spring as suitable men could 
be found, until on May 30, 330 were on the pay roll. The men 
were subjected to an examination somewhat after the manner of 
the civil service examination, and were required to bring re- 
commendations from their former employers or from three rep- 
utable citizens. By this method a better class of men were 
obtained. This number was reduced by discharge of the least 
competent, after the pressure of the spring work was past, as 
the appropriation was not sufficient to pay so large a force 
throughout the year. 

Up to this time it had been believed that the moths had not 
infested woodland to any considerable extent, but the careful 
inspection of small areas here and there, as the scouts could be 
spared for that purpose, showed that there was a probability 
that they had occupied the forests in several places. This was 
an important matter, for there were not less than fifty square 
miles of woodland within the bounds of the infested cities and 
towns, and it was so reported to the legislature. 

The committee presented estimates showing, as nearly as it 



THE "SVAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 1 39 

was possible to do in advance, what could be done during the 
succeeding year, and recommended that an appropriation suffi- 
cient to do all that could be economically done should be given. 
The estimate of the committee called for $165,000 for the work 
of 1S93. ISIost of this, as of all other appropriations for the 
gypsy moth work, was needed for the payment of labor, and 
as most of the work to be effectual must be done by reliable, 
experienced men, this sum, it was believed, would pay all men 
of that character who could be obtained, and also all the inex- 
perienced men that could be provided with suitable work and 
I^roper oversight. But the legislature in its wisdom appropri- 
ated but $100,000. This appropriation became available April 
12, 1S93, and the men had been idle since February ist await- 
ing the appropriation as that of the previous year was ex- 
hausted. Thus six weeks of the best working time of the year 
passed unutilized, and several of the best and most experienced 
men left for other situations, thus greatly reducing the efficiency 
of the force. This lost time should have been spent in gather- 
ing the eggs. Experience has shown that work in that direc- 
tion accomplishes more than in any other, and, as the eggs 
sometimes hatch about April 20, it will readil}' be seen that be- 
fore the force could be reorganized and set at work the time for 
egg gathering was over. 

With an appropriation one third smaller than was deemed 
necessary by the committee, some parts of the field were 
necessarily neglected to a certain extent, in order that work 
might be thoroughly done in other places. Consequentlv an 
effort was made to clear the outer towns of the moth, and hold 
them in check in the central towns of the infested district, as 
this seemed the only plan by which progress toward extermi- 
nation could be made. It was necessary, as it always has been 
and will be while the campaign for extermination is being 
waged, to expend large amounts in the inspection or searching 
of towns just outside the limit within which the moth had 
already been found, to make sure that it had not got outside 
our lines. It was imperative that the territoiy from which it 
was believed that the moth had been exterminated should be 
most carefully and thoroughly examined, lest a lone pair might 
have been overlooked and left to start a colony in our rear. 



140 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

During the season of 1893 not less than $13,000 was expended 
in this work of searching a territory in which nothing was 
found. This served to prove that the efibrt for extermination 
in the outside towns had been quite successful, and that the 
territory for future work had been materially reduced. This 
reduction was estimated at about one third of the whole, and 
at the same time the condition of the rest of the infested ter- 
ritory other than woodland, was believed to be better than it 
was at tlie end of the previous year. With only sixty per 
cent, of the appropriation asked for, only sixty per cent, of the 
work contemplated could be done, and the forest land was 
neglected that the villages and cleared land might be the better 
looked after. 

The committee recommended an appropriation of $165,000 
for the work of 1S94 on the same grounds that the appropri- 
ation for 1S93 was asked for, viz. : " That the economical con- 
tinuation of the effort to exterminate demands that all the work 
possible tending to the end in view should be done at once. 
The sooner the work is reduced to a simple work of inspection, 
the sooner can the amount of the appropriation be safely 
reduced." 

The plan of work for 1S94 outlined by the committee in its 
report to the legislature was substantially as follows : The in- 
spection of all territory which it was thought might possibly be 
infested, together with the inspection of a considerable terri- 
tory outside the towns known to be infested. The magnitude 
of this work is beyond the comprehension of the casual 
observer. Here is a territory of 400 square miles to be most 
carefully examined. In most parts of it every tree and shrub, 
as well as hedges and loose rubbish, must be carefully exam- 
ined. That gone over the past year must be as carefully ex- 
amined again. If by any chance a single egg cluster has been 
overlooked it must be found. If neglected, it will be a centre 
from which the pest will again spread. The large area of 
woodland had not yet had a tree by tree inspection on account 
of lack of funds. It was stated to be absolutely necessary that 
it should be done, as the people would not submit to the 
cheaper method of cutting and burning the whole growth. 
Where infested places are found in the forest the trees for some 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. 14I 

distance around should be burlapped and carefully watched,. 
and, as heretofore, persistent eflbrts should be made to find a 
feasible plan for dealing with the forest problem. 

Burlapping had proved for two years to be one of the most 
eflective methods of dealing with the gypsy moth ; but to be 
effectual it is necessary that a sufficient number of men be 
employed to examine all the burlaps daily and kill all the cater- 
pillars found under them. Lack of money has always pre- 
vented this being done in the territory centrally located and 
most thoroughly infested. The work of attending to the bur- 
laps ceases at the close of the caterpillar season, between the- 
middle of August and the first of September. Then the men 
should be put to cleaning up known colonies until the leaves 
have fallen, when all hands should be employed for the remain- 
der of the year in inspecting and cleaning the entire territory 
of the eggs. These were among the many reasons given by 
the committee for recommending a large appropriation. 

The legislature considered the recommendations of the com- 
mittee, but in place of the $165,000 recommended appropri- 
ated $100,000 for the work of 1S94. Consequently of the work 
planned by the committee only two thirds could be done, and 
again the central portion and the forest land had to be neg- 
lected in order to thoroughly attend to the outer towns and thus 
reduce as much as possible the area infested. 

Early in the year 1S94 Prof. N. S. Shaler, who had been 
most prominent in the work of the committee from its begin- 
ning, resigned from the board of agriculture, and the commit- 
tee was thereby deprived of his very valuable assistance. Mr. 
Francis H. Appleton, who had also been a member of the- 
committee from the first, resigned from the committee soon 
after the decision of the legislature not to appropriate the whole 
sum asked for for the year 1894. Thus the committee was 
deprived of the assistance of two members of largest experience. 
The board of agriculture appointed as the committee for 1894, 
E. W. Wood, of West Newton, W. H. Bowker of Boston, 
Augustus Pratt of North Middleborough, and F. W. Sargent of 
Amesbury, to act with the secretary. 

The appropriation for 1894 was not granted until May 23 ; 
and although the committee had reserved nearly $30,000 for^ 



142 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

work while the legislature was considering the appropriation, 
that amount did not suffice to keep the men at work, and on 
May I they were all discharged, to be reemployed a few weeks 
later. In the report of the work for 1894 the committee say, — 
" The indirect losses and delays were quite as important as the 
loss of working time of the men laid oft'. The work has suf- 
fered in the past three years almost as much by delay of appro- 
priations as by refusal to appropriate the sums asked for by the 
committee." Theirreport January i, 1S95, stated that, — " The 
present condition of this region as regards the relative abun- 
dance of the gypsy moth in various sections is as follows : In 
ten of the outer towns the moth has been apparently exter- 
minated ; in five more it has been very nearly exterminated. 
More than a thousand well-marked moth colonies have been 
stamped out of existence. In all of the infested towns such 
sections as have been worked over year after year . . . are 
now nearly cleared of the moth, and the general condition of 
the inhabited and cultivated lands is better than ever before. 
Against this favorable condition of such portions of these towns 
we must place the fact which has been revealed by the inspec- 
tion of the past season, — that the woodlands in many of the 
towns are more generally infested than has been hitherto sup- 
posed. Scattered colonies nre now known in the woods or 
several towns. 

" This condition of the forested lands is due to the fact that 
there has not been money enough to provide for the destruction 
of these colonies whenever found. It has been impossible, 
with the means at our command, to make a thorough search of 
all this woodland ; but during the past season special efforts 
have been made to inspect it as far as possible. . . . Though 
many of these forest colonies have apparently had their origin 
within two or three years many others originated at least ten 
years since." 

It should be remembered that this forest land is all within 
the twenty towns now reported as infested. The committee in 
their report called the attention of the legislature to the fact 
that the appropriation had been inadequate to carry on the 
work for extermination in all the extended territory infested, and 
recommended that, if the work for extermination is to be con- 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. I43 

tinned, not less than $200,000 should be appropriated for the 
work of 1895. 

This report was made January 9, 1S95, but it was not till 
May 17 that an appropriation of $150,000, three fourths the 
sum deemed necessary by the committee, was available. The 
help had been discharged for lack of funds about February i, 
and thus more than three months of the best part of the year 
for effectual work had been lost. The old force was set at 
work as soon as funds to pay the men were available, and new 
men were examined and employed as rapidly as possible, and 
at this time, August 15, 1895, about 230 men are at work. 
Many encouraging features are encountered, among them the 
fact that very few caterpillars are found in places that were 
thoroughly worked the past two years. The territory reported 
as apparently cleared seems to be free from the caterpillars, 
while, on the other hand, the woodlands and other localities 
that were neglected for lack of funds are not in an encouracringr 
condition. 

The appropriation for the present year is being expended as 
carefully and economically as possible, with a view to reducing 
the territory infested on the outskirts, and the controlling of the 
woodland and the central and worst infested parts by reducing 
the numbers of the moth to as few as possible with the means 
at the command of the committee. 

It has from the first been the policy of the committee in 
charge of the work to ask counsel, suggestions, and criticism 
from the foremost economic entomologists of the country. Dr. 
C. H. Fernald, professor of entomology at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, has been the committee's entomologist 
from the beginning. Prof. C. V. Riley and Prof. L. O. How- 
ard of the U. S. Department of Agriculture ; Prof. Samuel 
Henshaw of the Boston Natural History Society ; Prof. S. H. 
Scudder of Cambridge; Prof. J. H. Comstock of Cornell Uni- 
versity ; Prof. J. B. Smith of the Agricultural College Experi- 
ment Station of New Jersey ; Prof. A. S. Packard of Brown 
University ; Prof. C. M. Weed of the New Hampshire Agri- 
cultural College ; Prof. H. T. Fernald of the Pennsylvania 
State College ; Prof. J. A. Lintner, State Entomologist of New- 
York ; Prof. F. L. Harvey of the Maine State College ; and 



144 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Dr. G. H. Perkins of the University of Vermont, have all met 
the committee. Most of them have carefully examined the work 
and expressed approval of the methods adopted. 

Most careful observations of the habits and peculiarities of 
the gypsy moth have been made and recorded from the begin- 
ning, and the committee are about publishing a scientific report 
to contain all that has been learned of the moth in this and for- 
eign countries, together with methods of dealing with it and a 
description of its natural enemies, including birds and insects. 

The problem of extermination is greatly complicated by the 
large area of forest land within the bounds of the infested 
territory. Such partial inspections of this forest land as the 
appropriations have made possible have from time to time 
been made and have proved that the opinion formed from 
first indications. — "That the forested land had not been 
invaded to any considerable extent," was not correct. The 
more thorough inspection given these lands the past year 
has shown several badlv infested places in the interior of 
these forests, some of them at considerable distance from 
highways and cleared lands. The caterpillars were evidently 
carried into the interior of the woods several years ago, 
by teams employed in hauling wood to the brick-yards sit- 
uated in the territory first occupied by the moth. As the female 
moth does not fly, the principal danger of spreading into new 
territory is from transportation of caterpillars from thickly 
infested regions by teams, or upon the persons of passing peo- 
ple. To prevent this the territory along railroads, highways, 
and streets has been kept clear of caterpillars, and the culti- 
vated land and the villages have had careful attention. In the 
outer towns of the infested district such progress has been made 
that more than one third of the infested territory is now appar- 
ently clear of the moth, and were it not for the difficulties 
attending extermination in the forest laud, final extermination 
would seem to be assured within a few years, if the work is 
continued with liberal appropriations. 

The work is of interest to New Hampshire and in fact to all 
the temperate zone of North America, for, from the experience 
of Massachusetts with the gypsy moth, it seems certain that if 
let alone it will spread over all the country. Massachusetts 



THE WAR AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH. I45 

has appropriated $525,000 for the work and has at least kept 
the new pest within the limits occupied by it when the work 
began. The people of the state are restive under the large 
expense and feel that, as it is a matter that concerns all the 
states, the general government should assume the work, or at 
least bear a large proportion of future expenditures. Congress 
has been asked in each of the last two years to do this, but has 
done nothing. Whether Massachusetts will furnish the large 
amounts necessary to continue the work is uncertain. Her 
people think she has shown a commendable and generous pub- 
lic spirit, and many of them believe that she has done her full 
share in fighting a national enemy, and that if the national gov- 
ernment refuses to assist in the work it should be abandoned. 

The expense of holding the moth within the territory already 
occupied will be very nearly as large as the cost of a continued 
campaign for extermination, and those in charge of the work 
believe that every possible eflbrt should be made for extermin- 
ation, and that if the work is abandoned the whole nation will 
never cease to regret it. 
10 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. 



BY THE SECRETARY. 



Education is a word of broad significance. The training of 
the intellect and all otlier God-given faculties is included in its 
sphere. Its limitations are as wide as the earth itself, and its 
power is so extensive as to be incomprehensible. We are told 
that intellectual culture is the only remedy for intellectual paral- 
ysis, and we may claim with equal force that manual training is 
the most effectual remedy for physical inactivity, sometimes 
termed laziness, for nothing stimulates a person to greater ac- 
tivity than the ability to do difficult things well. This intel- 
lectual culture is not the need of the professional man merely, 
but of all men in all vocations, and when combined with manual 
training, makes the sailor go up from the forecastle to the 
quarter-deck, changes apprentice to master, the mill hand to 
agent, the laborer to employer, tlie journeyman to contractor, 
the scavenger to capitalist. 

Education begins with the first spark of intelligence in the 
mind of the infant, and ends only with the departure of reason 
or life. 

It is the motive power that raises man above the brute crea- 
tion, and while it affords the means of acquiring a livelihood 
and perhaps wealth, ranks higher than wealth when subjected 
to a court of competent jurisdiction. However ornamental it 
may be, its usefulness depends upon its character and this sug- 
gests a train of thought upon "Practical Education" which 
will be our theme to-day. 

School days represent not the period of getting an education, 
but the period of laying the foundation of life study. It is as- 
serted that but one person in thirty gets beyond the common 
school in educational institutions. How important it is then 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I47 

that our common schools be intensely practical in their instruc- 
tion, and at least furnish tiie pupil with a coriect foundation 
for life study and life work. 

I desire to call attention to an extract from an address on 
horticultural education delivered not long ago b}' one of the 
teachers of Boston. He says: " A large majority of our pub- 
lic schools have done little or nothing in the study of plants, 
insects, minerals, and soils, alleging that such studies are not 
practical. For years past we have been reaping the natural re- 
sults of a system of education, that intentionally or uninten- 
tionally, turns all our young people for a livelihood towards 
the occupations of teachers, college professors, lawyers, physi- 
cians, clergymen, book-keepers, salesmen, musicians, artists, 
agents, and business men, under which head, multifarious and 
heterogeneous legions of middle men are pleased to class them- 
selves. These men have had the control of educational atlairs 
and they have kept the schools turning out their kind so long that 
there is unquestionably in this country an overwhelming sur- 
plus of middlemen, non-producers, and men living bj' their 
wits. Such surplus is certain to make trouble. All are de- 
termined to live in affluence, if possible — genteelly at all events." 

The truth of this statement will be recognized by all who 
have given the subject any consideration. Do not misun- 
derstand this. We do not decry culture. Intellectual training 
is to be prized but practical knowledge is necessary to make it 
available. The experience gained from books is of the nature 
of learning, but the experience gained from practice is wisdom ; 
and an ounce of the latter is worth a pound of the former. All 
history shows that the great acts in the development of a coun- 
try have not been performed by men of fine culture. There 
were wise men in Europe before there were printed books. 

At a gathering in Australia not long since, four persons met, 
three of whom were shepherds on a sheep-farm. One of these 
had taken a degree at Oxford, another at Cambridge, the third 
at a German University. The fourth was their employer, rich 
in flocks and herds, but scarcely able to read and write. Cul- 
ture is valuable, but it requires business training with it to 
bring success. 

We are glad to notice changes for the better and to see 



148 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

needle-work, cooking, manual training for boys, and various 
forms of instruction in the practical work of life, recently intro- 
duced in the common-school curriculum of the most progres- 
sive cities of the land. We also desire to see the study of agri- 
culture universally adopted in our public school system. The 
vast majority of those whose school life ends with the district 
school are destined to be engaged in some branch of productive 
industry — occupations in which manual skill is of primary im- 
portance. And yet, we frame for these, to the exclusion of 
more useful studies, such courses as if their destination were to 
be the author's sanctum, and such programs of geography as if 
they were intended to lead exploring expeditions into the centre 
of Africa ; and the last instruction that has entered our head to 
give them is that which they will require in their daily life from 
the hour they issue from school. We contend that the art of read- 
ing can be acquired as easily by a series of lessons on the cultiva- 
tion of fruit trees, as through a series containing the oratory of 
Burke. And the teaching of practical school gardening would be 
as valuable as setting the pupils to commit to memory the heights 
of the principal peaks of the Rocky mountains. In European 
countries, we find that this has already been done, and we refer 
you to England, France, Germany, and Belgium for the success 
of the scheme. In the latter country, no larger than one of the 
New England states, we find four schools for higher agricul- 
tural education, thirty-three secondary schools with forty short 
courses in agriculture, and numerous courses in agriculture in 
normal and primary schools. 

While other nations are decreasing in their relative agricul- 
tural interests, France is working in the other direction. 
France spends for the encouragement of agriculture yearly 
$8,000,000. The farms of France are the best cultivated in the 
world and her production per capita has doubled in half a cen- 
tury. In Paris is located the renowned Agricultural Univer- 
sity ; also three National Schools of Agriculture, one of Horti- 
culture, one of Dairying, three of Veterinary Science, two of 
Forestry, and two Shepherds' Schools. We are told that the 
15 agricultural colleges in France educate 700 lads a year in 
the science and practice of agriculture at 18 pounds each. To 
these must be added a professorship of agriculture in each of 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I49 

the S6 departments or districts into which France is divided, 
with farm schools, experimental stations, fields, and colonies. 
Besides all this in 1850 agriculture was made optional in all 
public schools, and in 1859 a law compelled each normal 
school to prepare for teaching agriculture and to fit all the 
teachers of France for instructing in land culture. 

In England elementary education in agriculture has been in- 
troduced into the public schools, and the examination made by 
school officials includes an investigation of the proficiency at- 
tained by the scholars in the agricultural studies. Whatever 
the avocation in life, no boy or girl will sutler harm from ele- 
mentary knowledge in these practical subjects. Austria spends 
annually $4,000,000 for the encouragement of agriculture, and 
Germany $2,850,000. The amount annually appropriated by 
the United States government for this purpose is about $3,000,- 
000 to which must be added a vast sum appropriated by states 
and bequeathed by individuals. 

When this instruction in the elements of agriculture shall 
have been introduced in our public schools there will be more 
students apply for admission in our agricultural colleges than 
in the past, and more will receive an honorable admittance to 
the business of husbandry, the highest industrial occupation 
open to mankind. The agricultural colleges of the country are 
capable of great things in advancing the interests of agriculture 
through the means of practical education. 

Established at a time when there existed but little interest in 
agricultural education, and wiien there were neither text-books 
nor instructors, it is not strange that they were more or less 
diverted from their original purpose by literary institutions and 
in some instances became useless adjuncts of classical colleges. 
And later on, when additional appropriations were being 
secured from congress, the present restriction of such funds to 
technical instruction was vigorously opposed by a committee 
acting for these colleges. 

The industrial classes which should receive the advantages 
of these institutions form a vast army compared with the few 
that will ever avail themselves of the classical and literary col- 
leges. It is, therefore, my friends, of the greatest importance 
that you and I use every efibrt, even at this late day, to increase 



150 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

the usefulness and patronage of these institutions and recom- 
mend them to farmers' sons and daughters. It was the inten- 
tion of those who assisted in providing the means for establish- 
ing these schools that the education furnished should be of a 
practical nature as related to the work of the farm and the 
shop. While they were expected to be something more than 
trade schools, they were not expected to be classed with the 
literary colleges of the land. There is abundant evidence that 
there is honor in serving the great class of people who are fit- 
ting for the industrial pursuits of life by training the intellect 
and the hand at the same time. Taking the boys and girls 
from the common school and fitting them for the most skillful 
performance of life's work, and for becoming useful and honor- 
able citizens. In short, giving them a practical education. 

It is sometimes asserted that it is impossible to determine for 
what a boy is best adapted, and hence he must get a general 
literary education and then see in what direction his tastes lead 
him. The successful farmer knows the adaptation of all his 
farm animals. He knows the quality of soil in each of his 
fields and to what it is best adapted. He studies the market 
and transportation rates. 

Is it unreasonable to suppose that he will have become so 
familiar with the nature of his children that he will, with 
greater safety guide their future career, than allow them ta 
choose from their own inclinations? We are told that there was 
once a man who, wanting to learn for what profession his son 
was best adapted, finally hit upon the expedient of shutting 
him up in a room with a Bible, an apple, and a dollar bill. 
For he reasoned thus: If on his return he found him reading 
the Bible he would make a minister out of him ; if eating the 
apple, a farmer; and if playing with the dollar bill, a banker. 
Well, as the story goes, when he returned he found the boy had 
solved all difficulties. He had pocketed the dollar bill, had 
eaten the apple, and was sitting on the Bible. Recognizing 
the eternal fitness of things, the anxious father immediately 
made a politician out of him. This may not be an inapt illustra- 
tion of the way in which the career of many a youth is deter- 
mined, and which would of course be less sensible than leav- 
ing the occupation to be chosen by the boy himself. 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I5I 

But time is passing, and we have said but little in regard to 
those of whom we specially desire to speak, — the young men 
and women who are just entering upon the active duties of life. 
It is upon them and their associates that the welfare of New 
England will soon depend. The welfare of New England 
depends not upon her gifted orators, eminent scholars, and cul- 
tured linguists, renowned and influential as they may be, but 
upon the skill, energy, and acquired ability of the various indus- 
trial classes. Agriculture and manufacture form the base of 
our prosperity, and as the standard of these industries is raised 
or lowered, so the standing of our New England, that we all 
love so well, is exalted or depressed. You have all noticed 
how those massive buildings in our cities are raised. How 
jack screws are placed underneath, one after another, until 
perhaps a thousand are in place. Then the workmen, turning 
each once around, the building begins to rise and finally is 
placed many feet in the air. This is a homely illustration of 
the work of advanced institutions. Our industrial colleges are 
engaged in advancing the greatest industrial interests of the 
land. A class is graduated this year, another next, and another 
the year after. Its members go out into life's work each pre- 
pared to do something for the welfare of his state and country 
in his chosen line. Each adds something to the resources of 
the country. The influence of each is uplifting, and by and by, 
like the massive building, we shall see the great interests of 
agriculture and manufactures, with all auxiliary interests, 
raised by the power of their efforts. 

One of the gravest mistakes made in these days is that when 
a young man leaves school and college his education \%Jinished. 
The boy leaves the grammar school at the age of fourteen with 
what he calls a finished education. The ambitious vouth goes 
forth from the village academy with a finished education. The 
collegian is graduated from the university, sells his text-books 
to a freshman, piles up his acquirements in musty alcoves, and 
begins life with a finished education. Perish the thought. 
Education is never finished. 

Agassiz, holding in his hands the treasures of an organic 
world, was a student to the day of his death. Sir William 
Jones and Elihu Burritt, the two men who learned so many 



152 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

languages, were students to the day of their departure to the 
great University above. Sir William Jones could speak eigh- 
teen languages and many dialects, and yet could keep silent in 
them all. " Yes," said Michael Angelo, at the age of ninety 
years, to a young man who had finished his education, whom 
he met on his way to the Colosseum. " Yes, I still go to learn.'' 

While it is true that the science of agriculture in this country is 
still in its infancy, and men who have spent a life in its study 
have mastered but a small part of it, yet even the few principles 
that have been taught will be of vast benefit to its students, and, 
through their influence, to all with whom they associate. The 
studies in plant growth will cause a deeper interest in the crops 
produced. Each period in the growth of a field of corn will be 
watched with more intelligence, and be the cause of greater 
satisfaction, because of the knowledge of cause and effect. The 
study of the origin and composition of soils will lead to an en- 
thusiastic appreciation of the wealth of nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid, and potash stored up in the dirty acres of the old farm, 
and the best method of making it available for man's uses will 
be changed thereby from seeming drudgery to feelings of honor 
and respect. The knowledge that has been gained by the prac- 
tical study of entomology will lead the young farmer to look 
upon bugs and creeping things of a destructive nature with 
little dread for he knows their habits and with the scientific 
application of known remedies he conducts his business with 
feelings of assurance, and is master of the situation. Those 
principles of stock feeding that are recognized authority the 
world over are made interesting and even attractive from the 
application given in agricultural educational institutions. 

When we consider the intricate problem of drainage and 
compare the former process with the recent developments 
whereby all surplus water is taken from the soil with the least 
possible outlay of time and money, reducing the operation almost 
to the nicety of an art ; when we for a moment reflect upon the 
marvelous developments that have been made in the study of 
forestry and the vast financial returns that would accrue to the 
forest owners of the country from an intelligent and systematic 
harvesting of their forest products, when we call to mind the 
principles that have been established in regard to the sources of 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I53 

plant food and the various means of supplying needed fertility, 
coupled with the fact that a well known experiment station re- 
cently states in a bulletin that the farmers of the state were 
annually paying $100,000 for worthless material in what are 
considered standard brands of fertilizers ; when we consider the 
possibilities of irrigation in the development of agriculture and 
the knowledge already acquired in this branch of science ; 
when we recognize the recent development in veterinary sci- 
ence, and its bearing upon farming methods ; when we consider 
that this enumeration could be almost indefinitely extended, 
having a bearing upon a thousand farm practices and forming 
the basis of the practical part of an agricultural education and 
resulting in raising the business of farming from one of drudgery 
to an honorable and self-respecting occupation, we are led to 
congratulate those who have become interested in this line, and 
to assure them that they are in one sense pioneers in what will 
later engross the mind and receive the attention of a much 
larger number than at present. It may be true that the science 
of agriculture has not been reduced to a pedagogical form, as 
some of our educators claim, but we are inclined to accept the 
opinion of the Boston teacher whom we have previously quoted, 
and assign as the reason the fact that those in charge of the 
educational atiairs of the country have been more interested in 
conducting them in accordance with a literary standard. 

There is something for the New England farmer to do if 
there is to be a change for the better. He must recognize the 
fact more than ever before that land must be manured with 
brains as well as chemicals, and that a scanty infusion of this 
compound is laid on New England soil, truths which at a very 
heavy cost our community has begun to learn. 

The ideal farmer is a widely accomplished man. Starting 
with a good general education, he has mastered the practice 
and science of farming; knows something of chemistry, 
geology, botany, veterinary surgery^ animal physiology, ento- 
mology ; of mechanics, carpentry, smith-work ; of mensura- 
tion, levelling, land-surveying ; of farriery and of forestry ; of 
dairying, bees, fruit, poultry ; finally, of accurate book-keep- 
ing. Often the New England farmer is strangely ignorant of 
these things. In many instances he pursues the methods of his 



154 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

fathers, covers his land with unsalable crops, refuses scorn- 
fully to make a change in accordance with the changed condi- 
tions, and meets a shrinking exchequer by economy in manures, 
feeding-stafts, and labor, and despairingly continues an exist- 
ence on an impoverished and weed-grown farm. 

This process has long been watched by the agricultural 
expert, and the only plausible means of relief is the applying of 
the educational preliminaries accepted as essential to all other 
industries to this, perhaps the most complex of all. In cereals 
we cannot rival perhaps the broad prairies of the west, but we 
can make a profit in producing these things demanded by the 
near market in fresh and palatable condition if we have the 
advantage of adequate education. This may be sneered at by 
some as professional teaching or book farming, but as a writer 
has well said, " Without this in the future, bankrupt farmers, 
pauper laborers, untilled soil, and a deserted country-side will 
wait penally upon the antiquated process and the unskilled 
worker." 

Our educational institutions can provide the means for an 
agricultural education, and to a certain extent create a demand 
for it and popularize it, but there is also a responsibility in this 
matter resting upon the New England farmers that cannot be 
borne by others. 

We urge all who have boys expecting to become farmers to 
send them to the New Hampshire Agricultural College. The 
various courses in agriculture will offer a variety from which 
can be selected that best adapted to individual needs. Those 
who have been enthusiastic for the establishment of an agricul- 
tural college and for practical training in agriculture must mani- 
fest a disposition to make available that which has been pro- 
vided before additional opportunities can be expected. When 
New Hampshire farmers realize the necessity and advantages 
of scientific training in agriculture and are ready to make it 
applicable to their farm practices and included in their sons' 
equipment then will there be a brighter day dawn upon New 
Hampshire farmers. To hasten this time we urge the patron- 
age of the agricultural college. 

We cannot allow this opportunity to pass without expressing 
what we believe to be a growins: sentiment in favor of rural 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I55 

life, and yet there are unpleasant conditions. As we travel 
over New England we notice many homesteads once occupied 
by those sturd}' fothers and mothers of Puritanic descent, who 
were honorable men and women in every sense of the word, — 
honest, industrious, temperate, self-reliant, patriotic. Christian 
people. They were the foundation from which have descended 
those sons and daughters who have built up our New England 
cities and developed the great West. Our hearts are filled with 
sadness as we notice many of these places occupied by strangers 
who are entirely wanting in the qualities which made the for- 
mer class famous. They but poorly fill the places of those who 
went out from these rural districts to make a world-wide repu- 
tation for this great and glorious nation. A great possibility in 
re-establishing the departed glory of the rural sections of New 
England lies in our agricultural educational institutions. We 
expect to see the day when agriculture will be prominent in all 
educational institutions, when their number will be largely 
increased, and when each will be the radiating centre of such a 
grand scheme of education as will stimulate, invigorate, and 
popularize the occupation of the farmer. We assert that the 
institution that educates even a few to go out among the toiling 
millions and help them up is doing a grander work than that of 
educating men into already over-crowded professions. 

We believe sometime in the near future our New England 
agricultural colleges will rejuvenate New England agriculture 
by sending thousands of graduates where they now send hun- 
dreds to an honorable and happy life upon New England farms. 
No occupation offers such pleasures as to cross the verdant 
fields in the morning and view growing crops ; meander 
through the brambly pasture and caress the noble animals that 
manifest intelligence and gratitude ; wander through the thrifty 
orchard and stately forest ; gather the birds around us and call 
them all by their names ; this is to live in the country and love 
the country, and make it not the home of the person only but 
of the soul. 

No occupation on the face of the earth begets feelings of a 
higher or holier nature or yields more supreme satisfaction. 
These thoughts apply with no little force to the gentler sex. 
The avenues of usefulness open to them are broadening every 



156 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

year. Whatever may attract them in the luie of occupation, it 
should never be forgotten in their education that the home 
influence of a great nation is to be in their hands. The char- 
acter of the home will have a greater influence in shaping the 
efforts of fathers, brothers, and husbands for the welfare of all 
the people of this nation, than some of the more radical meas- 
ures suggested. Young ladies, above all things, should deter- 
mine to shine with queenly grace in their home life, and exert 
an influence there that will be far-reaching and honorable. 

It may be that our earnestness in advocating this practical 
education may leave an impression that we are not in sympathy 
with what is generally termed higher education. We desire 
to disclaim any such intention. The grand mental development 
and culture imparted after leaving the common school by a ten 
vears' application to classical and professional studies is recog- 
nized and appreciated, and in certain cases is invaluable. The 
advocate of an industrial education should not be accused of 
antagonism to the other. The position we have taken upon 
this subject may have brought no new ideas, but if it is a sound 
position it cannot be too often taken in times when there is 
such a tendency to follow in the wake of literary institutions. 
We would have it well understood by the rising generation that 
there can be no less honor in contributing to the industrial 
prosperity of a country than in mere literary attainments. 

Doubtless you have heard of that worthy son of Erin's Isle 
who was sending a valuable package by express and following 
out the custom much in vogue he stamped in bold type, " This 
side up with care." Fearing that this important injunction 
would not come to the attention of the hustling express-man 
unless more prominently displayed, he emphasized by repeat- 
ing it and sent the package upon its journey after plainly mark- 
ing on each of its four sides, " This side up with care." 

We would have such earnestness manifested in this subject 
of practical education, and such demand for it, that instruction 
in agriculture shall be printed in bold type at the head of the 
curriculum of studies issued by all the educational institutions of 
the land where this study is provided by law, and then we 
would have this cinriculum prominently displayed in every 
school-room, in every academy, in every Grange hall, and in 



PRACTICAL EDUCATION. I57 

every other place in the land where people assemble for educa- 
tional purposes, and when securely placed we would print in 
flaming type the inscription of our Irish friend, " This side up 
with care," and thus hasten the good time coming when the 
agricultural people of this nation shall appreciate the practical 
instruction in all the public institutions for the elevation of the 
great fundamental industry, — American agriculture. 

And then we would teach the farmers of this country the 
advantages of industrial education by manifesting in their 
homes, on their farms, in the market places, and wherever we 
meet them, such absolute confidence in its utility and its advan- 
tages for their children, over a literary education simply, that 
they would be made to realize the honor and dignity of tlie 
true husbandman, and together, the farmers and the managers 
of industrial schools, we would fight valiantly for restoring, in 
some degree, the integrity of mind and heart among our rural 
population ; and when that shall have been accomplished we 
will have in our New England country towns the foundation 
for ideal country life. 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. 



BY JOSEPHINE S. TOWLE, FREEDOM, N. H. 



In the country home, upon the farm especially, the most 
significant lack is the varied converse of congenial friends. 
"Nobody to come in, no place of interest to visit, nothing going 
on," is a quotation from scores. Yet just at hand are friends 
innumerable, who will talk as much and as often as we like in 
words most proper, upon any subject we choose. Clergymen, 
philosophers, statesmen, scientists, and poets are waiting to 
hold familiar discourse with evei'y soul upon these New Eng- 
land hills, not idle, casual chatter, but studied, finished, and 
wisest instruction. 

Those who have recognized and utilized the companionship, 
as found in choice books, have received their best, truest, and 
most helpful friends. For we must rise to their level, if w^e 
•enter into their spirits as they cannot, like our personal friends, 
descend to us. In this way books are among our very best 
means of discipline as well as culture. It is far better to talk 
with great thinkers and reformers than to spend our time gos 
siping, even with our next-door neighbor. The true ethical 
benefit of reading lies then not only in the help to an every da}- 
upward rising of soul and mind, but in the strengthening of 
our powers in the direction of making ourselves more useful. 

If we wish truly to know ourselves, we can in no surer way 
ascertain the facts than by giving attention to the kind of books 
which give us the most enjoyment and satisfaction. If dissatis- 
fied with the result of our investigation then good courage must 
be preserved until, by force of habit, taste for the best has been 
cultivated and established. We must have a healthy mentality 
if we succeed in anything. 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. I59 

As a help in this direction is the hope of something better to 
be accomplished in the fnture. Perhaps, what we expect to do 
or be, is the power of life ; we are sure it is in a way the motor 
to all energetic and helpful living. To the milder soul who 
does not have this kind of ambition may always come the 
desire to not allow life to get monotonous but to keep alive the 
fire of life by either the grasping of new thoughts or of review- 
ing old ideas. It is not in these matters a question of few 
talents or many. A few talents improved are better than many 
unimproved. The average person is by far the most numerous 
sort, those who go beyond and those who fall short of the aver- 
age are the exceptions. Neither is it a question of belong- 
ing to this class or that. Great literary productions have 
not most frequently been produced by those in high stations. 
There is nothing to hinder anyone then from doing any work 
they are capable of doing in this line and literature adapted to 
all may be had for the seeking. A good book costs no more 
than a bad one. General reading is not study. Systematic 
reading for some special ol)ject is the student's method. In my 
judgment it is the most successful and safest mode of proceed- 
ure. Method helps and insures accuracy. To be accurate is 
to be educated in a sense. When once accuracy is established 
then every thing we read is for our best purpose. By system 
we mean this, if we wish to know England's past and present 
we read continuously its social, political, and i-eligious histories, 
its intellectual development and all its relations to other 
nations. Take up its literature by reading Shakspeare, Milton, 
Bacon, Macaulay, Carlisle, and Ruskin. In the lighter litera- 
ture Dickens gives a good idea of the lower English classes, 
Thackera}' portrays the higher classes, and George Eliot the 
agricultural people. In this way we get a thorough knowl- 
ledge of one nation and quite an extended knowledge of many 
others, also a drilling in the best of literature. Is it not much 
more practical and sensible than to read perhaps " Trilby " 
followed by " Ten Years Digging in Egypt," "John Halifax, 
Gentleman," " My Opinions and Betsey Bobbett's," "Mary 
Qiieen of Scotts." "The Heavenly Twins," " Lorna Doone," 
"All He Knew," finishing a month's reading with " Old Bethle- 
hem." These are all good books in a way but bear about as 



l6o NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

much relation to each other as the Almanac bears to the History 
of China, Japan, or Arnold's " Light of Asia." 

The reason for this hap-hazard way of doing is that so few 
read for lasting good and to make the most of time and oppor- 
tunity. Some read to kill time, others to prepare for a nap ; 
some to keep cool ; others dawdle over books with minds half 
asleep ; some read from habit, others to be thought literary. 
We must admit, however, that it is better to read good books in 
this way than to be idle or misemployed. A large number of 
students are working in their homes. The evening hours, the 
waiting times, and spare moments are made available for any 
line of study chosen and good work is being done. Putting 
aside students and system, the question, what shall we read.-* 
confronts us. What shall not be read may be a much easier 
query to answer, because what to read simply as desultory 
reading depends much on the intellectual status of the reader. 

The obvious truth is, some do and always will read what 
they like irrespective of any other object or guidance. But 
literature belongs to that kind of knowledge which is power, 
therefore, to read nothing but newspapers and novels is not 
only a waste of time, but tends to weaken the powers of atten- 
tion and concentration and relax the mental fibre. Howell s 
says: " The women are in fact the miscellaneous readers in 
our country. They make or leave unmade most literary repu- 
tations." Another noted author says that '■'• Genius is subject 
to the same law which regulates the production of cotton and 
molasses. The supply adjusts itself to the demand." There 
being many women, there is an enormous demand. To meet 
this a host of writers have entered the field who make a good 
livelihood, yet lack moral stamina. They fashion too much after 
French models. The workmanship of the French is superior 
to ours, but the subjects have demoralizing tendencies in too 
many cases. In this business as in every other skilled work- 
men are few. 

That Americans are a novel loving people is a fact. Stories 
are to amuse and for mental recreation, yet thev have a potent, 
formative force especially upon the young. If the yellow cov- 
ered dime novel will cause boys to run away to sea or else- 
where and girls to elope, then the highly moral, elevating story 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. l6l 

must help in the making of noble men and women by the same 
law. Many of the vices of the day are the result of evil 
thoughts suggested by bad books and papers. It has been 
stated that in 1840 we had in these United States one criminal 
in about each 3,000 people. 

After fifty years of progress, in 1890 we had one in about 
each 700 people. The cause attributed for this degeneration 
in morals, was a political one. Low grades from foreign 
nations as American citizens have made demands even in the 
line of reading matter and have generally got what they asked 
for. Editors of daily papers tell us that crime must be set out 
in the most intense, detailed, and emphatic manner to suit the 
abnormal tastes of the many whose appetites have become 
vitiated by long gorging on indecencies. 

Too much literature is made for money, to wile away time 
without any ethical trend. As we are in the mass a novel read- 
ing people and likely to remain so, it may be well to consider 
the different classes of prose fiction. " Evelina," by Frances 
Burney, (afterward Madame D'Arblay,) was the first English 
novel that survived. Previous to that the very name of novel 
was a horror to all decent people. They called the circulating 
library an evergreen-tree of diabolical knowledge. Miss 
Burne3''s appearance and work was an important epoch in 
English literary history. Her books were forceful, yet moral 
and clean. She opened the way for women in letters and 
made that way honorable. As classes we have the romancer, 
the idealist, and the realist. The romance sprang up in the 
Middle Ages in the form of Arthur and the Round Table, the 
Holy Grail and Parzival. As a school it was opposed to the 
classical style. To be exact, there was a difference between a 
romancer and a romanticist. The one has reference to the 
spirit and the other the style of writing. Now we class them 
under one head. The Romance movement culminated in 
Scott. He was the typical romancer. His novels are the 
highest type of prose fiction : not only do we find the plot and 
adventure but keen observance of life and knowledge of men. 

Ivanhoe is pronounced by many the best novel ever written. 
In this Romantic School we find the poets, Gray, Collins, 
11 



l62 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Woodsworth, and Cowper. Milton still held to the classical 
style, being the most scholarly of the English poets. His books 
are of the highest moral character. The idealist delights in an 
imaginary standard of excellence. Such as exists only in the 
imagination. The ideal is the gathering of all good into one 
character, excluding every defect. Both the idealist and the 
romancer indulge in all kind of picturesque fancies, not quite 
to the degree of being sensational, although some come xiear 
it. The realist deals with commonplace affairs that he act- 
ually sees. He imagines nothing ; deals with the practical. 
William Dean Howells is a typical realist. His lack of noble 
ideals has been adversely noted by foreign critics. Lady Vir- 
ney, in a criticism in a foreign magazine, says : 

" Is it fair to judge of American women by the pictures drawn 
in American story books of to-day ? The first and most strik- 
ing trait in these books," says Lady Virney, " is the extraordi- 
nary respect for class distinction, position, and money. Next 
comes the value set upon dress." 

The importance of the gown question, as portrayed in Amer- 
ican books, can hardly be imagined by the European mind. 
Consequently, the lady concludes from these specimens that 
the American young lady must be a supremely uninteresting 
human being. This conclusion is not pleasant for us to con- 
template, but our American mind is relieved, however, when we 
remember that Bishop Brooks said that " it is not what we have 
or what we know that decides for us our right to the title of 
true womanhood, but what we are, and what we are is the 
result of multiplying our characters by our circumstances." If 
Howells has been faithful in obtaining a true product of such a 
multiplication, then we must accept his version, for if he sees 
a beggar, he is only a beggar, and not a prince in disguise. 

The realistic movement was thought to have done much for 
Germany at the time when she seemed incapable of rising above 
her condition. She had waded through centuries of blood, fought 
for religion and recognition among the nations, sacrificed the 
lives of thousands of her people for the unification of the whole. 
Although successful in politics, the condition of the individual 
had not improved. All the learned men began to analyze life, 
and all came to the same conclusion. They must strike at the 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. 163 

root of the matter. They tried to find the root, but could not. 
They became depressed and so expressed themselves in their 
literature. At the time when she stood highest, she turned to 
pessimism, or the assumption that the worst will happen and 
we cannot help it. Yet men kept thinking. All at once they 
turned to realism. Idealism, with Goethe at its head, was dis- 
carded. They said that the roots of the tree of society rested in 
the soil of a poisonous lie, and began to encourage the masses 
by showing them that there was a chance for everyone on 
higher ground, that nobody in real life ever was or could be 
like the ideals set before them. That in real life no one acts 
or speaks like those in romance, neither when they are happy 
nor angry, not even when they are in love unless they are 
cranks. Those new novels had for their subjects the stirring 
events of the times and were peopled with real peasants. The 
work struck a powerful chord in the heart of the German peo- 
ple. The tree began to feel the influence of the soil called 
truth, and grew and thrived. The eternal law of nature is the 
spirit of the realist. 

Robert Southey said there was another class of writers called 
the " Satanic School," of which Lord Byron was the leader. 
There was reason for this, for Lord Byron had created in the 
minds of many an association of intellectual power with moral 
depravity. The ethics drawn from his poetry, says another 
noted writer, seemed to centre in two great commandments, — 
•' hate your neighbor, be sure to love your neighbor's wife." 

If we wish perfection of form, or something for study in 
style, we must go to the classics for highest teaching, bearing 
in mind their limitations, that they were pagans seeking for 
light. If a Greek wished instruction he walked to the market 
place. All their instruction was by dialogue or conversation. 
Socrates conversed with Plato and many others. He caused 
much to be written but did not write a word himself that has 
survived. Homer's Iliad is the leading poem of the world in re- 
gard to art. Herodotus, 408 B. C, was the father of history as 
Homer was the father of poetry ; Socrates, the foremost philos- 
opher ; Plato, the foremost philosophical writer ; Sappho, the 
foremost woman of genius. Plato called her the tenth muse. 
yEschylus represents tragic poetry, and Demosthenes oratory ; 



164 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

and with Demosthenes, perished the last of the free voices 
of Athens. 

Greece was the first civilized nation of Europe, and many of 
the ideas and institutions of the modern world had their source 
with the Greeks. The Greek literary spirit did not die with 
Demosthenes, but took a flight to Rome, and into all the various 
literatures that have flourished in Europe since the Christian era. 
In Rome it manifested itself in Cicero, Sallust, Virgil, Horace, 
Juvenal. These Romans gave a language and also a law and 
spirit to early French literature, which was entirely unlike that of 
the present period. Out of the confusion Dante brought the Ital- 
ian tongue. He was its creator. On mankind no man except 
Shakespeare has looked with a more penetrating eye. It is the 
opinion of many critics that his Divine Comedy is the only poem 
of more modern times which can compare with Milton's Para- 
dise Lost. What the men were in their inner lives marked 
their works with a different spirit. Milton was exalted, 
although he had blindness, sickness, poverty, domestic trouble, 
public neglect and abuse, yet he rose superior to all, and dwelt 
in a majestic peace. Dante was melancholy and it came from 
within as well as without. He was uniformly sorrowful, and 
so marked his works. So we mark all our efforts in life with 
what we are. 

French literature, taken as a whole, may not be the wisest 
or purest, but it is full of life and brightness. French classi- 
cism had its culmination in Louis XIV, in the 17th century. 
The Hotel de Rambouillett and the French Academy were the 
two organized forces that did the work. The Academy was 
established by the great Cardinal Richelieu in the time of Louis 
XIII, and the salons by the wife of Marquis de Rambouillett for 
the purpose of trying what feminine wit and virtue could do 
towards regenerating the manners and morals of France. 
These were wonderful gatherings. Here came Balzac and 
Voltaire, Corneille and Descartes, Bossuet and Bourdaloue, 
and here Madame De Sevigne brought her beauty, and un- 
blemished reputation. Louis XIV himself was the centre of 
all intellectual movements, and this was the grand intellectual 
age of France. Then came the writings of the infidels, Vol- 
taire, Diderot, and Rousseau in the seventeenth and eighteenth 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. l6$ 

centuries. They prepared the way for the French Revolution. 
During this time their literature was nearly extinguished. The 
Salon flourished until the middle of the present century, expir- 
ing with the beautiful Madame Recamier. 

The two bright stars of the last part of the eighteenth and 
the first part of the nineteenth centuries were Chateaubriand 
and that great woman whom Napoleon feared, Madame De 
Stael. Victor Hugo's great personality, combined with Shak- 
speare's influence, at last broke the power of the classicists and 
gave the lead to the romancer. Victor Hugo became the 
mouthpiece of an outraged nation. Gambetta was one who 
caught the spirit of his writings. Hugo was exiled to the Isle 
of Guernsey, and for eighteen years he stirred France whether 
they would or not. All his Romanticist friends were faithful 
to him, even those who accepted the emperor, like Gautier and 
Saintebeuve, and stood by him. In the closing days of the 
empire, Hernani was put upon the stage, and was warmly 
received by the people. So during the entire reign of Napo- 
leon III Hugo lived in the midst by his mighty pen. We owe 
much to the Germans for one thing and another. But we must 
be wise and discriminating. They are a broad-thinking people. 
Broad-thinking, without depth, is too apt to be free-thinking. 
Their literature was born with Martin Luther's great transla- 
tion of the Bible into German. 

Lessing's bold criticism upon Voltaire was an influence felt 
by the whole western world. Voltaire was the mighty power 
of his time, and swayed all France with his skepticism. 
Viewed from our nineteenth century standpoint there were 
many extenuating circumstances in his case. Christianity was 
presented to the world at that time by Roman Catholicism only. 
The Roman Catholic church of the time was so corrupt that 
the priests acknowledged they could scarcely perform their 
duties with a sober face. Voltaire's sharp eye saw through 
the meshes where other eyes did not penetrate. The German 
Richter and Schiller are morally inspiring. Goethe with his 
Faust we leave to the taste of the reader. For a book in which 
to find a concentrated account of modern Europe read " Rome, 
and the Making of Modern Europe." 

Some of our best history is poetry. Much of English history 



l66 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

is learned from Shakspeare ; of the early German from the 
Niebelungenlied, their national epic ; and of the Spanish from 
the Cid. American literature of any merit is the product of 
the last three quarters of a century. In the early times men 
were acting and not writing. There was scarcely any previous 
to Washington Irving's " Knickerbocker's History of New 
York," worthy to be called literature. In 1S23 Cooper's 
"Pioneer and Leather Stocking Tales" were published, por- 
traying the i-estless energy and love of adventure which was a 
feature of American life at that time. Then came the Unita- 
rian revolt from Puritan orthodoxy led by Channing. This 
had an influence upon every soul born within the last three 
quarters of the century. It was an intellectual movement, and 
prepared the way for eminent writers of the next generation. 
In New England it took its point of departure in the churches, 
as did every change. This movement culminated in the only 
school of writers of which America can boast, the Transcen- 
dentalists. Transcendentalism is a high form of idealism. It 
resulted in the formation of the Brook Farm Community at 
Roxbury, a society governed by socialistic principles. It 
proved a failure. George Ripley, a Unitarian clergyman, was 
its leading man. Ralph Waldo Emerson, descendant of eight 
generations of clergymen, was the foremost spirit among those 
Transcendentalists. Theodore Parker was their pulpit orator. 
This was still another departure from conservative Unitari- 
anism. The Channing Unitarians, while denying that Christ 
was God, held him to be divine. While rejecting the vicari- 
ous sacrifice, they accepted Him as a mediator and believed in 
miracles. 

The Transcendentalists called Christ simply a good and 
great man, divine only in the sense that God possessed him 
more fully than any other known. They placed him with 
Buddha, Socrates, and Confucius, and the Bible with all 
other ethical writings. Among those writers were Thoreau, 
Alcott, and Margaret Fuller. They published two papers, the 
Dial and the Harbuiger. Upon their pages were found the 
names of such men as Horace Greeley, George W. Curtis, and 
T. W. Higginson. Emerson sweetened and brightened all the 
by-ways and places in rural life by his highly idealistic views^ 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. 167 

and his books are dear to all nature lovers. He was called the 
"■glorified farmer," because he so much loved secluded places 
w^here he could commune alone with nature. He was exalted 
in thought and aspiration. He said, " Let every man live as 
upon a mountain so the world may see how God intended a 
true man to live." Tells us to " hitch our wagon to a star," 
etc. Later these writers made Concord, Mass., their home. 
That village has done more for American letters than some 
cities. The men who made it famous are asleep in Sleepy 
Hollow, yet their memory and what they have done is still 
able to draw many people to the spot. There was the home of 
Hawthorne. In the " Old Alanse " he carried on his literary 
work. We call him the greatest Ameiican romancer. With 
the conscience for his theme, and the subtile ways in which sin 
works out its own retribution, he tells us of the sombre lives of 
the early settlers. His "Scarlet Letter" is pronounced the 
best novel written on this side of the water. Emerson, 
Holmes, Phillips, Motley, Prescott, Longfellow, Lowell, 
Felton, and Edward E. Hale were a brilliant group of men liv- 
ing at the same time in the vicinity of Boston. 

Longfellow's mission was to refine our taste, he was the 
pioneer of culture. In England he was called the poet of the 
middle classes. Those classes, however, include the majority 
of intelligent leaders. Puritanism was opposed to beauty, and 
looked upon sentiment as idle and weak. Longfellow so 
beguiled their reason through their finer senses that they were 
satisfied that loveliness and righteousness might go hand in 
hand. He began as a translator and so remained all his life, 
and infused the fine essence of European poetry into his own. 
The influence for good exerted by his goodness and truth are 
boundless. He gave a long, clean life to his work. He tells 
how beautiful it is to mix with and read the world, yet keep a 
pure heart, avoiding recklessness and vice. Admonishes us to 
go forth to meet the future without fear and with a stout 
heart. His successors do not find him satisfactory in style, but 
his wisdom and faithfulness to the best in life has rested in the 
" hearts of many friends." 

Among those literary men of that day Holmes ranked first in 
versatility, Lowell as critic, Bancroft, Motley, and Prescott as 



l68 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

our own historians. Whittier sang his songs straight out from 
the heart. His poems on slavery were like the blast of the 
last trump. Great movements have always taken character 
from the literature of the day. Harriet Beecher Stowe's 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin " did more than any other literary agency 
to rouse the people to the sense of a neglected duty. She did 
more than Garrison, Whittier, Lowell, Sumner, or Phillips. 
The War of the Rebellion brought changes in the intellectual 
forces of our country. Authorship was no new thing. Thought 
has passed from nation to nation. From Greece to Italy, from 
Italy to France, from France to England, from England to 
France and Germany, etc. 

All the old writers, Chaucer, Milton, and Shakspeare, bor- 
rowed from Italy ; Goethe and Voltaire from England, and all 
writers from Greece and Rome. America has always been 
proud. The war gave us new pride, and we disliked to borrow 
from other nations. While there were chances innumerable 
for the romancer there started up a mania for realism, for the 
truth, for bare surface facts. Bayard Taylor gave us " Han- 
nah Thurston," a distinctly American book. Holmes, Higgin- 
son, Beecher, and some others still adhered to their old way. 

In 1 87 1 Bret Harte, after living many years among the mines 
and mountains of California, gave us his California stories. 
Rebecca Harding Davis brought choice thoughts from Pennsyl- 
vania ; Edward Eggleston talked to us of the early days of 
Indiana ; Trowbridge showed New York life from the village 
point of view. Constance Fennimore Woolson portrayed life 
as manifested in the Northern Lake region ; George W. Cable 
contributed histories of French Creole life in Louisiana ; and 
Sara Orne Jewett dealt with ideal scenery in isolated places. 
Mary Hallock Foote dashed across our vision with the olive 
leaf of peace as she touched the sweetness of Qiiaker life. Miss 
Murfree told of the mountain districts of Georgia, North Caro- 
lina, and Tennessee. Joel Chandler Harris translated the folk- 
lore of the negro plantation of the South ; and Joaquin Miller 
and Rose Terry Cooke found much that was humorous in local 
manners and customs. 

Humor' which is not fiction is a thing of itself. Who does 
not enjoy a good laugh over Samantha Allen's philosophy and 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. 169 

Mark Twain's humors? Elizabeth Stuart Phelps represented 
dramatic intensity. Thomas Bailey Aldrich told bright stories ; 
Miss Alcott, Mary Mapes Dodge, our Pansy, Stockton, and 
Habberton received their welcome, not only from the nursery, 
but from the whole household. Mrs. Whitney still continued 
to tell good stories of girl life. Dr. Holland took a new im- 
pulse and wrote "Arthur Bonnicastle " and " Seven Oaks," the 
last being rich in material from the social and civil impurities 
of the day. Julian Hawthorne, Lew Wallace, and Edward E. 
Hale came before the public as new men, each taking their 
own prescribed way. Yet we say we have no decidedly 
national literature. It takes many years to evolve such. Her- 
bert Spencer says, — " Because of its size and heterogeneity of its 
components, the American nation will be a long time in evolv- 
ing its ultimate form, but its ultimate form will be high." 
Emerson and Longfellow are the real founders of American 
literatui'e. They will not satisfy those who seek the sensuous 
and passionate in life, but they did the most to instill the true 
idea of poetry into the minds of the masses. Wordsworth pre- 
dicted more than half a century ago that some day there would 
come before the people a person who would be a union of the poet 
and philosopher. Emerson most nearly fulfilled this prediction. 

We realize that the greatest poet has not yet come to us. 
Those of whom we have spoken are but stepping-stones to a 
grander, one who shall study mankind and life in all its phases 
from war and the warrior to the meekest soul and its environ- 
ment. He will be the true apostle with no need to borrow 
from any, with a power to grasp all our American character- 
istics, at the same time setting before us the highest standard of 
living as given us by One who preceded. 

In the meantime we accept all the good but shall persist in 
saying that in neither this generation nor the next will any be 
able to dethrone our Longfellow, Bryant, and Whittier, or to 
elevate Tolstoi, Brander, and the Frenchman Zola, to occupy 
those places so long held by Dickens, Thackeray, Hawthorne, 
Irving, and others. 

Realism cannot be carried to that extent in a country settled 
so few years since by a class of people called Puritans, who 
derived their peculiar characteristics from the daily conternpla- 



170 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

tion of superior beings and eternal interests. If they were 
unread in literature, they were deeply read in the oracles of 
God. This spirit has not become entirely stagnant. We still 
aspire to get beyond our present conditions, looking to a higher. 
How rarely do our words reveal our inner life and aspirations, 
and we do still believe that there is more good in the world than 
some would have us think. 

Good books there are on every hand. We may travel not 
only around the world with scores of people, but to the sun and 
even to the stars. Geology takes us back to the formation of 
the earth, and all the way down through the ages tells us won- 
derful stories out from the truthful past. There was a time when 
really great men were produced by our social conditions and 
form of government. When principle and conscience worked 
for the good of the people in a way that resulted in power and 
influence. The biographies of such men should furnish to 
every American boy and young man examples of industry, tem- 
perance principles, and steadfast courage. 

To read means something more than repeating lines or words. 
Everything a person does in this direction should serve them in 
future usefulness. Even the child may so lay a foundation for 
knowledge. 

The history of the earth and its geography, plain lessons in 
natural science portra3'ing the wonders of nature, the facts so 
interesting to all, both old and young. Any teacher or person 
who can implant a love of such books in the children is a true 
missionary. 

Literature, as taught in our public schools, strengthens the 
intellect, but leaves the best part, the moral part, of the pupil 
uneducated. It is a hard fact for optimistic people to recog- 
nize that while we are growing wiser fast, we are growing bet- 
ter slowly. The nature studies will bring about a change in 
this direction by taking the pupil through God's works up to 
Him. If we need a training in the classics or languages for any 
special purpose, it is for teaching us how to use our own 
mother tongue uniformly well. The American person is a free 
and independent person, and he is just as free and independent 
with his English. Every trade and profession has its own 
peculiar slang. Students of all ages and sizes, from the prim- 



THE ETHICS OF BOOKS. I7I 

arv school to the college, abound in it. Having so many 
books has made us careless. Those old Greeks and Romans 
had no knowledge of the slang of the nineteenth century. Every 
sentence of theirs must be rendered in good English at every 
point. To do this there must be care and attention given to 
what we are doing with words. 

Education is only a means to an end. Therefore we need 
those books which will most surely help to broaden, deepen, 
invigorate, and make us more useful in the world. These sil- 
ent friends cannot do their grandest, best work for us until our 
inner life has been stirred or inspired. That word inspiration 
has a deeper and more intricate meaning than we casually 
think. In the original it means " I blow upon or into." From 
one Book we learn the true source of all high and holy inspira- 
tion. Education is helpful and we must have it ; morality is 
right, useful we ought to be ; and all good books are auxilary 
to the Book of Books, yet if we have missed in any way this 
"blowing in upon" our lives from the true source, it has been 
our own great mistake. We also have learned that we should 
receive a marvellous light reflected from its Author, and that this 
light, if we receive it, will brighten the gloomy places in life 
and quiet the unrest of the human heart. Go back through all 
the cycles of life, through every epoch, and the same light is 
there, everlasting, abiding for ever. If the proof of the eternitv 
of a thing is the trial of ages, we must accept this verity now 
and forever. 

It is life we are dealing with, and any or all training, be it 
ethical or religious, is only helpful and of the right sort when 
it helps us to a power, first over ourselves, and through our- 
selves over otiiers. As country people, let us keep in mind 
that some of the most enduring work the world has known, has 
been done in the quiet of rural life or retirement. It was in the 
silence of a prison that Bunyan did his best work ; it was in exile 
and alone that Dante and others did theirs. So in the silence 
of our isolation we may do our best work. It may not be the 
writing or making of books, but what Providence assigns to 
us will be our best work, and we may do that thoroughly and 
well, at the same time reaching a depth of things enabling 
us, with God's help, to rise above, or equal to, all conditions 
and circumstances. 



CHEMICALS. 



BY PROF. J. W. SANBORN, GILMANTON, N. H. 



Chemicals for agriculture are becoming epoch-making agen- 
cies, especially for sections not favored by nature. They bid 
fair to do for plant nourishment as great a work as those forces 
related to other industrial problems that have marked a revolu- 
tion of profound significance to mankind. 

Plants are the source of all animal life and their amount 
limits the possibilities of population and the cost of its sustenance, 
so that whatever affects their yield, touches a fundamental 
problem of society. 

Malthus, on the premises that the possibilities of plant life 
on the globe were decreasing by waste of fertility into oceans 
and by increasing population, startled and frightened the world 
by the assertion that the period was not far away when popu- 
lation pressing beyond the borders of subsistence would be in a 
continual state of starvation. 

When Liebig, the father of agricultural chemistry, asserted 
that no matter whence their origin, if in a condition soluble in 
water, materials were an efficient source of plant food, and 
taught the world how to make the elements of plant growth 
soluble, he robbed the predictions of Malthus of substantially all 
their force. He cut agriculture from its anchorage to the 
barnyard, from dependence upon domestic animals, as fully as 
steam freed men from dependence upon horses as a means of 
transportation. As steam enlarged the borders and increased 
the activities of commerce, so chemicals will enlarge for sec- 
tions the areas of tillage and increase tillage activities. For 
this section of the country one of the greatest merits of chemi- 
cals is the unshackling of its tillage operations, making possible 
operations on a limitless scale. Our farming of small areas. 



CHEMICALS. 173 

giving very narrow gross returns, may become at once as broad 
as the ambition and deep as the purse of its votaries. Machinery 
and chemicals have made possible operations on as grand a 
scale as on any part of the globe, and since we are at the gate- 
way of the best markets thus invite a vast expansion of our 
tillage operations. While it should be otherwise, it appears 
that the time is not wholly past when the adequacy of chemi- 
cals to feed plants and maintain permanently the fertility of the 
soil needs presentation. Mine shall be brief, for I regard 
accumulation of evidence now substantially equivalent to 
demonstration of the complete efficacy of chemical manures 
in the right system of farming to maintain at least for long 
periods of time abundant crops. 

Sir John B. Lawes of Rothamstead, England, has used 
chemicals for several crops side by side of the application of 
fourteen tons of yard manure annually. For fifty years a section 
to wheat manured with fourteen tons of yard manure, annually 
furnishing 200 pounds of nitrogen yearly or 10,000 pounds for 
fifty years, an amount more than equal to the original contents 
of nitrogen in the soil for its first foot, gave an average annual 
yield of 33J^ bushels of wheat to the acre. For forty years, 
the period in which chemicals were continuous on the amounts 
given below, the yield has equalled for the largest amount 
applied 36}^ bushels to the acre. For barley the yard manure 
for forty years has produced 45)^^ bushels and for chemicals^ 
45^ bushels to the acre. The chemicals supplied in nitrogen 
to the acre were less than one half that furnished by the yard 
manure. Justice, however, demands that we state that for the 
last twenty years of the period the yard manure was making 
slight gains in yield over the first period amounting to three 
fourths of a bushel yearly, while chemicals were losing slightly 
compared with the first twenty years. As an offset to this, 
however, it must be remembered that the yard manure fur- 
nished several thousand pounds more of nitrogen for the period 
than the chemicals ; in fact, the excess thus used in yard manure 
over the chemicals was equal the contents in nitrogen of an 
acre of New Hampshire soil. 

Those who have made a study of chemicals have hesitated 
in giving to them implicit confidence for very long periods in 



174 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

fear that the organic matter of the soil would gradually disap- 
pear, as they furnish far less of organic matter or humus matter 
than yard manure. Humus aftects the temperature, water, 
holding capacity, the physical condition, the chemical changes, 
and other essential factors in fertile soils and a gradual diminu- 
tion of humus, which, on account of its lightness or bulkiness, 
holds the minerals apart and keeps the soil in a fitting physical 
condition for root growth, should be regarded as having a dis- 
astrous tendency. A relief from this fear should be a prerequi- 
site of confidence in chemicals, and for the furtherance of this 
end attention is invited to the fact that chemicals themselves 
contain a large amount of organic matter, although very much 
less than yard manure for the addition of a given quantity of 
fertility. Far more significant is the ratio of organic matter 
that the plant gathers from the atmosphere. It is an accepted 
demonstration that 95 per cent, of our crops averages to be 
taken from materials gathered from the atmosphere through the 
leaves in the form of carbonic acid and through the roots in the 
form of water originating in the atmosphere that when once in 
the plant is by its vital forces worked up into its organic exist- 
ence. For every ton of matter thus grown there is left in and 
on the soil in the form of roots and stubble a large amount of 
this organic matter. Thus a rank crop of clover has been 
found to leave 6,500 pounds to the acre and other crops from 
near this amount down to 1,500 pounds to the acre. The 
speaker examined the roots of nearly all of our staple farm crops 
while director of the Utah experiment station, and found them 
to reach for an area occupied to clover for four years 3,630 
pounds; for oats, i ,S8o pounds; for timothy, 1,303 pounds. 
This was, however, on a sandy, loamy soil, where grass roots 
would be light and the weight also was for only one foot in depth. 
The amount would be considerably increased if taken to the 
entire depth to which they penetrate. Now if 95 per cent, of 
the weight of those roots and stubble came from the atmosphere, 
even though the crop was taken oft' and no part of it ever 
returned, they would still furnish to the soil more organic 
matter than the whole crop took from it. But tillage is an 
operation that results in some natural wastes in the form of 
oxidation and fermentation that in part are thrown off into the 



CHEMICALS. 175 

atmosphere as gases and part leached out of the soil by the 
operations of rains. The only way, then, to determine where 
the balance of these forces lies is to investigate the organic 
matter of the soil that has been handled through long periods 
of time. During the experiment of Sir John Lawes referred 
to above, a test w^as made of the soil on which were placed both 
yard manure and chemicals. This test was made in 1S61 and 
again in 1881. It was found at the lapse of this period of 
twenty years there was an increase of 13,000 pounds on the 
section to which chemicals had been applied. A greater in- 
crease had occurred on the heavily manured area. But the 
fact that the increase occurred where chemical manures alone 
were used is of very great importance, relieving us of the fear 
that their continuous use would result in the impoverishment 
of organic matter and a compacted soil in which plants could 
not flourish. If we regard 160,000 to 180,000 pounds as about 
the average amount of organic matter found in soils in the first 
foot, this increase amounts to approximately 8 per cent. — cer- 
tainly an important amount. 

A WORD FOR YARD MANURE. 

While a radical friend of chemical manures, the speaker is 
not blinded to the merits of yard manures. They are still 
regarded by him, when the product of skillful feeding, still the 
cheapest source of plant food except for remote and the more 
inaccessible fields. If the cheaper source the query will at once 
be, why not make them the sole source of farm fertilization? A 
conclusive reply is that it is not practical to secure them in 
amounts sufficient to conduct intensive, extensive agriculture, 
and that farm recuperation, through the increased production 
of yard manure, requires for many farms substantially a gen- 
eration of time. In a quick age the process is too slow. Chemi- 
cals can be purchased at prices that give, when associated with 
modern farm machinery, a clear and encouraging profit, and 
where the limit of yard manure ceases, the use of chemical 
manures should begin and be continued to the limit of the farm 
to receive them economically. Even though chemicals were 
temporarily as profitable, the use of yard manure might well be 
continued for its physical and chemical effects. 



176 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Though a partial repetition, the special advantages of yard 
manure will be stated : 

First. A pound of organic matter will hold sixfold the mois- 
ture that a pound of ordinary soil will. 

Second. Its dark color receives and imparts heat more readily 
than the minerals. 

Third. Its great bulk for a given weight thrusts the minerals 
apart and retains for the soil greater accessibility to heat and 
aids the movement of moisture up and down and the distribu- 
tion of roots through its area. It is well known that after long 
tillage many farms cease to be efficient producers of plants that 
once flourished on them. It is now believed by Whitney that 
this is more due to the changed physical condition of the soil than 
to exhaustion of fertility. In addition to the physical effects 
mentioned, it may be said that humus is not only a source of 
nitrogen to the plant, but in its decomposition slightly changes 
the temperature of the soil, but particularly in the formation of 
carbonic acid produces an agent of soil decomposition of no 
inconsiderable importance. Because of these virtues of yard 
manure on the one hand and less efficiency of chemicals in this 
regard on the other, I have joined the two in common use, 
believing that when they are combined, spreading the yard 
manure over a greater area than heretofore and making up the 
deficiency with chemicals, a greater gross crop results. 

PERSONAL USE OF CHEMICALS. 

Some twenty-six years ago I purchased at an apothecary 
shop, because nowhere else available in the state, probably 
about the first chemicals in their separate forms ever used in 
the state. By chemicals is not meant super-phosphates. After 
trial a further study of the subject was made in 1S76. Four 
acres distant from buildings, that had been probably for forty 
years mown without fertilization of any kind, were plowed and 
treated with sulphate of ammonia, dissolved bone black, and 
muriate of potash. The result was a crop valued at about one 
hundred dollars an acre, leaving a profit of more than fourfold 
the sale value of the land to which they were applied. It was 
a year of a small potato crop and of a high price. Compared 
to the area on which chemicals were not applied the increase 



CHEMICALS. 177 

was very great. That same fall the speaker began his labors 
for the New Hampshire Agricultural College farm, where for 
six years chemicals were used with marked success and great 
profits, it having been found by soil tests that potash was the 
one material wanting. From thence he went to Missouri State 
College, where for six years in an experimental way chemicals 
on richer soil compared favorably with the results secured from 
the yard manure. For five seasons he was director of the 
Utah experiment station and there chemicals used experi- 
mentally gave results, compared with yard manure, that like all 
preceding ones showed the chemicals to be substantially as 
effective as yard manure. On four dissimilar farms in three 
different states, with measured areas and weighed crops, chemi- 
cals were always found plant nutrients to be depended upon. 
In the meanwhile, encouraged by gathering facts, it was deter- 
mined to institute on a large scale farming on the ancestral 
estate, one of the chief corner stones of which is to be chemical 
farming. As guides to action the father of the speaker, G. W. 
Sanborn, had conducted on Wilson farm, the farm in question, 
plat experiments from thirteen to fifteen years in succession. 
These experiments showed first, that chemicals used in succes- 
sion on worn-out, typical, upland New Hampshire land had 
increased the fertility of the soil and at a profit. 

On my return to the farm to establish chemical farming, in 
1894, eighteen parallel plats on worn-out soil were then in 
grass for the third year since the application of chemicals. The 
chemicals had been used for thirteen years. The entire field 
of ten acres was plowed up and treated to chemicals and 
planted to corn. This third crop revealed the positions of 
plats by variations in yield. A part of these plats were noth- 
ing plats. On these the crop assuredly was not half that of 
those treated with chemicals. For four years the three ele- 
ments, or 120 pounds of sulphate of ammonia, 400 pounds of 
dissolved bone black, and 200 pounds of muriate of potash, 
produced an average yield of oats, corn, and grass of 3,540 
pounds, while the nothing plat gave a total yield of 1,174 
pounds. On the farm were sundry lots of an acre or less on 
which chemicals had been applied for one to several years and 
12 



178 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

though the ground selected was run out to white top, in every 
case the lasting effects of chemicals were manifest. The pro- 
duct of one acre will be given as an illustration of the economic 
use of chemicals. This acre was on the extreme top of a high, 
granite hill and therefore not moist, and not special natural grass 
land. The returns for fourteen years were an average of 3,167 
pounds a year. The chemicals used, ground phosphate undis- 
solved and muriate of potash, were not applied for a large crop, 
but in moderate amounts. The cost of the chemicals was $6.23 
yearly. The net value of the grass standing after all the 
expenses for harvesting, marketing, and chemicals were taken 
out was $9.31 ; interest on land at 6 per cent., of $155.61 per 
acre. 

My audience will pardon me for personal allusions, for I 
have been asked to discuss chemicals from the standpoint of 
personal experience and with reference to their present use. I 
therefore continue the statement by saying that on April ist, 
1894, I returned from an agi^eeable and remunerative position 
to enter upon agricultural editorial work and chemical farming 
on the intensive, expensive plan. At this point, that my faith 
may have a standard of measurement, I will state that no at- 
tempt would have been made to handle the old farm, which for 
twenty years had been growing more and more dilapidated and 
worn out, had it not been for chemicals, or, in other words, no 
chemicals, no farming. To the old estate two considerable 
farms have been added with a view to extend operations in 
chemical farming. The entire land is I'epresentative, upland 
New England granite soil of average natural capacity, but long 
since reduced to a very low degree of fertility. There has been 
mapped out the following rotation : First year, corn for silage 
and fodder corn, 50 acres ; second year, oats and mixed legu- 
minous crops for hay, 50 acres ; third year, clover sown with 
pasture grass, 50 acres ; fourth year, pasturage, 50 acres ; fifth 
year, 50 acres of potatoes ; sixth year, 50 acres Hungarian ; 
seventh year, 50 acres of timothy ; eighth year, 50 acres of 
timothy, and ninth year the rotation begins over again. During 
this rotation yard manure at the rate of about ten tons to the 
acre will be applied probably three times and chemicals to 
corn, oats, potatoes, Hungarian, and one year to timoth}', or 



CHEMICALS. 179 

five years in all, or 250 acres to chemicals. This year consti- 
tutes the third year in the rotation and 120 acres will be treated 
to chemicals. The first year there were 45 acres and the next 
year 85 ; this year there will be about 120 acres plowed. Three 
carloads of chemicals have been purchased and one car of 
ashes. 

The theory of the use of chemicals is based upon years of 
tests of the soil through plants on the scheme of plant analysis 
of soil of the Frenchman, George de Ville, the method that is 
recognized as the best known for determining the requirements 
of the soil. The theory of the use of chemicals is now known 
to the better informed farmers, though not so universally as to 
obviate the necessity of restating that of the fourteen elementary 
materials that enter into plant growth eleven of them are found 
in abundance in the soil. One or more of the other three are 
wanting on all soils, sometimes one, sometimes two, and some- 
times all three are wanting. The very first essential of suc- 
cessful chemical farming consists in ascertaining the require- 
ments of the particular soil to be treated. This is done as 
follows: Upon one plat is used a mixture, if the crop be corn 
and the plat one tenth of an acre, of 60 pounds nitrate of soda, 
24 pounds of muriate of potash, 80 per cent, purity, and 35 
pounds of dissolved bone black, containing 16 per cent, of 
phosphoric acid. On the second plat the nitrate of soda is 
dropped out of the mixture, on the third the potash is dropped 
out, on a fourth nitrate of soda and the muriate of potash 
are used, and on the fifth nitrate of soda and dissolved bone 
black. In the meanwhile, as nitrogen is not wanted in the 
proportion mentioned, usually a second plat adjoining the 
first should be used containing but 30 pounds of nitrate of soda 
and the other two materials mixed with it. It is best to put 
these plats in duplicate. Between every three or four plats 
there should be placed a plat upon which no manure has been 
applied. It is evident that where any one of the materials is 
left out and a decline of crops follows, provided the plats are 
uniform, the material left out is needed in the soil. If the 
leaving out of potash sends the crop down ten bushels to the 
acre and the leaving out of phosphoric acid sends it down 
twenty, it is evident that phosphoric acid is more wanting than 



l8o NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

potash. If the leaving out one half the nitrogen does not vary 
the crop, as it is not likely to very much, then the full ration 
of nitrogen is not wanting. 

In the experiments of the speaker four proportions of nitro- 
gen have been used to get more accurately the necessity of the 
soil for this costly material. It is well known that each plant 
has its own power to avail itself of the elements of plant growth 
and that while one crop might find potash deficient in the soil 
to a small or large degree, another through its peculiar power 
to dissolve the potash compounds of the soil might not find this 
material lacking to the same degree, if at all. Therefore each 
plant has to be tested by itself. At an expense of a dollar or 
two for each crop for each field as its turn comes round, these 
experiments are kept up with us. This gives us a knowledge 
of the requirements of the farm. What are its advantages.^ 
Evidently a gradual acquisition of knowledge of the require- 
ments of the farm for each crop. If potash is not wanting, 
why buy it, or if wanting only to a minor degree, why buy it 
in full amounts? If phosphoric acid is very deficient, should 
not this fact lead to a liberal application of this material? At 
Hanover on the college farm potash was sadly wanting and 
when not applied the corn would break down almost flat, while 
phosphoric acid was abundant. At Wilson farm potash is 
more abundant than phosphoric acid, though not in amounts 
sufficient for full crops. This is an inquiry for the farm to 
make. In general for Wilson farm up to date, it appears to be 
the best policy to fertilize about as follows : Before making 
the statement it may be said that it is highly probable that the 
average upland granite soil would require substantially the 
same treatment, while river farms or made lands or alluvial 
soils will require more of potash. For grass and grain is 
applied strong one half to two thirds nitrogen required for a full 
crop, as these crops have a low power to gather nitrogen from 
natural sources. About the amount of potash that should be 
found in a good crop is applied and double that of phosphoric 
acid, not only because it is essential to strengthen for the crop 
this weak link of the soil, but for the ultimate end of restoring 
about the normal proportions that these materials should bear 
to each other in a fertile soil. 



CHEMICALS. l8l 

For potatoes one half ration of nitrogen seems adequate, al- 
though three fifths is applied for security. Potatoes are a potash 
feeder as indeed the grasses are, and a full amount of potash is 
applied for this crop, the acid being triple the amount found in 
the crop designed. Potatoes contain but a very small amount of 
acid and have a low power to gather it. They are poor fora- 
gers, hence in a soil deficient in phosphoric acid, for a crop of 
a low power to gain it, it is essential to give it greater abun- 
dance than for other crops. This involves but little expense as 
one hundred bushels contain but eleven pounds. 

For corn only two fifths the proportion of nitrogen is used. 
The broad leaves of this plant, its great foraging powers, its 
growth through the hot season, enable it to succeed well on 
two-fifths ration of nitrogen. Sometimes even less than this 
will answer, especially on soils rich in organic matter. A full 
ration of potash and strong double that of phosphoric acid is 
added. 

This generalization will not meet the requirements of all the 
audience and further on we will reduce them to specific advice. 
Should I stop here, perhaps the most important feature of the 
system of fertilization adopted would be left entirely out of 
view. It has been said that chemicals and yard manure are 
wedded in the system. This companionship of the two in 
practice rests upon the following philosophical and economic 
reasons : First, their joint use gives to more acres of tillage the 
advantage of the organic matter of the yard manure. Second, 
by their joint use much less nitrogen is purchased than would 
otherwise occur. Take as an illustration the corn crop. In 
75 bushels of corn are found in round numbers lOO pounds of 
nitrogen, 112 pounds of potash, and 52 pounds of phosphoric 
acid. If twenty ox-loads or thirty tons of yard manure are 
applied to an acre of ground, there will be furnished 300 
pounds of nitrogen, 360 pounds of potash, and about 200 
pounds of phosphoric acid. If two fifths of the nitrogen of a 
crop of corn is taken from the atmosphere while a deficiency 
of phosphoric acid in the soil occurs, it is evident that the corn 
crop would have a surfeit of nitrogen. This nitrogen when 
soils are tilled is subject to waste into the atmosphere as the 
I'esult of oxidation and fermentation in the soil and also in 



102 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

leaching from the soil. Nitrogen in chemicals costs, according 
to official estimates of experiment stations, 15 cents a pound, 
and potash but 4^ cents, and in phosphoric acid, 6 cents. The 
100 pounds of nitrogen at these rates for 75 bushels of corn 
would cost $15, while the potash and phosphoric acid com- 
bined would cost but $8.06, or the nitrogen would cost nearly 
double that of these two minerals. But suppose we apply two 
fifths of the nitrogen required in a crop of 75 bushels of corn, 
an amount that has before been said as adequate, because corn 
gains much from natural sources, then the nitrogen bill would 
be $6, or three fourths that of the two minerals. The nitrogen 
may waste, the minerals are not likely to, to any essential 
degree. 

To avoid the purchase of this costly material, nitrogen, to 
prevent its waste when used in the excess that it is where large 
dressings of manure are made for corn, reduce the thirty tons 
to ten tons, furnishing 100 pounds of nitrogen or enough for the 
crop and double the area covered by it as a source of nitro- 
gen. But not all the manure is made available the first year 
by decomposition, so that in practice a little nitrogen is added 
to start the crop, especially nitrogen that will be available 
before the summer's sun has brought into use that in the applied 
yard manure. Moreover the ten tons furnish 100 pounds of 
nitrogen, when forty pounds is all that is expected the corn 
crop will necessarily take from the soil. It is evident, then, 
that but very little nitrogen need be applied in chemicals, thus 
reducing the cost of the chemical bill and the loss of the nitro- 
gen by excessive application of yard manure. 

Third, to still further avoid the necessity of buying costly 
nitrogen, during the winter feeding season those foods are pur- 
chased that are exceptionally rich in nitrogen, so that the manure 
of the farm will really contain more than the average amount of 
nitrogen, or more than that stated above, still further reducing 
the necessity of its purchase in the artificial form in amounts 
more than enough to act as mere starters. But still further it 
has become a fixed policy to draw upon muck as a source of 
nitrogen. There are acres of muck on the farm that contains 
from six and one half to ten pounds or more of nitrogen to 
the ton. This muck, aside from the nitrogen, is, of course, a 



CHEMICALS. 183 

very rich source of organic matter or humus, and furnishes the 
soil with this material, serving a double purpose. Between these 
three sources of nitrogen for the soil it is expected to in a short 
time so far provide it that the nitrogen bill will be practically 
eliminated as a factor of cost in the system of chemical farming 
mentioned, leaving substantially the whole cost that of the two 
minerals, potash and phosphoric acid. The former is not 
required in maximum amounts, which is a relief to the ferti- 
lizer bill, while the latter has been steadily decreasing in price 
until now it can be secured as low as 5 cents where at least i3 
cents were paid for it twelve years ago, when bought in the 
form of super-phosphates in the retail trade. 

Again another means of economy as a source of fertilization 
is a purchase of a part of the phosphoric acid in the insolu- 
ble form, that form being fine Charleston floats. This ma- 
terial contains 28 per cent, of phosphoric acid, while the 
acid Charleston phosphate contains but 14, each being pur- 
chased at the same rate. Our last purchase of floats brought 
us phosphoric acid but a minute fraction over two cents a 
pound. Experiments with this material for fifteen years have 
shown somewhat conclusively that it is far more valuable than 
writers and dealers in fertilizers would have us believe. For 
the corn crop with its strong foraging powers it has been sub- 
stantially as available as the acid phosphate. Its availability, 
however, is found to vary with the crop, being more available 
for corn than for potatoes, yet the soil can be stocked with it so 
cheaply and its progressive decomposition is so certain that it 
is invariably purchased as about half the source of phosphoric 
acid. But again muck is acid and assists to decompose these 
phosphates. If it is sown on land that is mucked or is mixed 
with muck, the certainties or extreme probabilities of its more 
ready solubility are apparent, so that in the use of muck, three- 
fold purpose is served, a gaining of nitrogen, of humus, and 
assistance in solving the phosphates. In passing, one caution 
must be given in reference to the purchase of these insoluble 
phosphates, namely, the character of the farm on which they 
are to be applied. They are not as successful on some farms 
as on others. It has recently been shown by the Rhode Island 
experiment station that land that would be regarded as alkaline 



184 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

is acid. On such soils tliese insoluble phosphates will be most 
eflective and I should advise readers to test these materials for 
themselves. 

One more point we omitted to make in passing in relation to 
muck will at this time be given. For more than a generation 
farmers all over New England and Europe have been applying 
muck with results that may be summed up in two words, gen- 
eral failure, and now no farm is so poor as to do it reverence. 
The use of muck on the farm in question no doubt to intelligent 
farmers will appear like a voice from the grave and unwise. 
Its use is upon a principle that I have never seen stated, 
namely, only as a source of nitrogen and for its physical effects. 
Those using it heretofore have mixed it with yard manui"e, a 
material already over rich in nitrogen for the corn crop. Noth- 
ing apparent should be expected from such a mesalliance. But, 
say some, it has been applied alone on soils. Very true, but 
it furnished nitrogen to soils deficient in phosphoric acid and 
nothing could be expected of it. Muck is formed by decompo- 
sition of organic matter under water, a process that results in 
the leaching out of the potash in the original material and 
a disappearance of a large amount of phosphoric acid that 
it formerly contained. On the new line of thought, in its 
application at Wilson farm, it has been believed that the key 
to the successful use of muck has been found, although experi- 
ence is as yet too brief to determine this matter. It has been 
long enough, however, to ascertain that some value is derived 
from it. 

THE PURCHASE OF CHEMICALS. 

You will readily perceive that a free or extensive use of 
chemicals in extensive farming is based upon savings that are 
equal to a chasm between the costs met by those who follow 
old methods and that proposed. The system reduces itself 
mainly to the purchase of small amounts of potash and phos- 
phoric acid in a form that, associated with muck and a favor- 
able soil, cuts down the cost very heavily. It is also perceived 
that the necessities of the farm are first determined and only 
the materials needed purchased. One of the troubles of those 
who have purchased unsatisfactorily super-phosphates consists 



CHEMICALS. 185 

not only in buying what the farm did not want, but in failing 
to buy those that the farm did want, either of which failures 
would be a serious loss. But the economy of the methods of 
use is very greatly accentuated in final gains by the methods of 
purchase. The great bulk of farmers buy their fertilizers in 
the mixed form sold under the name of super-phosphates. In 
this form the nitrogen will cost 17 to 18 cents, the phosphoric 
acid only 10 cents, and the potash about 5 cents. In the form 
of the materials that have been mentioned, namely, nitrate of 
soda, now available in ton lots at $42, the nitrogen will cost 
but I3t^o cents per pound ; phosphoric acid in plain acid phos- 
phate, 14 per cent, acid, 6 cents per pound of acid ; and muri- 
ate of potash, 50 per cent, actual potash, at $42 a ton, or but 
4 cents a pound. It will be seen that the margin of saving is 
from 25 per cent, to upwards of 50 per cent. The method 
of placing super-phosphates on the market is so very costly com- 
pared with the direct purchase by the user at the central office 
as to make this most radical change a vital one. These com- 
bined savings found in the knowledge of what to apply to one's 
farm, the non-application of materials not wanted, and in the 
method of purchase, will make the difference between success- 
ful and non-successful use. 

My own use of chemicals and my advice to others to use 
them is predicated wholly upon their right purchase and right 
use. There are many forms in which these three elements, 
namely, nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid, can be pur- 
chased, but at present the materials named are the cheapest 
forms in which they can be secured and there is no occasion to 
debate other sources. I have been asked to say something 
upon their application to the potato crop, as it is a more impor- 
tant crop for Coos county than the corn crop, so that in pre- 
senting an actual formula or specific advice in their use to 
crops I shall confine myself to the potato crop. 

In personal farming, while advocating their use in association 
with yard manure, it is practically found that for the large 
areas involved it is necessary to use chemicals alone on part of 
the farm : I shall therefore give a formula for both systems. 
Where two fifths to one half the usual amount of yard manure 
is used, apply 100 pounds of nitrate of soda furnishing 16 



l86 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

pounds of nitrogen, 125 to 150 pounds of either sulpliate or 
muriate of potash, and 250 to 300 pounds of acid Charleston 
rock, 14 per cent, of actual phosphoric acid. If quality is 
desired in the potatoes, the sulphate of potash, costing only 
a cent more for actual potash than muriate of potash, should 
be purchased. The cost of these materials at the prices given 
would be $5.42. The amounts added should furnish the 
materials for 400 bushels of potatoes. This amount is not 
expected, one half to two thirds of the elements added being 
taken out for the first year, the balance being left for future 
crops. Not all the cost, therefore, of the chemicals should be 
added to the first crop, I have said that these materials equalled 
amounts found in 400 bushels of potatoes. This statement must 
be understood as meaning that from the crops of nature and a 
fertilizer supplying the requirements of 400 bushels of potatoes 
there should theoretically be grown 400 bushels, but practically 
half to two thirds of it. The fertilizers would not contain 
available nitrogen for 400 bushels ; they would contain the 
available potash for 400 bushels and double the available phos- 
phoric acid. 

On your river intervals reduce the phosphoric acid one third 
and increase the potash by one half, for your soils of Coos 
contain more of limestone, especially those of river soils, than 
the granite hills of the interior of the state. Limestone rock is 
poorer in potash than granite soils and richer in phosphoric acid. 

For potatoes without yard manure the amount should be 
governed largely by the fertility of the soil and a great deal by 
personal ambition. I do not, however, favor excessive appli- 
cations and name as an amount that should produce in practice 
on 3'our soils approximately 250 to 300 bushels, 300 pounds 
nitrate of soda, 16 per cent, purity, and for your river soils 300 
to 350 pounds of muriate of potash, but for the interior granite 
hills, 100 pounds or more. For the river soils 400 to 500 pounds 
of acid phosphate, 14 per cent, phosphoric acid, will suffice, 
although for the granite hills we should recommend 600 
pounds, 200 of which may be floats. 

There are those who advise the use of a ton to the acre, 
others content themselves with the meagre amount of 300 to 
400 pounds. The views of the latter class are too narrow for 



CHEMICALS. 187 

the business of farming, while the former have an ambition 
that apparently outruns the result of experience. That experi- 
ence is not rich enough to dogmatize upon. A few experi- 
ments at hand have failed to show that a greater profit is reached 
from more than 1,000 to 1,200 pounds than on this amount. 
Indeed when interest and the risk of leaching is taken into 
account, the use of large amounts has appeared questionable, 
but the amount hinges somewhat on the character of the soil 
and the methods. So far as at present informed I should not 
advise the use of more than 1,200 pounds for the average farm, 
and would advise none to use over i ,500 pounds, unless experi- 
ence first gained by a carefully viewed trial taught that larger 
applications wex'e remunerative. In the bringing up of a 
reduced farm I have limited the use from 1,000 pounds to 1,200 
pounds. As the chemicals are used nearly every year they accu- 
mulate in the soil while returns are being received. In exten- 
sive farming, when large amounts are quickly purchased, a 
great amount of capital is involved. All the phases of the 
subject would require an extended review that we have not the 
time to give to it. 

METHOD OF APPLICATION. 

Two views prevail in relation to the application of chemicals. 
One view maintains that as roots penetrate like arteries in the 
body the full space of the soil, chemicals should be broad- 
casted to call the roots out, and if concentrated in drills or 
hills, they tend to hold the roots where the chemicals are 
applied and causes them to develop there at the serious danger 
of the plants being greatly affected by drought. Also it is 
maintained that the localizing of the roots limits the area of 
the soil upon which plants may feed. It is claimed by those 
who advocate the use of chemicals in the drill that a small 
amount is essential to give the plants a start and that in prac- 
tice it is found that better results are thus secured. Consider- 
able literature has been collected by the speaker on this sub- 
ject. In the experiments made by him at the New Hampshire 
College farm chemicals applied entirely in the drill gave as good 
result as those spread broadcast, indeed a slightly superior result. 

In a trial last year with potatoes, 1,000 pounds were broad- 
casted to the acre and 1,000 pounds placed in the drill with the 



I05 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

result that the broadcasted gave but 56.5 bushels to the acre, 
while that placed in the drill gave 127.2 bushels. The soil 
was that of a run-out farm added to the main farm. Its reduced 
condition accounted largely for this great disparity. 

At the Geneva station it was found when a ton to the acre 
was supplied that the broadcasted gave slightly the best results, 
but that when only i ,000 pounds were used the best results were 
obtained from the section in which the fertilizer was drilled. 
The probable explanation of this rests in the fact that the 
heavy amount as the experimenter indicated proved injurious 
to the plants in their early tillage, and the fact that the soil itself 
was in good condition, affording the materials for an early start 
of the crop. 

German experiments have of late shown that chemicals in 
the drill, when rightly applied, have a tendency to give the 
best results. This is explained on the supposition that when 
the chemicals are spread throughout the soil, they have a ten- 
dency to become converted into insoluble forms, especially so 
the acid phosphates. When placed in the drill and thus aggre- 
gated, the materials that cause the chemical reactions are not in 
such quantity as to make the transformation as readily. It has 
been advised by these authorities to drill the fertilizer along by 
the side of the seed in order that the young rootlets of the 
plant may not be injured by too much soluble material. It 
should be added that the potato crop, being a poor forager, re- 
quires on poor soils the fertilizer in as available form and at as 
convenient points for the plant as it can be well placed. With 
corn the results might not be the same as for potatoes. My 
neighbor, Mr. Parsons, places his chemicals in the drill, but in 
test of the soundness of the method covered one row slightly 
with earth and states that he received by measurement a very 
heavy increase. The separation of the roots from immediate 
contact, while yet minute in size, from the chemicals aids in 
protecting them from danger of what may be termed poisoning 
by too much soluble materials taken in at once. 

Some trials have been made with chemicals placed above the 
potatoes, a method not uncommon. These have been shown 
to give inferior results when compared with chemicals placed 
beneath the roots or seed. I have little doubt that the German 



CHEMICALS. 189 

suggestion of application in drills alongside of the row of 
plants would be the most successful method, unless the great 
cost is undertaken of covering the chemicals with earth. This 
application cannot now be done mechanically with complete 
success and hand methods are too costly for the age. In case 
of potatoes, in view of the fact that at the Geneva station and 
in other experiments on soils in good condition, gains of but a 
few bushels in a yield of 200 or more bushels to the acre were 
made on relatively rich soils, it is probable that the present 
method of drilling in a part of the fertilizer, a part too small to 
injure the roots, and broadcasting the balance, is the best way. 
Believing, as indicated at the opening of my remarks, that 
the period of successful use on a large scale of chemicals in 
New England farming has arrived, I advise the careful study 
of the art of purchasing and using the unmixed chemicals. 
The fact that the rate of distant transportation, on either corn or 
potatoes, is more than the cost of the chemicals for their growth 
and that their use means increasing production to the acre of 
crops, which when fed returns to the soil that fertility, affords am- 
ple support for the advice to look more largely to chemicals in 
the future than in the past as agencies in solving the problem of 
profitable farming in New Hampshire. Many foreign farmers 
or farmers of 300 to 400 acres expend from one to many thou- 
sands of dollars yearly in the growth of crops of a selling value 
a little greater than in our own markets. These farmers are 
cultivating under annual rentals that we should regard as a 
fair profit on the use of land. It is certain that some agency 
for placing the entire land under our control at work and that 
shall exceed the average even of our selected acres is now a 
necessity. An agriculture based upon nearly 90 per cent, of its 
tillage area to grass that has achieved for this crop an average 
of in round numbers but a ton to the acre is an exceedingly 
defective one and one upon which it is hopeless to expect to 
erect a cultivated farm life in view of the severe competition that 
we are called upon to meet from the West. Our agriculture, 
under the new forces at our command of chemicals, rotations, 
tools, capital, full and high use of all the land instead of part 
of the land which we possess, will fully meet the necessities 
under which as farmers we now labor and live. 



MARKET GARDENING. 



BY JAMES M. HAYES, DOVER, MEMBER BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



The subject of market gardening is one that should interest 
the farmers of New Hampshire. It is intensive farming in its 
broadest sense, as the market gardener is constantly working to 
I'aise the largest crops possible from his soil. And large crops 
require careful culture and abundant fertilization. Hence I 
have said it was intensive farming and deserving our most care- 
ful consideration. The skillful market gardener does not, like 
too manv American farmers, try to produce his crops with the 
least amount of labor and fertilization possible but he puts a 
large amount of work into all his crops and instead of being 
penurious in the use of manure applies so much that often two 
crops can annually be produced in our climate to advan- 
tage, from the same soil. Right here those farmers who pursue 
the policy of skinning the soil from year to year, and whose 
farms are thus impoverished, could learn a lesson from the mar- 
ket gardener. Mr. Rawson, who is one of the foremost gar- 
deners of New England, once said that the market gardener of 
to-day should be an engineer, a machinist, a carpenter, a chem- 
ist, and a horticulturist. This is a long string of accomplishments 
for one individual to have, and you may think with all of 
these requirements it would be almost impossible for common 
people ever to become expert market gardeners. 

I think it hardly necessary to be proficient in all these trades 
and sciences in order to be a successful grower of garden 
vegetables, but the more we know of them the more skillful 
shall we be in this pursuit. If we are natural mechanics we 
can better care for all the implements used in the garden, and 
if hotbeds and greenhouses are used, carpenter work is a ne- 



MARKET GARDENING. I9I 

cessity most of the year. If we are chemists the adaptation 
of plants to different soils will be better understood and the 
fertilizer problem, the most important and intricate, will be 
more easily solved. If horticulturists, every detail of market 
gardening will be easier. We shall know then of the varieties 
of production of new seedlings. How to hybridize. How to 
fight the insects, which are always abundant. 

If you are not at present the owner of a farm and wish to engage 
in market gardening, the question of a desirable location is to be 
at first considered. The nearer we are to a large manufacturing 
town, the better. Still there are many localities far removed 
from such towns in our state, near our mountain and seaside re- 
sorts, where market gardening could be made to pay. When 
half of the vegetables and small fruits used in our cities and towns 
and at our summer hotels are brought from other states, it does 
seem that there is an opening for our young and enterprising 
farmers to establish a business that is not only profitable but 
pleasant. Perhaps some of those abandoned farms are situated 
in just the right place and have a soil just adapted to the busi- 
ness of market gardening. There would be no harm for all of 
our farmers to take a lesson or two in market gardening, for too 
many of them are deficient in this branch of agriculture. 
Many of them still cling to the old-time garden that has done 
service for generations. This is usually a small plot fenced 
near the house, containing perhaps some cherry trees, a row of 
currant and gooseberry bushes, — breeding places for countless 
insect enemies. Here we also find some herbs, — tansy, cat- 
nip, wormwood, etc., — such as were considered indispensable 
in our boyhood. In the centre of this medley a small spot is 
annually made into beds and sowed with vegetable seeds after 
all the other farm sowing and planting had been done. In this 
garden weeds, witchgrass, and insects flourish while the vegeta- 
bles have a hard struggle to exist. Such a garden is a regular 
nursery of corruption, supplying the whole farm with weeds and 
insects. This is no overdrawn picture, for you can find many 
such gardens on the farms of New Hampshire. M)' advice to 
farmers would be to leave this time-honored spot, eradicate the 
foul growths and make a lawn of it, and go out into the field 
where the farm crops grow, and have a garden. And do n't think 



192 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

when you get there, that you must have those same small beds 
that you had in the old garden. Leave them behind, too. 

Keep your garden level and sow your vegetable seeds in long 
rows as you would plant potatoes or corn, remembering that 
if horse power can be used in cultivation, so much the better. 
At any rate the hand garden implements which have been in- 
vented can be used to great advantage, and by their constant use 
garden vegetables can be almost as cheaply grown as ordinary 
farm crops. 

If market gardening is to be followed as a business and a new 
garden is to be selected, the right soil should be the first 
thought. One in which sand predominates is to be preferred. 
Heavy clays are usually too retentive. If the garden is sown 
on such soils when they are somewhat wet, and dry weather 
comes on immediately a crust will be formed, preventing the 
young plants from coming up. The nearer level the garden is, the 
better it will be, as on a steep hillside the young plants are often 
injured by being washed out in heavy showers. 

The next question to be considered is that of fertilizers, and 
this, with our exhausted soils, is one of great importance. It 
is almost useless for me to say that there is little danger of 
using too much manure in this work, as all garden vegetables 
are rank feeders. The rule a strawberry grower gave for 
manuring that fruit would apply equally as well to garden veg- 
etables. It was, "Apply all the manure you can afford, then 
shut your eyes and double it." The late Mr. Peter Henderson, 
one of the best authorities on gardening, said that the gardeners 
around New York annually apply from $100 to $150 worth of 
manure per acre and the profits from land so manured are often 
$300 per acre. To clear this large sum from a single acre re- 
quires the labor of one man throughout the season. This is 
intensive farming indeed, and demands as much skill as any 
mercantile or manufacturing pursuit. Are there not opportu- 
nities for such work right in our midst and could not much of 
the money that now goes to the skillful cultivators around Bos- 
ton be kept at home.'' 

I will now speak of the most skillful branch of market gar- 
dening, — that of raising vegetables by the use of glass. This 
work could be done just as well in New Hampshire as in Mas- 



MARKET GARDENING. I93 

sachusetts or New York, where it has received much attention 
by gardeners. There the business is annually increasing as 
people learn the greater value of vegetables raised nearer home. 
How much fresher and better they are than those brought hun- 
dreds of miles from the far South. A good, fresh, crisp vegetable 
brought to the market from the farm or greenhouse is much to 
be preferred to the shriveled specimen from Florida that has 
been a week, perhaps, in transportation. It would surprise any 
one unacquainted with the business to take a stroll around Bos- 
ton in the towns located from five to ten miles from the state 
house and see the acres of glass used in forcing early vegetables. 
Formerly the hotbed was most used but of late large green- 
houses have taken its place and are giving better results. Let- 
tuce, cucumbers, dandelions, and almost every garden vegetable 
are forced in this manner, and bring remunerative prices in the 
markets. But although much has been done in this direction, 
glass gardening is still in its infancy and it can hardly be said 
to be an infant in New Hampshire when we buy nearly all of 
our early vegetables in the Boston market. Here are abundant 
opportunities for this work, and why should we let them go 
from year to year and let the market gardeners of Massachu- 
setts have the money earned in our villages and cities, when by 
a little forethought and skill we could do this work here and 
have these dollars ourselves? I am well aware that many con- 
sider this work intricate ; that greenhouses are expensive lux- 
uries suited only to the wealthy. But a building can be con- 
structed for much less than is generally supposed, that will do 
very good work. Of course the improved systems of heating 
with steam or hot water are the best, but very good work can 
be done with the old-fashioned brick flue, and the expense of 
construction is insignificant when compared with the other 
methods. Some gardeners still prefer the flue to the new meth- 
ods of heating. Either will give good results with care and 
attention. 

I have spoken briefl}' of the culture of vegetables but before 
closing 1 wish to speak a few words in regard to small fruit 
culture, which can be combined with vegetable growing to 
great advantage. This branch of agriculture has been greatly 

neglected by our farmers. A few years ago I attended a Grange 
13 



194 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

meeting in Rockingham county and stopped with the master 
of the subordinate Grange, who was engaged in the culture 
of strawberries. As there was only a small village in the 
town, I asked him where he sold his fruit, supposing he would 
say Nashua, or Lawrence, or Haverhill, but he said he often 
picked four bushels of strawberries in the forenoon and sold 
them out among the farmers of the town in the afternoon. 

Here, I thought, was a chance for some one to do a little 
home missionary work in a horticultural way. I know that our 
farmers are doing better than formerly in this matter but still 
there is a great chance for improvement, so long as half or 
more of our farmers do not have small fruits upon their tables 
at all unless they buy them. 

What advantages the farmer has for the production of small 
fruits ! On almost every farm there are soils adapted to this 
work, and the horse and cultivator can be used to great advan- 
tage. Then we say, combine vegetable growing with small 
fruits and not only make farm life pleasanter and happier but 
make it much more profitable. If there are any here who have 
never given this subject any thought, I hope I may have 
said something that will induce them to study this subject of 
market gardening and small fruit growing, and give it more 
attention than they have in the past. 



DAIRY INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. 



BY J. M. CONNOR, HOPKINTON, PRESIDENT GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN'S 

ASSOCIATION. 



This subject upon which I am invited to speak is one of so 
much importance that I regret exceedingly that I have had so 
little time to devote to its consideration. It is only within a few 
years that a great majority of the farmers in New England have 
found in the product of the cow their chief encouragement and 
support. 

The signs of the times point to this as the most reliable 
branch of New England farming in the future. While the day 
of fabulous prices may have gone by, the day of better meth- 
ods, of more skill in our work, is just dawning upon us. Men 
have turned from the sterile and rock-ribbed soil of New Eng- 
land, from her rigorous climate, to fairer lands and more salu- 
bi'ious climates only to find disappointment. 

God had a grand purpose in making New England as He 
did. He knew with what conditions to surround the human 
mind to fit it for this great work. Our reliance then is on the 
men with whom we have to deal, rather than conditions which 
we might imagine to ourselves. 

In these times of swift progression, when the lines of compe- 
tition are being closely drawn, it is consoling to know that we 
have the men of brain power, who are sure to win in every 
contest. No better illustration of this can be found along the 
lines of agricultural work, than the part New Hampshire took 
at the great World's Fair in Chicago, with her dairy produc- 
tions. Entering the race in the infancy of this industry, at the 
four trials we made 153 entries, of which 102 were awarded 
prizes, and the general average of the 153 exhibits was 95.36. 

New Hampshire's triumph at that great trial, both in quality 



196 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

and the number of her entries, was one of the grandest achieve- 
ments in modern dairying. Let me give you another evidence 
of our advanced position. One year ago last fall, at the meet- 
ing of the Granite State Dairymen's Association, in Keene, 
Mr. Harris, of Boston, a man of large experience in testing 
butter, and who served as one of the judges at the World's 
Fair, stated that the exhibition of dairy products at that Keene 
meeting was the best he ever saw in all the New England 
states. 

My remarks, however, must take a wider range than that of 
New Hampshire : New Englanders have characteristics in com- 
mon, and it is to these that the whole country is largely indebted 
for its advanced civilization and its wonderful agricultural 
development. 

Mr. C. L. Gabrilson, of Iowa, one of the leading dairymen 
in the West, when speaking before the Vermont Dairymen's 
Association, voiced the sentiment of those great Western states 
when he said, — " Before speaking of Iowa's progress in dairy- 
ing, allow me, in behalf of the West, to acknowledge the debt 
we owe to New England for the foundation of the mental and 
material prosperity which we claim to have. We owe this 
debt of gratitude to the sons and daughters of the East, who, 
moving into the Western states, bringing with them habits of 
thrift, study, virtue, and temperance, have incorporated these 
elements of a higher civilization into the charters of our several 
commonwealths. 

" This civilization is the heritage bequeathed to us by the 
enterprising people who formed the groundwork of the settle- 
ments of the upper Mississippi valley, a region of which Iowa 
forms an important part." 

New England has a total of about 814,000 cows, and manu- 
factures some sixty-five million pounds of butter annually, and 
about two million pounds of cheese ; grand old Vermont lead- 
ing with 230,000 cows, and a product of at least twenty-five 
million pounds of butter; New Hampshire, with 120,000 cows, 
ten million pounds of butter; Maine, with 150,000 cows, and 
fourteen million pounds; Connecticut, with 120,000 cows, eight 
million, two hundred thousand pounds ; Massachusetts, 180,000 
cows, ten million pounds ; Rhode Island, 21,500 cows, one mil- 



DAIRY INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. I97 

lion pounds. Vermont has about 125 creameries and some 70 
cheese factories, New Hampshire has between 50 and 60 cream- 
eries, Maine has about 50 creameries and 10 cheese factories, 
Connecticut has some 40 creameries, and Massachusetts 
about 30. 

The quantity of milk daily consumed in all our New England 
cities and towns is annually increasing, and the raising of it has 
become an enormous business. It has become the principal 
dairy business of Massachusetts. Boston and the cities lying 
contiguous, consume at least 13,000,000 cans of 8^ quarts an- 
nually. Vast quantities of cream and condensed milk also 
enter into their consumption. 

Contemplate the inhabitants in all the cities and villages of 
these New England states, and their daily consumption of milk 
and cream, and you can form some idea of the magnitude of 
the milk industry alone. What shall I say to the average dairy- 
men of New Hampshire — of New England. I would if pos- 
sible express a few practical truths, which, although not new, 
and which may be conceded by all, yet we are slow to put into 
practice. It is not more cows w^e want, but better ones. As a 
rule the farmer who keeps twelve cows, as the average is, should 
reduce his number to eight, by weeding out the poorest, and 
feeding to the eight wliat the twelve had hitherto consumed. 
As a rule the less number will produce as much as the larger 
formerly did, and his labor will be materially lessened. 

Another problem which confronts the average New England 
dairyman, — How to furnish his cows with succulent, milk pro- 
ducing food during every month in the year. We should prob- 
ably find by consulting our creameries, that the quantity of milk 
received by them to-day is twenty per cent, less than it was six 
weeks or two months ago. We shall find if we consult the 
patrons of those creameries, that the problem for them to solve 
is, how to keep up the flow of milk during the three autumn 
months. I confess that I have no definite system of mv own, 
and am unprepared to advise as to how we may best bridge 
over this long-felt need. The silo has come to supply succu- 
lent winter feed, and is a prime necessity for every cow owner, 
whether raising milk for the market, the creamery, or private 
dairying; and the hesitancy to adopt the silo, which we see 



198 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

on every hand, is not to the credit of too large a class of dairy- 
men. A succession of crops sown or planted at regular in- 
tervals during early summer, so as to be fed out from the first of 
August to late in the fall, seems to be a demand that is pressing 
upon us. Our success in the product of the cow depends upon 
an even and continuous flow of milk. What manufacturer would 
expect to succeed if he ran his plant only a part of the sea- 
son, if every cold blast were to diminish his production, if the 
speed of the wheels that run his machinery were to be affected 
by high or low water, storms or drought? Let me suggest 
that in many instances small patches in our pastures might be 
enclosed with barbed-wire fence, and planted with fodder-corn, 
or sown with barley, rye, or Hungarian, and treble the amount 
that now comes from the scant feed grown upon it. 

There are a large class of pastures which, from long crop- 
ping, have become moss-covered, and overrun with wild, nox- 
ious herbage, which, if abandoned, a portion perhaps to re- 
wooding, and other portions cultivated with green crops to sup- 
ply the cows while lying in the cool shades of the barn or barn- 
cellar during the hot summer months, I verily believe that five 
acres thus managed would supply more milk-producing food 
than the fifty acres now roamed over, requiring every exertion 
of the animal to sustain life and return to her owner a small 
pittance above what nature requires for its support. 

New England has made great progress in her dairy methods 
during the past fifteen or twenty years ; by associated dairying, 
by breeding up the dairy cow, by more comfortable winter quar- 
ters, by a more liberal use of all varieties of grain, by a better 
knowledge of the wants of this noble animal, whose products 
have been a godsend to the farmers of these New England 
states. But we must not rest with our present knowledge. 
There are yet long lines of improvement to traverse. How to 
improve the animal and not impair its constitution, how to 
combine its food to get the best results, how to provide com- 
fortable winter quarters and yet not engender disease, how to 
market the product at the best possible advantage and not 
fall a prey to combinations, how to fight spurious compounds 
that would steal our livery to serve the devil in, are matters that 
should engage the best thoughts of our time. 



DAIRY INDUSTRY OF NEW ENGLAND. I99 

If St. Paul were upon the earth and engaged in dairying, he 
would say, "Come, let us reason together." This is just our 
need ; we must think more, we must exercise our God-given 
minds more, and our bodies less. We are living in an age 
when everybody, it would seem, but the farmer, is bound to get 
a living by his wits without muscular effort. God grant that 
the farmer may avoid either extreme, but aim to combine the 
power of body and mind, that out of this happy combination he 
may reap the reward due to honest labor, that he and this noble 
industry may become in fact, as well as in name, the foundation 
of our national prosperity. 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 



BY GEORGE F. BEEDE, FREMONT. 



The strawberry is so suited to all soils that every home 
which has a garden attached to it can have a bountiful supply 
of this greatest of table luxuries. The methods of culture can 
be treated in two ways : first, for the amateur grower ; second, 
for the commercial or professional grower, garden and field 
culture. 

In this modern age we are inclined to think that the most 
improved methods of culture are of very recent date. No one 
could make a greater mistake. I have at home a book on hor- 
ticultural and farming subjects, written by Samuel Deane, 
D. D., of Worcester, Mass., published at Worcester in 1797. 
On the subject of " The Strawberry," a Mr. Miller is quoted, 
who wrote on the subject about twenty-five years earlier. 
This is the plan : " The usual method is to lay the ground out 
into beds four feet broad, with paths two feet or two and a half 
feet broad between them — these paths being for the conveni- 
ence of gathering the strawberries and for weeding and dress- 
ing the beds. The plants should be in the quincunx order, 
and fifteen inches apart, so that there will be but three rows 
to each bed. The plants should never be taken from old, 
neglected beds, where they have been allowed to run 'into a 
multitude of suckers, or from any plants which are not fruitful ; 
and those offsets which stand nearest to the old plants should 
always be preferred to those which are produced from the 
trailing stalks at a greater distance." 

I now quote from Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry's latest direc- 
tions : "For family use we recommend planting in beds four 
feet wide, with an alley two feet wide betw^een. These beds 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 20I 

will accommodate three rows of plants, which may stand fifteen 
inches apart each way, and the outside rows nine inches from 
the alley. The beds can be kept clean, and the fruit can be 
gathered from them without setting the feet upon them." 

Of the two, the older is the better ; as Mr. Miller directs the 
grower to set the plants in quincunx order, Messrs. EUwanger 
& Barr}' in square order, there is no other difference. Mr. 
Miller further gives full, minute directions for cultivating and 
caring for the plant. For general cultivation no one can 
suggest an improvement. He says : "Set the plants in early 
spring or in September. The plants should be constantly kept 
clean from weeds, and all the runners should be pulled off as 
fast as they are produced." In autumn he clears the beds of 
runners and weeds, cultivates the paths, covers the surface of 
the beds with earth or compost, and mulches with old tanner's 
bark for winter protection. '• In the spring, after the danger 
'of hard frost is over, the ground is loosened by slight cultivation 
and the surface is covered with moss to keep the ground moist 
and secure a good crop of fruit, and the moss will preserve the 
fruit clean." 

This was perfection of culture for the garden one hundred 
and twenty-five vears ago, and it would be to-day an ideal bed 
of strawberries for family use. 

Early in the spring is the proper time to set the plants. 
Rows should be four feet apart for matted rows, three feet 
apart for hills, and three and one half feet apart for narrow 
matted rows. Set plants two feet apart in the rows if vigorous 
and free-running varieties, like Crescent and Warfield ; if slow 
running, like Bubach and Marshall, set eighteen inches apart. 
Set by line or plough a slight furrow and set against the edges ; 
if by line, use a flat, wide trowel or narrow spade. Be careful 
to set the crown of the plant even witii the top soil and firm 
the soil about the roots, and graduate the pressure as the soil 
is moist or dry. The drier the soil, the firmer it should be 
pressed against the roots. Use medium-sized plants, freshly 
dug; shorten roots one third, and keep moist while setting. 
Set plants in cloudy days if possible ; if fair, late in the after- 
noon. 

I usually have beds and rows set and trained in the different 



202 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

methods. Some varieties will do best one way and some 
another. I like to give them a chance to be in the best condi- 
tion for fruit. If 1 were growing strictly for the fruit, and 
setting market varieties, I would have the rows, when set, four 
feet apart, setting vigorous varieties two feet apart in the row. 
Allow three plants to root as soon as vigorous runners start, to 
make a continuous center row. Place them in line and assist 
them to root quickly, by pressing them into fresh soil with a 
small stone on the runner to keep it in place. Allow the 
runners to root on each side of the center row as they are 
produced. Place them eight to ten inches apart and same 
distance from the center row, giving the preference to get as 
many second plants set as possible. The second plant will be 
more vigorous than the first, and produce larger berries than 
either the first or later set plants. They have a longer time to 
grow, make more rapid growth, and form more fruit buds. 
Nature will set a plant better than we can by transplanting, 
and it will grow without any check. 

The successful commercial culture of the strawberry depends 
largely upon these points : first, choice of location and soils ; 
second, care and method of culture; third, picking and mar- 
keting ; fourth, a wise selection of varieties. The location 
must be where live men and women live and work. Intelli- 
gent, skillful, rapid, and persevering labor is the first requisite. 
No department of horticulture or gardening can succeed with- 
out it. Drones have no place in a fruit garden or on a fruit 
farm . 

The location must be of easy access by rail or wagon to a 
good market. Interior markets are the best. The large city 
has more competition, and is the dumping place of growers 
fi^om Florida to Maine. The returns are lessened by freight or 
express and the profit of the middleman, except to a few living 
within wagon distance. These should grow fancy fruit for 
fancy prices. There is no trouble about the markets ; if you 
grow first-class fruit, the demand is never supplied. Where I 
sold a hundred boxes four years ago I could sell thousands 
to-day. I could sell without leaving home all the fruit I shall 
raise this season, many times over, at satisfactory prices. 

If you send by rail, avoid markets having many transfers of 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 203 

crates. The expressmen handle them roughly, upside down, 
without much regard to the contents. 

The location should be high if possible, to escape late spring 
frosts. The soil should be moist and well drained. Thei'e are 
varieties adapted to different soils, also to all soils. The 
groun 1 should be well prepared by thorough ploughing, har- 
rowing, and floating. Manure should be liberally supplied ; 
well rotted stable manure being the best, supplemented with 
ashes and bone. Land heavily manured for previous crops is 
well suited for the strawberry. If the ground has been in hoed 
crops two years, the white grub will not be so likely to destroy 
the plants. 

After getting the width of the matted row wanted, remove 
runners as fast as they are produced. If this has been 
neglected, about the first of September line out the rowj two 
feet or two and one half feet wide, and hoe up all the plants in 
the paths. Not many runners will start after September. By 
placing the plants about eight inches apart and pulling out all 
plants that have rooted between, the bed is a thin matted row 
and in the best shape to bear a full crop of highly colored, firm, 
richly flavored berries of large size, if the proper varieties have 
been selected. 

If any one objects to this method by reason of much hand 
labor, I will say that I do not propose to make a road of my 
strawberry field. With my soil, if a horse travelled up and 
down the rows all through the season, it would pack nearly as 
solid as a country road. I prefer to use the horse during the 
weedy season in the month of June, and to use the wheel hoe 
for later cultivation. I also prefer large, handsome, firm fruit 
to small, pale, soft fruit. If you go up and down the rows 
all the season with a horse cultivator, throwing all the runners 
produced toward the center, as is the stereotyped direction 
for field culture, you have a multitude of weak plants that have 
no chance to grow and produce fine fruit ; many plants are 
blanks and those that fruit have small, inferior berries. By 
giving the plants room to develop, you get more and better 
fruit. 

Strawberries do better shaded from the sun and hold out 
longer. This cue can be got from wild strawberries — the 



204 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

largest and best flavored are always found in grass tall enough 
to give shade to the berries. This condition is best obtained 
in thin matted rows, not in hills or stooled rows. A few years 
ago I had sonne stool or single rows that ran east and west ; on 
the south side of the rows all the best of the berries were lost 
by sun-scalding — there was no protection from the hot mid- 
day sun. The next row was three feet away, too far for 
protecting shade. Late frosts, also, are more damaging to 
rows in hills. Plenty of leaves above the blossoms often give 
pi^otection enough to save the crop. 

I have found late weeding very useful. After the first frosts, 
at the approach of winter, which kill all the annual weeds, we 
go through the beds and pull out sorrel, grass, and all 
perennial weeds. Also go over them again very early in the 
spring and take out those that were overlooked in the fall. In 
this way and by heavily mulching the paths you can secure 
clean rows or beds through the picking season. 

As a rule, winter protection is beneficial. Some seasons, 
vmcovered plants will come through the winter in the best 
shape, but it is safer to lightly cover all the ground with straw, 
hay, pine needles, or any light litter. Avoid using anything 
that will produce weeds or grass. Remove the winter cover- 
ing in the spring as soon as settled warm weather. Weed out, 
if necessarv ; cultivate or hoe the paths lightly and place all 
the mulch you can between the rows to keep down weeds and 
to protect the ripe fruit from dirt. 

In garden culture, with four-foot beds and three rows of 
plants, the beds can be run profitably three years. Soon after 
fruiting cut away and remove all the old, dead foliage and 
runners ; also remove the mulch in the paths ; apply a good 
dressing of manure or of bone and ashes ; lightly fork over the 
ground or cultivate and hoe deeply, thoroughly cleaning out 
all weeds and grass. In field culture the profit of renewing 
depends largely upon the condition of the vines, and somewhat 
upon the amount of weeds and grass among them. Some 
varieties, like the Wilson, that bear freely from young plants, 
are exhausted at the end of the fruiting season. Other 
varieties, like Charles Downing, Gandy and Marshall, require 
more time to develop their fruiting qualities and the amount of 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 205 

fruit is smaller the first than the second year ; the plants also 
increase in size and vigor, throw out more runners, and are at 
their best to bear a full crop. 

To condense : if your plants are used up after fruiting, plow 
up at once, as soon as picking is over, and plant some other 
crop. If the plants are strong and vigorous run them another 
year. Old beds bear earlier fruit, which brings higher prices ; 
the berries will run smaller in size and the strictly market vari- 
eties will have a less amount of fruit than the first year. I have 
tried many ways of renewing and renovating old beds. In the 
western states mowing and burning is the rule. I find this 
risky. It must be done just right; too little heat is no good, 
too much will destroy the plants. If you have the little insect 
known as the Spotted Paria, or Strawberry flea, the fire does 
not harm them, as they burrow in the ground and under small 
stones ; they are on hand to take every leaf as it starts, thus 
injuring burnt beds more than those with more foliage. 

I find the best and cheapest way is to pull all weeds that 
show above the vines soon after fruiting; mow oft" the foliage 
quite high, clean out the paths, weed out the rows, remove the 
rubbish, apply manures or fertilizers, thoroughly cultivate and 
hoe all the ground. Remove runners as they appear later 
in the season. You cannot, in our northern climate, renew 
old beds by leaving a center row of plants from vigorous 
runners plenty enough to make a full matted row. The season 
is too short. It takes time to get old plants started and cold 
weather comes early. It is better to use the old plants. 

Have careful pickers ; pick often, as soon as the fruit is well 
colored, in the cool of the day ; grade the fruit, handling as 
little as possible ; pack at once, keep in cool place and market 
early. Each picker should have a stand holding six boxes ; some 
use cloth tacked to the handle to shade full boxes as thev are 
picked. Use clean crates and new boxes ; fill boxes so they 
will be well rounded when they get to market ; shake down 
gently when half full. Handle the fruit in every way so that 
your customers will want your fruit year after vear. Avoid 
sending fruit to market when heated or wet. It is sure to 
arrive in bad shape. 

Large sized fruit of good color and quality, fairly firm, well 



2o6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

put up, will nev^er glut the market; the supply will never 
meet the demand. Use the same care in keeping up a 
reputation for good and fancy fruit as was exercised in the 
first building up of the trade, and there will be no difficulty in 
selling all the fruit you can raise. There are many cities and 
more villages in New England that have not yet seen the first 
box of first-class strawberries. 

I propose to say a few words on varieties out of the usual 
order. No one wishing to make a selection for various 
purposes can get an intelligent idea from books on small fruits, 
much less from the exaggerated descriptions found in most 
catalogues offering plants for sale. As far as possible, I shall 
endeavor to name varieties for illustration and selection that 
are well known. 

My friends know that I have a large collection of varieties. 
For the information of others I say, that I have fruited each 
year for the past four or five years from seventy-five to 150 
named varieties. The numbers are more constant than the 
different varieties, these are continually changing. I am 
working on the rule, "Prove all things; hold fast that which 
is good." The new varieties to fruit this season for the first 
time are greater than usual. 

I have letters of inquiry and call for plants, from five classes 
of customers. First, for show berries ; second, for the garden ; 
third, for the market; fourth, for the nursery: fifth, the 
strawberry enthusiast — men who cultivate the strawberry for 
recreation from other labors ; for pleasure spiced with a little 
profit. The essential points for these various purposes are 
these: For show: size, form, color, and quality of the fruit; 
the merits of the plant are not considered. For the garden : 
quality, and if used for canning, firmness and flavor; season of 
ripening and vigorous, healthy plants of average productiveness 
are wanted. For market : size, color, firmness, and quality; 
vigorous, healthy plants that are very productive. The nur- 
seryman wants popular varieties that make plenty of plants. 
The amateur grower wants all of the best standard sorts and 
the most promising new varieties. 

Two of these classes, the grower of show berries and the 
market grower, also the marketman, have exclusive ideas, are 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 207 

apt to run in a rut, which has a tendency to warp the 
judgment. To illustrate : in years past when I have visited 
this city to see the strawberry show, I have always found that 
the Belmont, Jewell, and later, the Marshall, win the Lyman 
prizes. I never fail to take a turn down to the market after 
seeing the shovv^. Many of the leading marketmen with whom 
I am acquainted, to the question. Which is the best variety of 
strawberries? have always answered. The Wilson, while nine 
tenths of the fruit offered for sale is Crescent. I never saw a 
box of the show berries offered for sale. I once saw a crate 
of Bubach and again a crate of Sharpless. There is a good 
reason for the choice of the marketman : the Wilson will hold 
its bright red color for several days, and is firm enough to 
reship and stand up until it is sold to the consumer ; there is 
no waste on Wilson. The market grower plants the Crescent 
because it yields heavily under all conditions ; the fruit is early, 
of fair size, good color, and firm enough to get to one market. 
The show berries are not productive enough for profit ; unless 
a fancy price is obtained, these should go fresh and direct to 
the consumer. 

There is a great difference in the tastes of people in judging 
the qualtity of strawberries ; one likes a mild, sweet beny ; 
another is partial to the wild strawberry flavor; while the 
third chooses a tart berry. All writers that pretend to give 
truthful descriptions follow their own individual tastes. One 
can easily see that what would be very good or best to one 
would be poor or fairly good to another. Many people also 
are self-opinioned, are acquainted with only a few pet varieties, 
and from a lack of familiar acquintance, ignore many others 
that are better. 

One day I had a lady visitor in the fruit season. I gave her 
specimens of Henderson, Gandy, Jessie, Prince of Berries, and 
Pearl to sample. They were admired, but the lady remarked 
that the Charles Downing was her favorite. I immediately 
handed her some fine specimens of that variety ; after testing, 
the lady said, " They are not so good as I thought they were." 
The fact was she had not before met with a variety of better 
quality than the Charles Downing. 

All strawberry growers are aware of the sexual character of 



208 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

the strawberry blossom. Time will not permit me to go into 
a minute discussion of this interesting question. For the 
information of the beginner I will briefly say that some 
varieties are bi-sexual, perfect flowering, and will perfect fruit 
set alone. They have pistils which develop the fruit and 
carry their own pollen to impregnate or fertilize them, and are 
usually called staminate varieties. This is not technically true, 
as pure staminate varieties are destitute of pistils and would 
not produce fruit. Pure pistillate varieties have blossoms 
containing no stamens, so there is no pollen to fertilize the 
pistils ; these require the aid of a staminate or bi-sexual 
variety set near to fertilize them before they will produce fruit. 

Some varieties have more or less stamens, which are only 
partially developed ; the pollen is weakened ; the pistils imper- 
fectly fertilized, and the result is partially developed or nubby 
fruit. The same result may be caused by not setting a full 
supply of staminate varieties, or by continued wet weather 
when the plants are in blossom. Varieties of the largest size 
and of the best quality are generally bi-sexual varieties. 
Timbrell, General Putnam, Edgar Qiieen, and a few others are 
the exceptions. Varieties of the best quality are more delicate 
in plants, are liable to winter kill, and the blossoms are the 
first to be injured with frosts. They also are below average 
productiveness. The most productive market varieties are all 
pistillate varieties and ai'e all medium in quality. The best 
results are obtained by planting one-third or one-fourth part of 
the garden or field with staminate varieties. 

I suggest the following varieties for the different purposes 
above mentioned : For show fruit named in order of prefer- 
ence, Marshall, Jessie, Belmont, Governor Hoard, Iowa 
Beauty, Middlefield, Brandywine, Bubach, Beauty, and Mary; 
Edith, Dew, Glen Mary, William Belt, and Sharpless are of 
largest size and irregular shape. A few of these varieties have 
vigorous, healthy plants. I have no use for show varieties and 
soon discard them. 

For the garden in order of season of ripening Rio is very 
early ; Barton's Eclipse and Cyclone, early ; Splendid and 
Lovett's, medium ; Beverly and Brandywine, late, — all stami- 
nate varieties excepting Barton's. For canning, Beverly and 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 2O9 

Glendale are the most satisfactory for acid berries of rich, wild 
strawberry flavor. For market, Bubach, Crescent, Greenville, 
and Haverland are the most productive, varieties that succeed 
everywhere : Warfield is as productive, but succeeds only 
under favorable conditions. All these are pistillate varieties. 
They must have staminate sorts set with them to fertilize the 
blossoms. There are none their equal for productiveness. 
Many that are used will not pay expense of cultivation. 

The Wilson has had its day and must be set aside for its 
small size and weak plants. With me the best are Cyclone, 
Lovett's, Beverly, and Brandywine. Beder Wood is productive 
enough, very early, but too soft, with small and weak plant. 
Splendid is all right for the garden, but lacks color and firm- 
ness for the market. Beverly and Brandywine will hold out 
two weeks after all others are gone. Many other varieties are 
good, but will not equal for profit those I have named. 

For the nursery, the market varieties should have the first 
place ; garden varieties second in smaller quantities ; and lastly, 
the most popular new varieties ; the plants of these sell for 
higher prices and in limited quantities. 

For the use of the nurseryman antl amateur grower I will 
name a few. 

There may be great possibilities in Glen Mary for produc- 
tiveness. It is not of perfect shape, nor of the best quality ; 
the color is good and it is firm enough to ship. I received 
plants for trial in 1S93. The plants were not in good condi- 
tion in 1894, and it did not attract much attention. In 1895, 
the rows were full and the plants perfect. I never picked so 
many quarts from any variety at one picking. The originator 
picked, on one fourth of an acre, at the rate of 1,280 quarts per 
acre at one picking, in 1895. My one rod picked at the rate 
of 5,150 quarts. To compare with other varieties, I have 
picked Crescent, Haverland, and Warfield at the rate of 4,480 
quarts, Beverly 4,160. Plants of Glen Mary are in the market 
for sale for the first time the coming spring. I have no plants 
for sale, nor right to sell. 

The following varieties have fine plants and are very highly 
recommended by the originators and introducers ; every 
14 



2IO NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

grower of experience can calculate his chances for a prize if he 
buys a ticket : Berlin, Brunette, Champion of England, Clyde, 
Eleanor, Enormous, Fountain, Gardner, Holland, Paris, King, 
and Staples. 

Your late essayist. Miss Cutler, in speaking of new vegeta- 
bles said that " nineteen out of twenty prove of less value than 
the old standard sorts." I am perfectly willing to admit that 
there is a much wider margin in strawberry novelties. Hun- 
dreds are introduced each year; if we find one annually good 
enough to go into the select list we ought to be satisfied. 

There has been much progress made the past twenty years. 
We have had many revelations in size, form, color, and quality, 
but seldom all four of these points in one variety, as in the 
introduction of the Marshall. If the plant was healthy and 
productive it would be an ideal variety. The progress and 
improvements have made the standard higher and harder to 
reach . 

The great want to-day is, more productive staminate 
varieties adapted to the market, also pistillate market varieties 
of better quality. The size of our present market varieties is 
large enough, excepting the Crescent. Some could be im- 
proved in color, also in firmness, to the profit of the market- 
man. 

A good rule in selecting old or new varieties is "to take 
those only that have shown the best results in many different 
sections, rejecting those that appear to be variable and have 
exhibited weaknesses." The great value of testing varieties is 
to know what to avoid. Reject all varieties of small size, or 
poor quality ; also those that show weakness of plant at any 
time or place. 

The reports of the experimental stations are the best sources 
for reliable information. We cannot know all the conditions 
of growth and fruiting and reports may be misleading. Con- 
fide in individual reports only so far as you have proved the 
person truthful. Give no heed to the glowing descriptions of 
plant dealers; these only mention the good points of a variety 
in exaggerated language. When only one half the story is told 
it is safe to interpret the other half weak points, either of fruit 
or plant. 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 211 

All varieties are susceptible of improvement, and, by a 
continued selection of ideal plants, can be developed to the 
highest perfection so far as the qualities of the variety will 
permit. These cannot be changed. Many new varieties are 
weakened before sending out by over-production of fruit and 
propagating from weak plants ; they are often sent out before 
they are fully developed. 

After making a selection that comes the nearest to your 
wants, it is easy to improve the vigor or productiveness of any 
variety. Propagate a few years from the most vigorous and 
fruitful second plant from the parent plant and you will 
develop that variety to the limit of its best qualities. 

Our best varieties are mostly chance seedlings, discovered by 
accident; such as Bubach, Greenville, and Marshall. No one 
can predict the result from any given cross. President Wilder 
experimented for thirty years and selected one seedling as the 
best obtained from many thousands — beauty and flavor were 
the points that decided the selection, the plant and productive- 
ness were ignored. The Boyden's and Durand's creations 
were soon superseded. 

I take it that there is not a pistillate variety that has enough 
good qualities in perfection of fruit and plant to warrant any 
great success in making crosses that would be an improvement. 
Quality and firmrtess are the weakest points. Seedlings from 
such varieties will be worthless, comparatively speaking. 
It will take a long time to breed out the poor qualities so that 
the seedlings will be a true type of the parent plant, perpet- 
uating the good qualities in a marked degree. Whenever a 
right start can be made, such a result will be brought about by 
in-and-in-breeding on the same principles as have given such 
rich results in improving and perfecting so many varieties in 
the floral department of horticulture. 

Many facts must be learned before much headway is made 
in this direction. As the record now stands, the most valuable 
varieties of known parentage are descendants of the Crescent. 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 

THE STOCK OWNER'S DUTY IN ITS SUPPRESSION. 



BY N. J. BACHELDER, SECRETARY. 



The person who tills the soil of rugged New England finds 
it necessary to adopt different methods from those in vogue 
when his ancestors manipulated this virgin soil, if he would win 
for himself and his family a satisfactory return for his labors. 
The farmer in those earlier times was required to do but little, 
except to plant and harvest the bountiful crops that a new and 
fertile soil was sure to produce with each recurring season. 
The effort put forth was mainly a physical effort, and muscular 
force was the leading requisite for success. All this has changed, 
and the farmer of to-day has to deal with an exhausted soil, 
bugs, and diseases of plants and animals innumerable, and a 
market crowded with the products of the vast prairies of the 
West. He is obliged to substitute the lacking fertility of the 
soil with purchased or produced fertilizing material, fight the 
depredations of all kinds of insect pests with the most approved 
methods of modern science, and destroy the innumerable spe- 
cies of fungi with such poisonous remedies as are recommended 
by those engaged in scientific research, and when a crop has been 
produced it must compete in the market with the crops grown 
upon the vast areas of the West, and to some extent with the 
crops of the world. To do this successfully requires brains as 
well as muscle, and a mental training secured only by study 
equal to that given to the preparation for a business or profes- 
sional life. 

We propose to call attention at this time to one of the many 
subjects in which the farmer should be proficient, and that 
is farm sanitation, or the protection of live stock from the rav- 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 213 

ages of preventable diseases, one of the most talked-about of 
which is bovine tuberculosis. It may seem singular, to say 
the least, to invite attention to so uninviting a subject, but 
when we consider the value of good health ; that nothing can 
be for a moment compared with it ; that no public office 
has sufficient honor and no bank has sufficient wealth to tempt 
an exchange for ill health, although often obtained unwittingly 
at the expense of health, it becomes a matter of common con- 
cern and one of the most important questions that can come 
before the people of any age or country. Public health, to 
a certain extent, depends upon the healthful condition of the 
surroundings and of the food products consumed, and. not- 
withstanding its repugnance, we approach the subject with a 
realizing sense of its importance and bearing. 

The successful practice of medicine in the human race has 
assumed a different character and follows a widely different 
course from that adopted by the early practitioner, with his 
outfit of calomel and squills, given only when the patient had 
become so seriously ill as to require the services of the physi- 
cian and undertaker at about the same time. The rugged con- 
stitution of the people and their simple and temperate mode of 
life often contributed to the success of the physician and the 
postponement of the services of the undertaker until some 
future time. 

The practice of medicine was then considered necessary only 
when the patient had become seriously and dangerously ill, 
trusting to nature and good luck to pull him through the slight 
attacks and the early stages of the attack of any disease, how- 
ever dangerous it might be. To-day the successful practitioner 
depends upon his ability to prevent diseases, as much as to his 
skill in curing them, and wards ofl' disease by fortifying the 
system against it. He does not go around inspecting sink 
drains, cesspools, and garbage heaps, for that comes under the 
jurisdiction of boards of health, which should be stimulated to 
action by the most stringent legislation and by the earnest 
demands of the people ; but when his attention is called to 
some slight ailment, he probes deep enough to see what it may 
lead to and makes inquiry for the cause. He does something 
more than advise the patient to "keep quiet," "take warm 



214 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

drinks," " keep the feet wai-m and dry," which may be all 
right as far as they go ; but he goes beyond this, removes the 
cause of the disease, if possible, administers medicine to ward 
off the disease, and cures the people by keeping them healthy. 
The practice of medicine to-day consists in preventing rather 
than curing disease, and the person who doesn't consult a good 
physician until he is so ill as to be scared is the one who econo- 
mizes in money at the risk of life. Preserve health bj' pre- 
ventative measures as far as possible is the theory throughout 
the medical world, and it appeals at once to the favor of com- 
mon-sense and judgment. 

The practice of veterinary science, although comparatively 
young in this country, recognizes the same general principle 
as far as possible, yet it is not so generally applicable as in the 
medical practice. The disease in the animal kingdom is not 
known until its effect has been made noticeable by the appear- 
ance of the animal, and consequently has become more deeply 
seated. This emphasizes the necessity of adopting preventative 
measures and enforcing the most strict sanitary regulations in 
the management and control of the domestic animals under our 
care, and the sooner the efforts of the veterinary fraternity are 
vigorously directed in this channel the sooner will there be less 
disease among animals and less financial loss by the owner. 
The diseases which affect the animal kingdom, as well as those 
which are found in the human race, are largely preventable ; 
and even those of a contagious character depend to some extent 
upon the surrounding conditions to propagate their kind. 

Tuberculosis is a contagious disease of this nature, and is a 
disease that has existed in a greater or less degree in all coun- 
tries of the world where there are inhabitants. Bovine tuber- 
culosis, which is the form affecting animals, has existed for 
ages among the domestic animals of all countries, and will con- 
tinue to exist in some degree as long as animals are reared and 
fed, and as long as consumption is known to the human race, 
and the consumptive patient allowed to mingle with the rest 
of the world. This will probably be to the end of time, for no 
law will ever be enforced preventing it, however harmful the 
results may be. The most that can be done in the human and 
the bovine race is to establish and enforce such sanitarv meas- 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 215 

Vires as appeal to the good judgment of those best informed 
upon such matters, and in the case of the latter, break up and 
destroy the hotbeds of disease by disposing of tuberculous ani- 
mals. This latter provision, however, is of secondary impor- 
tance compared with the sanitary restrictions to be enforced. 

We are assigned the task of pointing out the duty of the 
stock owner in preventing the appearance of the disease in his 
herd. It is not our purpose to enter into a lengthy scientific 
discussion of the nature and characteristics of bovine tuber- 
culosis, for this matter is already quite well understood, and 
therefore the scientific lore upon this subject, with which such 
addresses are frequently burdened, may well be omitted. 
There are many things about this disease that are not yet well 
understood even by scientific experts, but as far as our action 
is concerned, we must divest our minds of the idea that bovine 
tuberculosis is a mysterious malady, almost beyond our com- 
prehension, and in place thereof must understand that it is 
simply consumption caused by minute germs which have 
become displaced from a case of the disease, and finding a 
lodgment in the system of certain animals where the conditions 
are favorable, grow and develop slowly or rapidly, according 
to circumstances, and produce tiie disease. This disease can- 
not be produced without the presence of the germ, and not one 
tuberculous germ in ten thousand ever develops sufficiently to 
cause harm. They become dry and pass into the atmosphere, 
and are present nearly everywhere until destroyed by their 
enemies, among the most important of which are light and 
extreme heat. The condition of the system in which the germ 
finds lodgment, and the environments with which it is sur- 
rounded, are the important considerations in causing or pre- 
venting a case of tuberculosis. These are the important mat- 
ters to be considered in restricting this disease. 

The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis varies in different 
sections of the same country. It is generally found most prev- 
alent in thickly-settled sections, and the greatest immunity from 
it is in those localities where animals enjoy the greatest free- 
dom with the least confinement and forcing. Statistics re- 
garding its prevalence are meagre. In 1890 and 1891 over 
12,000 animals were killed in England during an outbreak 



2l6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

of pleuro-pneumonia, under the direction of the board of agri- 
culture, and were subjected to a post-mortem examination for 
the presence of tuberculosis. It was found that over 12 per 
cent, of those animals that were killed on account of another 
disease were tuberculous. This is probably a higher per cent, 
than could be found anywhere in New Hampshire, but this, 
of course, is simply a matter of conjecture. There is more of 
the disease than there ought to be. Notwithstanding loud- 
mouthed claims that certain sections are entirely free from it, 
we express the carefully-formed opinion that there is not a 
county in New England, and but few towns, where the tuber- 
culin test would not reveal a case. Were it necessary to go 
through and make an investigation, the expense would be ap- 
palling, to say nothing of the effect upon the live-stock industry. 
The advocates of the indiscriminate application of the tuberculin 
test and the destroying of all animals that react, are growing 
less every day, and we leave, without expressing an opinion, 
the extent to which this testing should be carried, to the wisdom 
of future legislators. The subject before us is the consideration 
of means of prevention, which is paramount to all else in 
the suppression of this wide-spread and alarming malady. 
What we shall say upon this subject is based upon personal ob- 
servation and experience in the inspection of animals in over 
600 barns in New Hampshire, in two thirds of which tuber- 
culosis was found. We shall not weary your patience by an 
alarming array of figures, but give you such general conclu- 
sions as our observations and reading have caused us to form 
upon this important and far-reaching subject. 

A careful consideration of this matter fails to reveal any 
single cause to which the development of the germ can be 
traced, for the several causes contributing to it are generally 
associated where serious infection is found. Probably the most 
productive of any, and that which is most often present, is the 
lack of proper ventilation in the stable. Good authorities claim 
that each full-grown animal should have 1,000 cubic feet of 
air-space with a change of air two or three times a day. This, 
of course, refers to a stable without ventilation. Within the 
last twenty years there has been excessive agitation of the ne- 
cessity of keeping dairy animals warm as a means of increasing 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 2l7 

the milk supply, and so earnestly was this advocated by the 
speakers at farmers' meetings and institutes and by the press, 
without sufficiently enforcing the necessity of ventilation or 
without sufficient adoption by the stock owners, that old sta- 
bles were boarded up in front and new stables were built with 
this end alone in view. Within the same period stimulating 
grain foods have come into the market and sold in some sea- 
sons at low prices in proportion to the nutriment they con- 
tain. In addition to this, the thrifty dairymen had been told 
that each movement of a muscle by the cow reduced the secre- 
tion of milk, and in many instances she was kept tied in the 
rigid stanchion from fall till spring, forced to her utmost ca- 
pacity with stimulating foods and all the time kept in a close, 
ill-ventilated stable. The owner apparently secured his milk at 
less expense than under the former system, but the germs of 
tuberculosis, which are everywhere present, found congenial 
soil in the systems of those animals, and it became a tubercu- 
lous herd. So slowly did the disease develop that its nature 
was unknown to the owner, much less its cause, and occasion- 
ally drooping animals were innocently sold to a neighbor, and 
aided in the contamination of his herd if conditions were in 
any way favorable. Sometimes they were sent to a distant 
town or state to pasture, and after a slight recuperation at pas- 
ture feed, were disposed of to unsuspecting purchasers, to carry 
the disease into new sections and into new herds. This, in 
brief, is the history of the development of the bovine tubercu- 
losis existing in the country to-day, and indicates the extreme 
importance of preventative measures which are largely in the 
hands of the stock owner to enforce or neglect. We shall place 
at the head of the list of causes contributing to the development 
of bovine tuberculosis, insufficient ventilation of stables. 

We find a wide difference of opinion among farmers and 
dairymen in regard to what constitutes proper and effective ven- 
tilation. An opening near the top of a close stable or tie-up 
will allow the heated air to pass out because it is lighter and 
tends to rise, but the foul gases and tubercle bacilli are heavier 
than pure air and settle towards the floor. A system of venti- 
lation should take the air from the most contaminated part of 
the stable and carry it to the outside. A ventilating flue should 



2l8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

be provided for this purpose, extending to the outside under the 
eaves, and the draft will accomplish the object and should be 
arranged at least one for every i,ooo cubic feet of air-space. 
We are referring now to those stables that are closed in tight 
in the form of box stables and commonly called boarded up in 
front. In addition to this the partition in front of the animals 
should be so arranged as to be left partially open, except in ex- 
tremely cold weather and then should be used with good judg- 
ment. A stable arranged in this manner, with a ventilator in 
the roof of sufficient size to carry oft' the heated air, can be used 
with safety, if proper attention is given to regulating it. We are 
not in favor of heating the air in the cow stable from the warmth 
of the animals to such an extent as is frequently practised. We 
have entered many stables where it was exceedingly oppressive 
to remain any length of time on account of the excessive warmth 
and foul gases, and those are the stables that contribute largely 
to the development of tuberculosis. The wise plan is to make 
the barn sufficiently tight to exclude as much cold air as possi- 
ble, provide a ventilator in the roof and another for the escape 
of the foul air under the eaves, and allow the animals to stand 
with their heads to the big roomy barn floor, except in exces- 
sively cold weather. The purest air in the stable will be found 
near the aperture, which is often expected to carry oft' impuri- 
ties, and the foulest air will be found near the floor, which 
should be carefull}'^ considered in arranging a system of venti- 
lation. On a scale of points in which loo represents perfect 
conditions for preventing bovine tuberculosis, we shall place the 
proper ventilation of the stable at 40 points. 

Another accessory cause of vital consequence and one which 
has been frequently discussed and has led to the most extrava- 
gant and unreasonable statements, is that of feed. It has been 
claimed with much earnestness that ensilage, cotton-seed meal, 
gluten meal, and other concentrated feeds that have come into 
general use within the present generation are direct causes of 
this disease. This claim has been made by men of high 
authority in matters of public concern, but fails to be verified 
by any x-eliable data. A person may eat mince-pie in suffi- 
cient quantities perhaps to kill him, but we don't stop eating 
pie or assert that pie is a specially dangerous food. A person 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 219 

may feed a horse to the extent and in such a manner that he 
will die of spinal meningitis, but we do n't stop feeding grain 
to horses on that account. We have given careful investigation 
to this matter, and fail to find any connection between using 
any kind of feed and the development of tuberculosis. The 
amount that is fed has something to do in causing it. Since 
the highly concentrated feeds have come into use, there has been 
a tendency to crowd animals to their utmost limit at the expense 
of constitutional vigor. This has been justified in the mind of 
the feeder from the fact that it requires a certain amount of food 
to sustain the animal system, and in the case of well-bred ani- 
mals the larger amount they are able to digest and assimi- 
late the more is the profit derived from the feeding. This is 
without taking into account the effect upon the animal. The 
result has been that the system was overtaxed by the excessive 
strain put upon it and could offer less resistance to the tubercu- 
lous germ and fell a prey to the disease. A person who has a 
difficult task to perform may receive stimulus for the time by 
excessive eating, drinking, or smoking, but when the task is 
over the system is in a weakened condition. In a moderate de- 
gree this may be kept up for weeks and months and perhaps 
years, but all the time the system is less able to withstand dis- 
ease. A dairy animal may be forced by excessive feeding of 
stimulating food to such an extent that while the food itself 
causes no disease it so weakens the system that it has not the 
power to withstand the germ, and we have a case of tubercu- 
losis. We place the responsibility of proper feed in preventing 
the disease at 20 points. 

The breeding has something to do in this matter. As in the 
case of feed, it tends to a condition favorable or antag- 
onistic to the growth and development of the germ. The 
theory was long ago exploded that consumption is hereditary, 
and the theory has become equally well established that the 
tendency to develop or to overcome the tuberculous germ is trans- 
mitted in blood lines. This is nothing more or less than a del- 
icate constitution in the one instance and a rugged constitution 
in the other, and the same principle applies both to the human 
and the bovine race. The one may fall an easy victim to tuber- 
culosis upon the most trivial exposure, while the other may feed 



220 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

upon tubercle bacilli and never suffer harm. In the animal 
kingdom, we find those breeds of cattle that have been developed 
in their dairy products rather than in physical qualities to be 
more susceptible to the germ than those developed in the 
beef type. A person in the dairy business of course needs 
dairy-bred cattle, but in their selection and breeding he should 
give some attention to their constitutional vigor. Animals in 
which the natural constitution of the breed has been sacrificed 
by in-and-iu breeding, too young breeding or faulty breeding, 
should never be allowed in the dairy herd, for the most vigorous 
animals in the dairy breeds are none too rugged to withstand 
the attacks of this destructive germ. We place the matter of 
breeding at 15 points in the scale of points to be observed. 

One of the most potent agents in the destruction of the germ 
is sunlight, and more of this health-giving agency should be in- 
vited into our cattle-stables. It costs little and has other healthy 
effects in addition to its power over the tubercle bacillus. The 
cattle-stables should be arranged on the sunny side of the stable 
and should be well provided with windows. We have noted 
on various occasions the effect of dark, damp stables, and have 
almost invariably found the disease in such places. We have 
also noticed the absence of the disease under the opposite con- 
ditions. We have in mind an instance where a tuberculous 
animal, quite advanced with the disease, was kept in a herd of 
twenty-five cattle for two years after the disease was noticed, 
and upon applying the tuberculin test to the entire herd this 
badly-diseased cow was the only one that responded. The rea- 
son that none others had contracted the disease was the fact that 
the sanitary conditions of the stable were first-class and a 
spot as large as a person's hand would not be found in the entire 
stable where the sun's rays did not penetrate. Open up the 
dark, damp, dingy stables and let in heaven's pure sunlight, 
and there will be less tuberculosis. We place the effect of sun- 
light at 15 points. 

The fifth and last point to which we shall call your attention, 
is exercise. Both too little and too much exercise will favor 
the germ development, but the former is by far the most com- 
mon. It is related to the other causes we have mentioned in 
this intense system of forcing, and has been practised for the 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 221 

purpose of getting the last quart of milk possible. Cattle that 
stand in the stable from fall till spring have no exercise to ex- 
pand the lungs, the common seat of tlie disease, and germs that 
might otherwise be destroyed, gain a foothold on account of this 
inactivity. A vigorous walk of several rods, at least once a 
day, to the water-supply will be healthful and a prominent and 
important preventative. Too much exercise sometimes happens 
in the case of working-oxen subjected to excessive and contin- 
uous exposure without adequate care. This will cause a con- 
dition in which the germ will find a congenial soil. A horse 
may be driven excessivel}', and become so exhausted as to con- 
tract a cold that ends in his death, when at another time the same 
horse under exactly similar conditions, except exhaustion, would 
pass through the same experience without any serious results. 
The same principle holds true in cattle, and excessive strain 
upon muscular force opens the way for tuberculosis. We place 
exercise at lo points in the lOO score. 

In the score we have omitted what may seem of the greatest 
importance to you, and that is the removal of tuberculous ani- 
mals. We have omitted it because it is now considered a part 
of the duty of the state rather than the stock owner, and for 
the reason that the extent to which it should be carried depends 
upon circumstances. The circumstances are the extent to which 
the disease exists. In those sections where the sanitary condi- 
tions we have mentioned have been most seriously neglected, 
there will be found the greatest prevalence of tuberculosis, 
and such hotbeds of the disease can only be renovated by vigor- 
ous and heroic measures. Such conditions as are claimed to 
exist in certain sections of New England can only be met by 
the expenditure of large sums of money in connection with the 
enforcement of strict sanitary laws. We believe, however, 
that the importance of the sanitary measures is in danger of 
being covered up by the other. We believe those entrusted 
with the enforcement and execution of laws for the suppression 
of bovine tuberculosis can have no iron-clad regulations that 
will apply to every herd. Where the physical inspection re- 
veals a case of tuberculosis and the conditions are such as to 
suggest the absence of sanitary precaution for a period of time, 
the application of the tuberculin test is perhaps advisable, but 



222 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

there is a serious and unnecessary waste in killing and burying 
every animal that reacts to the test, however slightly it may be 
affected. 

In the comparative freedom of the herds of New Hampshire 
from the disease in a serious form, we believe a campaign of 
education along sanitary lines will accomplish more than a uni- 
versal use of the tuberculin test. There are hundreds of cattle 
slightly affected with the germs of the disease that will never 
develop suflSciently to cause harm to man or animals, if proper 
sanitary measures are observed. How this can be secured I 
am not able to say, but it presents the most important phase of 
the question for the practical suppression of bovine tuberculosis 
to-day. There are doubtless some herds which are so saturated 
with the disease that only the tuberculin test will meet the case, 
and where this should be applied is a serious and important 
question for the cattle commission to determine. 

In closing this address, we will make a statement in re- 
gard to the control and spread of bovine tuberculosis, without 
wearying your patience with our reasons for the conclusion. 
We have them in our possession, and are firmly convinced of 
their authenticity. We would, however, like to see the truth 
or falsity of these views demonstrated by the agricultural exper- 
iment stations of the country, for they alone are amply equipped 
for such expensive and long term experiments as would be in- 
volved in the question. We believe, however, such experiments 
would establish beyond all doubt many disputed points bearing 
upon the important matter of bovine tuberculosis and its sup- 
pression. We assert 

1. A herd of healthy cattle may be divided into two lots and 
a tuberculous animal introduced into each lot. One lot, kept 
without measures advocated in this address, will, inside of three 
years, develop 75 per cent, of tuberculous cattle, and the other 
lot, with sanitary measures well enforced, will come out at the 
end of three years uncontaminated. 

2. A lot of cattle that have reacted to the tuberculin test, but 
manifesting no physical symptoms of the disease, may be kept 
for years under perfect sanitary conditions and a large percent- 
age will never develop the disease sufficiently to cause any harm, 
and some will be cured. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



ITS POISON, CAUSES, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT, 

FROM THE HOUSEHOLDER'S STANDPOINT 

OF RESPONSIBILITY. 



BY JOHN D. QUACKENBOS, A. M., M. D., MEMBER N. Y. ACADEMY OF 
SCIENCES, FELLOW N. Y. ACADEMY OF MEDTCINE. 



Two years ago this summer it was my privilege to address 
the field meeting on the subject of " Bovine Tuberculosis," 
largely with reference to the obligation resting on owners of 
infected herds to take such steps as science prescribes to pre- 
vent the communication of tubercular disease to healthy cattle 
and to human beings. This season, when your honorable sec- 
retary a second time paid me the compliment of placing my 
name on the programme of speakers, I selected for my subject 
one whose thorough understanding I deem of the utmost 
importance to our people — " Typhoid Fever, Considered from 
the Standpoint of the Householder's Responsibility." My view 
of the importance of the subject as announced, is based on 
the fact that this disease, which during the last ten years has 
prostrated about 16,000 natives of this state, and of this num- 
ber has claimed 1,736 victims, is without question a preventable 
disease (to quote an eminent authority, " Nothing is more 
discreditable to the civilization of the 19th century than its 
existence" ) ; and secondly, that its prevention depends almost 
entirely on the intelligent attitude and action of a properly- 
instructed and conscientious population. You have it in your 
power, by observing a few simple sanitary regulations, practi- 
cally to put an end, in this community, to death by this disease. 

My purpose this afternoon is to give you the very latest 
results of laboratory research in connection with its germ and 
poison ; to make plain to you its cause, and thus acquaint you 



224 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

with the means of its prevention ; and, above all, to impress 
upon you, in connection with an outbreak of typhoid fever in 
family or village, the responsibility which attaches to each one 
of us as a constituent member of a great society of men and 
women who have the moral right to protection from injury or 
death at our hands, through the medium of disease germs, as 
much as by the various forms of legally recognized and legally 
punishable careless or wilful assault, manslaughter, and 
murder. 

The great modern authorities are united in the opinion that 
typhoid fever is caused by a peculiar microscopic vegetable 
organism known as the bacilbis typhosus^ and by this bacillus 
only. 

Bacteria or microbes are names which characterize a group 
of the lowest forms of plants. These plants occur in several 
shapes, viz. : globules (micrococci)^ spirals (spirilla)^ and rods 
called bacilli^ or literally, little staves. Many of these plants 
possess the power of self-movement, — ^some by the aid of minute 
threads attached to their bodies. Such is the typhoid bacillus 
— a short, plump rod, three times as long as broad (1-4,000 x 
1-12,000 inch), surrounded by what are technically called fla- 
gellar or little whips, as organs of locomotion. Like more 
highly organized species, these miscroscopic plants breathe, 
eat, digest, multiply, and finally die of old age. They depend 
for their supply of carbon on all kinds of organic substances 
dead and living. They multiply either by simple division, or 
germinate, producing small round or oval bodies called spores 
or seeds, which, under favorable conditions, develop into cells 
of the same shape and size as those from which they were 
derived — and this is the way all microbes must develop — from 
pre-existing microbes. They cannot originate de novo. There 
is no such thing as spontaneous generation. The spores are 
held to be the most resisting entities in the organic world, 
chemical substances that are destructive to other life having 
little efl'ect on them. Under favorable conditions of food and 
temperature (95°- 104° F.) they reproduce their species with 
marvelous rapidity. According to one observer, a bacillus 
divides into two the first hour ; each of these into two more by 
the end of the second hour, etc., making over 16,000,000 



TYPHOID FEVER. 225 

descendants from a single plant in one day. Their development, 
however, is retarded, if not prevented, by exposure to light, 
the blue and violet rays of the spectrum being noticeably 
deadly. Aerated or carbonated water is also fatal to all micro- 
organisms ; in such media, bacteria are found steadily to 
diminish and never to multiply. The same is largely true of 
mineral springs not exposed to contamination. 

The typhoid bacillus possesses phenomenal powers of resist- 
ance. It retains its power of development in ordinary earth 
for nearly a month ; in house and street sweepings, dust from 
walls and pictures, and on wood, like doors, railings, chair 
backs, bedposts, for 30 days ; in sand, for 82 days. Excessive 
cold, if steady, does not injure it ; hence, ice is one of the 
principal vehicles for conveying the poison of typhoid fever. 
But if the temperature varies, as in alternate thawing and 
freezing, the bacillus is destroyed. Exposure to the sun's rays 
for from four to ten hours has proved fatal to the typhoid ba- 
cillus, which grows best in the dark — in cupboards, close cham- 
bers, cellars, and vaults. But electric light has little effect on 
it. It is said not to exist at altitudes above 2,000 feet. Its 
longevity is sometimes remarkable. It has been observed to 
live six months in the laboratory of the bacteriological depart- 
ment of the Board of Health of New York city ; and it has 
been found in the human body seven years after the attack of 
typhoid fever, which gave it origin. In this latter case, the 
bacilli had lost their virulence, but quickly regained it when 
cultivated in an artificial medium. 

Boiling promptly kills the typhoid bacillus ; temperatures 

above 170° are fatal. It has been noticed that the Chinese of 

the Pacific coast who for drinking purposes, making tea, etc., 

use boiled water exclusively, are exempt from typhoid, and the 

lesson is obvious. All suspicious water should be boiled before 

drinking. Filtering water through sand reduces the number 

of suspended bacteria. Frankland calculates that 95 per cent. 

of micro-organisms are removed from water by careful sand 

filtration. Hence, we are justified in assuming that numbers 

of typhoid bacilli may, by such a process, be strained out of 

drinking water — but certainly not all. The typhoid bacillus is 

the most insidious of all in its methods of migration. It can 
15 



226 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

penetrate any substance through which a drop of water can 
find its way. It has been known to force a passage through the 
soldered joint of a lead pipe, and do deadly work in consequence. 
Fortunately for humanity, it does not reproduce its kind in 
pure water. Pure well, lake, or river water does not possess 
that concentration of nutritious substances necessary to the 
growth of this bacillus. But let such water be contaminated by 
decomposing animal or vegetable matters (a dead toad in a 
spring — privy drainage into a well) and the necessary soil for the 
development of the typhoid plant is at once provided. Be it re- 
membered, however, that the seed of this particular plant must 
be sown in such soil before there can result a harvest of disease 
germs. The ordinary bacteria of decomposition cannot cause ty- 
phoid fever ; but they can so depress the human system as to cre- 
ate favorable conditions for the reception of the bacillus in the 
intestinal canal. The same is true of sewer gas. Rats, guinea- 
pigs, and rabbits confined in boxes with perforated bottoms and 
placed over open privies and cesspools, quickly lost their spirits 
and pined ; and when inoculated with a small dose of the typhoid 
bacillus died in thirty-six hours. The same dose had no effect 
on animals not so exposed. The inference is plain. The phys- 
ical system is rendered highly sensitive to the typhoid bacillus 
by the inhalation of putrid gases. Now, whether or not a man 
contracts the disease after the accidental reception of the bacil- 
lus depends on the condition of his body when the germ enters. 
In depressed states, the system is predisposed — the bacillus 
finds more appropriate nutriment. But its admission does not 
necessarily cause the disease. Human life has always been a 
continual struggle between the cells of the parasite and those 
of the tissues invaded. In certain parts of the world that we 
designate uninhabitable, the parasite holds the fort. But on 
the whole, man has triumphed over the microbe. It is a case 
of the survival of the fittest. 

Now, what is the natural habitat of the typhoid fever germ 
that can thrive unnaturally in various nutritive media ? It is 
the body of the person infected with typhoid fever. The ba- 
cillus is always present in the sputa and bowel discharges of 
such a patient, and has been found also in the urine and milk 
of such subjects, and even in the tissues of infants born of 



TYPHOID FEVER. 227 

mothers affected with typhoid. But it is from the bowel evac- 
uations, improperly cared for, that the crop of this bacillus is 
almost entirely kept up. If such evacuations are not disinfected, 
in a few hours they swarm with millions of virulent germs, 
which easily find their way from the privy vault into the well 
from which the family drink, perhaps are washed by rain into 
a water supply for a whole village, or are introduced with the 
water by which they are cleansed into milk cans that are sent 
to distant cities, thus communicating the disease to hundreds, 
in some instances to thousands, of human beings. All sufferers 
from typhoid fever have taken into their mouths bacilli origi- 
nally derived in some way from the vomit, sputa, or alvine 
evacuations of typhoid patients. Now, let me ask your atten- 
tion for a moment to the various means of carriage at the dis- 
posal of the typhoid bacilli ; and thus impress upon you the 
thought, that in the midst of an epidemic the price of health, 
perhaps of life, is eternal watchfulness. I have just indicated 
to you how easy it is to pollute drinking water, or milk by 
washing cans with water from infected wells — and thus lit- 
erally to float the bacillus from the sick chamber to the din- 
ing-rooms of neighbors or distant patrons. There is no doubt 
that typhoid fever is most frequently propagated through the 
medium of contaminated drinking water, principally well- 
water. Edson reaches the conclusion that there is hardly a well 
in the countrv from which it is safe to drink. Wells are cheap 
and convenient ; and hence most of us have them. Occasion- 
ally you will find them sunk under the floor of the kitchen, 
often beneath the roof of the shed — always dangerously near 
the privy vault and barn-yard. From the two latter, the well is 
most invariably contaminated. Now, in case of typhoid fever 
in the family, the privy is the receptacle of the bowel discharges 
of the patient and with them of the deadly germs. These easily 
filter through the soil into the well, and are literally swallowed 
by other members of the family, who, if predisposed, promptly 
contract the fever — which is not contagious^ that is, communi- 
cable by immediate contact with the patient, like measles, — 
but infectious^ or indirectly conveyed in the manner described. 
There is no argument so convincing as that based on an 
exhibition of facts. Let me, therefore, lay before you a few 



228 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

recent, well-authenticated instances of the propagation of typhoid 
fever through drinking water and infected milk. Charity 
begins at home. So I will begin with the Merrimack river, 
and ask your attention briefly to its unfitness, below the city of 
Concord, as a source of supply for drinking water. Nashua, 
Manchester, Concord, and Fitchburg have for years emptied 
their sewers into the Merrimack and Nashua rivers; and yet 
as recently as 1892-93, the cities of Lowell and Lawrence reck- 
lessly drew a large part of their drinking water, totally unpuri- 
fied even by filtration, from the sewage-polluted stream. And 
they have paid for their flagrant defiance of sanitary law in an 
excessive annual death-rate from typhoid. But in 1891, when 
an insignificant feeder called Stony brook, in North Chelms- 
ford, two and one-half miles above the intake of the Lowell 
waterworks, became specifically infected by communicating 
privies used by factory operatives in the diarrhoeal stage of 
typhoid, Lowell became the scene of a well-remembered 
epidemic, undeniably traceable to such pollution. North 
Chelmsford had previously passed through a severe outbreak 
of typhoid fever ; yet no restrictions were placed on this action 
of its factory employees, who went about in the walking stage 
of the disease, filling with poison drinking water accessible to 
120,000 people. Some one was responsible for the sickness 
and deaths that followed in Lowell. At this very time there 
was less fever than usual in the upper Merrimack valley. The 
city of Lawrence, nine miles below, was also affected, though 
not to the same extent as Lowell; and in 1893, the city of 
Newburyport, which, on account of the scarcity of water, drew 
a portion of its supply from the river. Li this connection, I 
take the opportunity of saying, in opposition, perhaps, to the 
prevailing opinion, that no river is long enough to purify itself 
from such pollution. 

Early in May, I passed a Sabbath in the little town of Rah- 
way, N. J. By chance I learned that there were forty cases of 
typhoid fever in the town. Inquiry showed that the families 
affected derived their drinking water from the upper part of 
the Rahway river, an innocent-looking stream that flowed 
through the section. Taking along a member of the water 
board, I drove up the river to a point beyond the intake, and 



TYPHOID FEVER. 229 

found what I expected, a picturesque stream flowing through a 
ravine which received the water-closet drainage of the hotel and 
many private houses of Cranford, New Jersey. A typhoid case 
or two had polluted the stream — and here were educated men 
and women constantly polluting through their privies and 
water-closet drains water they knew thousands of people were 
drinking five miles below them. There is no difference as 
regards responsibility, between such action and that of a man 
who should go out into the main street of this village with a 
rifle and fire it in all directions through this grove and among 
these buildings. A great many of us would escape, but the 
probability is that some would be killed. The cases just given 
are typical — there is no need of multiplying them ; but I wish 
to make the point that ice cut from rivers or lakes polluted as 
above described is as dangerous as the water. Ice is often cut 
near the entrance of sewers, and epidemics have been traced 
directly to the use of such infected ice. The ice industry of 
the Hudson river has been conducted for years under the eye 
of the State Board of Health, but not until last winter were 
steps taken in the New York legislature to stop the storage and 
sale of ice infected with the sewage of Troy, Albany, Hudson, 
and other cities. 

I wish that you would carry away with you, and live with 
some regard to it, this great sanitary principle, — Any water 
that is nutritive to bacteria is dangerous for drinking pur- 
poses. Stagnation and low water often imply those concentra- 
tions that are favorable to the growth of the typhoid plant ; 
hence the fever has been observed to increase with drought, low 
wells, and the fall of the subsoil water generally, with an 
accompanying lessened current. 

Sawdust waters contain all the chemical elements necessary 
to sustain the lower forms of plant life. Your fish commis- 
sioners are condemning the careless introduction of sawdust 
into our streams as destructive to fish life — but, my friends, it 
is a menace to human life, and for that reason I urge you to 
throw your influence against it. There have been bitter and 
perhaps expensive sawdust fights in your legislature for the 
purpose of saving a few little trout for a few interested men ; 
but the noble, philanthropic motive of securing laws that shall 



230 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

compel the selfish few to act with reference to the safety of the 
endangered many seems to have been left entirely out of con- 
sideration by those whom you have sent to represent your inter- 
ests at Concord. Sawdust waters all contain organic matter 
in such quantities as to destroy their value for drinking and 
ordinary purposes. All contain resinous matters. All con- 
tain nitrogenous material, capable of yielding albuminoid 
ammonia greatly in excess of the health limit. All sawdust 
waters are nurseries for bacteria. Think a moment! Are any 
of the streams from which your children drink, or ponds among 
whose lilies they play, so polluted.'' And while men under 
salary are wrangling all winter over the probable effects of this 
sawdust in causing gill fever to a few pounds of trout, I have 
yet to see the man wise and bold enough to rise in the legisla- 
tive chamber in defense of the health of his fellow-men, and 
fight the contaminators of our inland waters on the noblest 
grounds and with the noblest emotions. A few pounds of trout 
on the one hand, and the safety of 400,000 human beings on the 
other ! Verily, are we returning to the old Norman days when 
he who killed as much as a rabbit had his eyes plucked out, 
while he who murdered his brother man paid a moderate fine 
and went free? A few pounds of trout ! I am a friend of the 
graceful fish — but I am a greater friend of man ; and I protest 
in the name of humanity against all manufacturers who cast 
•their refuse into your beautiful streams and lakes, converting 
into cesspools and graveyards what God designed as the 
springs of health and joy. 

Next to infected water, in the order of frequency as a cause 
of typhoid fever, stands infected milk. The most severe epi- 
demic of which there is any record in Connecticut, was spread 
through Stamford last year by milk infected by washing cans 
with water from a polluted well ; and it was proved that the 
infection entered the well from privy vaults a few feet distant. 
In a similar epidemic, it was ascertained that the teats of cows 
furnishing the milk had been washed with contaminated water. 

In the autumn of 1894, its milk supply proved to be the 
cause of a famous epidemic in Marlboro, Mass. The cause was 
traced to a certain creamery which supplied milk to the whole 
city. This creamery bought milk from twenty-eight different 



TYPHOID FEVER. 23 1 

farmers and also from independent peddlers. It sold as well 
to peddlers when their supplies ran short, " whole" or fresh 
milk ; but suspicion pointed to the skimmed or separated milk, 
which many persons bought from motives of economy. The 
total number of cases was fifty and of these forty-seven were 
known to have had access to this skimmed milk, and two others 
got milk of a milkman supplied by the creamery. Investiga- 
tion showed that neither the whole milk nor the butter was 
infected (in fact, there is no satisfactory evidence that butter is 
ever infected) but only the skimmed or " hand skum " milk. 
And it was finally proved that this was in some way contami- 
nated by the driver of the delivery wagon, who had typhoid 
fever, from his hands. This Marlboro case is the first on record 
in this country in which an epidemic of typhoid has been due 
to the use of infected skimmed milk. 

There are many other ways than directly through the use of 
contaminated drinking water, milk, and ice, by which typhoid 
infection may be conveyed, — for instance, brushing the teeth 
with polluted water ; eating fruit or raw vegetables that have 
been washed in contaminated water, or exposed for sale in 
dirty streets and depots. Bathing in waters infected with the 
typhoid bacillus is equally prejudicial and has been noted as a 
cause of the disease in New York city, and at the neighboring 
beaches in New York bay. Four cases, occurring in boys who 
were in the habit of swimming daily in the East river, were 
traced to the contamination of the water by a sewer along the 
line of which typhoid fever actually existed at the time. The 
bacilli were floated from the water-closets of the infected tene- 
ment-houses to the river, and were gulped in with mouthfuls 
of water by the juvenile bathers. 

An epidemic of typhoid among the students of Wesleyan 
University in 1S94 was found to be due to the use of raw 
oysters which had been " laid down" a few days for the pur- 
pose of freshening in the Qiiinnipiac river at New Haven, 
near the mouth of a drain coming from a private house, in 
which there were cases of typhoid and one death. These oys- 
ters were served at three college suppers. There were thirty 
victims, all of whom had eaten the oysters raw. None of those 
who ate the same oysters cooked, contracted the disease. Fatal 



232 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

cases of typhoid fever, attributed to the same cause, viz., eat- 
ing infected raw oysters, have since been reported from Ger- 
many and Great Britain. 

Typhoid fever is also propagated through the medium of in- 
fected hands — the hands of those who wait upon the sick, 
the hands of w^alking cases not sick enough to take to bed. 
Disease follows in the wake of a walking typhoid fever patient. 
Every door-knob he touches, every banister, every article of 
food or clothing, every piece of money, is likely to be con- 
verted into a messenger of contagion. This is called digital 
if?fection. It suggests the danger of eating with unwashed 
hands. It satisfactorily explains many cases that have been 
believed to originate spontaneously. The germs may lie latent 
for long periods in clothing, and when the clothes are taken 
out and shaken, they are liberated, fall upon food, and are 
swallowed, to reproduce themselves and cause the disease. 
Hence the origin of typhoid in some of your isolated farm- 
houses, when not so much as a strange dog has entered the 
dooryard for weeks. The spores or bacilli in a dried state are 
carried into the air with dust from the floor-sweepings, or from 
clothing that may have received them months before in some 
village street, country store, or at some county fair, and has 
since, as best or Sunday clothes, been hung away in a dark 
closet ; or they may be latent in the material that accumulates 
under the finger nails of uncleanly persons, or in a roll of dirty 
paper money. They are conveyed by hand-shaking ; or by the 
vicious American habit of kissing everybody, described by 
Artemus Ward or Josh Billings as " swapping slabber." It is 
literally swapping microbes ; and I hope to see the day when 
the law will regard it as a misdemeanor for a strange woman 
to catch up my child in the cars and kiss it ! It is worse than 
pocket-picking ! 

Typhoid contagion may further be conveyed through the 
medium of a letter, penned by infected fingers. I have the 
record of a fatal case of scarlatina, contracted from the envelope 
of a letter carelessly written by the mother of two children 
suffering from the disease. The envelope of the infected letter 
was given as a plaything to the little one, who died. 

Let me beg you to curb any propensity you may have to put 



TYPHOID FEVER. 233 

things into the mouth. You borrow a pencil of the market- 
man to make a note, and place it in your mouth while you 
rummage through your pocket for a memorandum. With your 
arms full of bundles, you enter a street car with your fare be- 
tween your teeth. I have often shuddered on seeing a lady 
thus glued to a nickel, to think where that nickel may have 
been an hour before — the filthy liands that mav have fingered 
it — the pest-smitten child that may have played with it. But 
when it comes to putting paper money in the mouth, or turn- 
ing over bills with fingers repeatedly wet by the lips, the case 
is one of the most aggravated stupidity. I have known small- 
pox communicated by a one-dollar bill. Physicians have re- 
cently called attention to the dangers of paper money, library 
books, dirty newspapers, etc., also to cats and other pet animals, 
as vehicles for the carriage of disease poison. A French ob- 
server has found that about 15 per cent, of contagious diseases 
are conveyed by domestic pets ; feathers, hair, and fur, me- 
chanically entangle bacilli. Cats are much more dangerous 
than dogs — yet they are untaxed. I know of no greater 
menace to the safety of a child than a dirty, mangy, blear-eyed, 
street cat — a furred army of pathological germs. The little 
darling clasps the pitiable object in its arms, and in about two 
weeks you bury a little victim of malignant diphtheria. It is 
safe to kill at sight a strange dog that hangs about your prem- 
ises, for the chances are that some one will be bitten sooner or 
later. It is a duty to kill, disinfect, and bury such a cat as I 
have described — and yet in New York it is a finable offense to 
kill a cat, made so by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Brutes — I might add to the title — and "the Promotio;i of 
Cruelty to Human Beings." 

And then there is the infection of food by house-flies, 
adapted by nature not only to act as scavengers, but also to con- 
vey infection. They are numerous, their intestines are capa- 
cious, they feed upon manure heaps and excrement of all kinds, 
and then enter our homes and void the poison on our food. 
The tubercle and cholera bacillus, derived from feeding on the 
sputa of consumptives and choleraic discharges, have been 
taken alive from the intestines of house-flies. Other germs 
have been found adhering to their feet. They are carriers of 



234 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

infection. Screen them from your houses, and never let a fly 
bite you, for if he be a carrier of some kinds of infection like 
that derived from decomposing animal bodies, you will shortly 
need an undertaker. 

And finally, there is a danger to which each of you is ex- 
posed — the introduction into your mouth of an infected clinical 
thermometer by a practising physician. I would not mention 
it, if I had not myself seen a New Hampshire doctor (and I 
infer the instance is not solitary) take his thermometer from its 
case, place it unwashed beneath the tongue of a typhoid pa- 
tient, withdraw it, and return it unwashed and not disinfected 
to its case (thereby infecting the case) and use it unwashed 
in the mouth of the next patient. Resent as an insult the intro- 
duction into your mouth of a clinical thermometer that has not 
been properly cleaned before your eyes. 

After the typhoid bacillus has been received into the system 
by some one of these channels, it elaborates in the course of 12 to 
16 days (occasionally 30) a substance or toxine poisonous to the 
nervous system, and causing collapse and death. This toxine 
has a marked action on the intestinal mucous membrane, occa- 
sioning congestion, cell-infiltration, enlargement of Peyer's 
patches, hemorrhage, and ulceration — and all this is accom- 
panied with the well-known symptoms of the disease. With 
these it is foreign to my pupose to deal, nor shall I speak of 
the treatment of the fever from a medical point of view, further 
than to plead for the cold pack or bath, against which there 
exists a prejudice among the country folk. 

About 73 per cent, of typhoid patients recover under any 
form of treatment. By careful feeding and nursing, and the 
avoidance of injurious drugs, 15 per cent, more are saved, 
making 88 per cent. But when the cold water or cold spong- 
ing treatment is added, an additional 3 or 4 percent, get well. 
Little medicine is indicated. Asepsis is better than antisepsis — 
that is, keep the bowels open, beginning with calomel, and 
every second morning giving a fair dose of artificial carlsbad, 
and on the odd days a quart or two of warm water and boric 
acid as an enema, if needed, with all the sterilized water the 
patient cares to drink. But the cold bath is the sovereign cure 
when the temperature runs high — to 104°. A bath in bed may 



TYPHOID FEVER. 235 

easily be improvised, if it be inconvenient or exhausting to the 
patient to lift him out into a tub, by packing pillows under and 
around him, and then slipping a rubber sheet beneath him and 
over the pillows. He will thus lie in a depression. Next, let 
water at a temperature of 90° F. flow in, and gradually cool, by 
adding cold water, to 68°. Let the patient remain in the water 
for from ten to twenty minutes, according to his strength. 

Then siphon or pour out the water, and wrap the patient in 
a dry sheet or light blanket. Such baths may be given every 
two or three hours, if the temperature goes above 103° F. The 
milder expedient of sponging with tepid water commends 
itself to many. But all this pertains to the physician in attend- 
ance. 

It is the treatment of the fever by the householder from the 
standpoint of duty that I wish to emphasize this afternoon. I 
have said that the disease is preventable. If this be true, a 
moral obligation rests upon every one of us to do what he can 
to prevent it. Now, how can typhoid fever be prevented.? Stop 
the eating and drinking of solid and liquid food infected with 
the bacillus typhosus, and there will never be another case. 
To a great extent, this can be done. " Unpolluted by man, 
this earth would be free from the germs of typhoid fever." 

But it is ignorance, carelessness, too often selfishness, on the 
part of man, that are directly concerned in scattering the seeds 
of contagion. Do I go too far when I say, that in this age igno- 
rance of sanitary law, wilful carelessness, selfisii indifference to 
the right of one's fellowmen to be healthy and happy, are 
crimes.? The time will come when they will be so adjudged; 
the time is coming when a man who ignorantly or wilfully 
permits his person or goods to be the means of spreading con- 
tagion will be arrested and punished as a criminal. As it is, 
we men are responsible for the existence of typhoid fever. Its 
extinction lies within our power. How ought we to act, 
should it invade our families? What can we do to limit its 
spread ? 

Our first duty is to keep the sources of our drinking water 
pure, to protect the water-supply from contamination. Drink 
no water that could possibly be polluted by drainage from a 
privy vault (and every privy within 100 feet of a well is a men- 



236 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ace) or from sewers, kitchen drains, barn-yards, manure heaps, 
or cemeteries. There are cases on record where a village has 
been found, by analysis of its drinking water, to be swallowing 
the disintegrated bones and tissues of its dead, drained from a 
convenient graveyard into its source of water supply. 

The greatest care is to be exercised to prevent the pollution 
of water used for drinking purposes by the bowel discharges of 
persons sick from typhoid fever or any diarrhoeal disease. All 
vomited matter and intestinal discharges should be received 
into glass or earthen vessels containing a solution of carbolic 
acid of the strength of six ounces to a gallon of hot water, or 
what is better, a solution of bi-chloride of mercury, or corro- 
sive sublimate, one to one thousand strength, or sixty grains 
(one drachm) to the gallon. Two tablespoonfuls of common 
salt may with advantage be added to the latter, and the solu- 
tion must be kept in glass or earthen, never in metal, vessels. 
The quantity of the solution used should be twice as great as 
that of the discharge. After standing for an hour, all bacilli 
in the discharge will have been killed by the solution, and the 
contents of the vessel may with safety be thrown into the water- 
closet, or, if in the country, buried in a trench prepared for 
the purpose at a safe distance from the house. Paper or cloths 
used about the person of the patient are to be similarly treated ; 
and towels, napkins, handkerchiefs, bed-clothing, whether ap- 
parently soiled or not, should be soaked in the corrosive 
sublimate solution for at least twelve hours before being laun- 
dered. They are then to be carefully wrung out, and boiled 
for an hour in soap-suds and soda. The hands of attendants 
must be carefully disinfected, and all water drunk on the prem- 
ises should be boiled. It is wise to cook thoroughly all food. 

Certain dishes, knives, forks, and spoons are to be reserved 
for the exclusive use of the patient, and not removed from the 
sick-room. Wash in the disinfecting solution, then in boiling 
soap-suds. The remains of the patient's meals should be burnt 
or disinfected ; and any articles of small value contaminated 
by contact with the sick person, might better be given to the 
flames. It is of the greatest importance to act on the principle 
that fresh air, sunlight, and absolute cleanliness, are the most 
important agents in protecting nurses and attendants, as well 



TYPHOID FEVER. 237 

as in hastening the recovery of the sick. It is imperative that 
all cesspools, vaults, drains, spittoons, sinks, garbage-recepta- 
cles, and stable floors, should be frequently cleaned and 
treated with disinfectants. Cellars should be whitewashed 
and sprinkled with chloride of lime ; dark closets and vacant 
rooms frequently aired ; refrigerators carefully looked to ; and 
all woodwork in school-houses that can possibly be touched 
by the children's hands treated to a weekly scrubbing. 

Where typhoid exists, milk must be most conscientiously 
handled. I have shown you what a nutrient soil it offers to 
the disease plant, and how easily it may be poisoned through 
infected pumpwater, in some cases apparently by emanations 
from sewers and cesspools. 

Milk should never be stored in any room used for sleeping 
or domestic purposes, or in a buttery opening into such a 
room ; but it should be kept in some place where dust and 
other impurities cannot possibly fall into it, preferably a 
refrigerator, properly constructed and used for milk exclu- 
sively. The temperature of the refrigerator should be kept 
below 50° F. ; its overflow pipe should not discharge into any 
sewer or drain, and it should be kept scrupulously clean by 
scrubbing at least twice a week with hot soda soap-suds. The 
vessels in which milk is offered for sale should be washed in 
the same before being filled, and then kept carefully covered. 

It seems to me that when a case of typhoid fever occurs in a 
family, public notice should in some way be given of the fact. 
Strangers should be cautioned against drinking unguardedly 
from the well, perhaps by a sign attached thereto ; or of taking 
food on the infected premises. What is most to be feared is 
the walking form of the disease, in which persons affected are 
able to walk about, and even work, typhoid never being sus- 
pected. In 1879, 352 cases of typhoid in an English town 
were traced to the diarrhoeal discharges of one such workman ; 
and we had a case of a peddler in New York, who, while suf- 
fering from the diarrhoea of the early stage, went about, offering 
his goods for sale, and actually infected fifty different privy 
vaults. The walking typhoid patient is thus the insidious car- 
rier of deadly pestilence. Beware of a person with a listless 
air, languid expression, clammy hands, and suffering from 



238 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

slight diarrhoea. Give him a wide berth — but disinfect 
behind him. 

After a death or recovery from typhoid fever, the room in 
which the patient has been cared for should, with its contents, 
be thoroughly disinfected by exposure for twenty-four hours 
to the fumes of burning sulphur, and then for hours, or days if 
possible, to currents of fresh air and to sunlight. A proper 
fumigation of an infected apartment implies the use of three 
pounds of sulphur for every 1,000 cubic feet of air-space. The 
sulphur is ignited in a pan placed, out of considerations for 
safety, in a larger pan full of water. Paper should be pasted 
over all cracks and crevices, and, on retiring from the room, 
around the door. No one should sleep in a chamber adjoining 
the room under fumigation, as sulphur fumes are extremely 
penetrating. Before entering a room that has been fumigated, 
open, if possible, an outside window, so as to allow the escape 
of the fumes ; then, with a wet towel over the mouth and nose, 
force in the door, and complete the work of ventilation. 

If the cooperation of the people of New Hampshire can be 
secured in carrying out the precautions I have explained to 
you this afternoon, it is possible, in a few years, to make 
typhoid fever a rare disease in this state. 

In concluding, I cannot insist too strongly on this point — 
that the spreading of contagious or infectious disease through 
carelessness or wilful defiance of sanitary law, is as much a 
crime as dispensing a fatal dose of morphia to a person inquir- 
ing for quinine, or the shipping of passengers in an admittedly 
unseaworthy vessel. We have no right to take chances where 
human life is involved ; for we, as Christians, are required to 
be as careful of our neighbor's life as of our own. And what is 
commonly called d7ity imposes the obligation of finding out 
how to be careful. Ignorance of sanitary law in this day 
excuses no one. And he who, because it is irksome, or be- 
cause, as a prominent railroad official once expressed it, he 
doesn't " care a damn for the public" safety, omits, or refuses 
to observe, proper precautions, is on a par with the common 
cutthroat. Neglect, or criminal carelessness, which leads to 
fatal consequences, is murder ! Deliberately washing milk- 
cans or diluting milk with water from an infected well, on the 



TYPHOID FEVER. 239 

strength of the conventional excuse, "Oh ! I guess it will be all 
right ; it's too much trouble to go elsewhere for water," is mur- 
der ! Throwing the disinfected bowel discharges of a typhoid 
fever patient into a vault within a hundred feet of any well, or on 
to the ground near any spring or other water supply, is murder ! 
Oh ! "what fools we mortals be," in that we condemn to the gal- 
lows or the electric chair the desperado who kills one man, but 
leave at liberty him who recklessly scatters the bacteria of dis- 
ease, taking the lives of many, and imperiling the health of 
thousands. Educate your sons and daughters in sanitary sci- 
ence, and thus equip them with a knowledge which is essential 
to a perfect observance of the command, " Thou shalt not 
kill." 

Instruct your representatives to array themselves on the side 
of all provisions having in view the improvement of sanitary 
conditions ; if necessary, to frame and support the passage of 
laws limiting the so-called and much-vaunted personal right of 
thoughtless persons, or malicious devil-may-cares, to ignore 
your personal right to be kept from contact with infection 
which they are spreading. Make ordinary care a legal neces- 
sity. Let the penalty be state's prison for man or woman, 
who, in defiance of an imposed quarantine, leaves the chamber 
of contagion to circulate, without proper disinfection, among 
unsuspecting enjoyers of life and health. The man who dies 
of typhoid fever dies prematurely I And I realize that the time 
is approaching when such a death will be placed on a par with 
manslaughter, and will occasion the same indignation and 
rigid inquiry. It is idle for you to contend that the Lord made 
the typhoid plant to destroy human life ; that we must die 
somehow, and might as well die through the growth of this 
plant in our systems as by any other means. The Lord made 
arsenic, but, I am confident, without intention that men should 
die by arsenic. God teaches us in his Holy Word that he 
designed men to pay the debt of nature painlessly — to pass into 
eternity by euthanasia^ as the Greeks called it, or sweet dying \ 
and the inspired writer pictures such a departure when he bids 
us, " mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the 
end of that man is peace." There is no more pain or con- 
sciousness about such a death than there is in being born. I 



240 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

believe the all- merciful Over-Soul intended and desires all 
living beings to die eu^ as the ancient Greeks expressed it, or 
sweetly. And if men would live as the Deity has prescribed — 
temperately, unselfishly — loving their neighbors as themselves, 
there would be known no other kind of death. May God 
hasten the day when euthanasia shall be the rule, and not, as 
now, the exception. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. 



16 



OKKICKRS— 1895. 



President—'^. M. CONNOR . . Hopkinton. 

Vice-President— C. H. WATERHOUSE Cornish. 
G. S. PHILBRICK . Tilton. 



Secretary—]. L. GERRISH 
Treasurer— 1<[. J. BACHELDER 

COUNTY TRUSTEES 

Rockingham— W^'KIAK^ NO YES 
Hillsborough— V>. G. ROBERTS 
Cheshire—}. S. PERRY . 
Sullivan— G. W. STANLEY 
Carroll—]. L. PENDEXTER 
Belknap—]. W. SANBORN 
Grafton— W. D. BAKER . 
Merrimack— AKTIWJK JONES 
Coo.y— ALBERT CORBETT 
6"^ra/br^— LUCIEN THOMPSON 



Contoocook. 
Concord. 



Atkinson. 

Goffstown. 

Rindge. 

Langdon. 

North Conway. 

Gihnanton. 

Rumney. 

West Hopkinton. 

Coos. 

Durham. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



BY J. L. GERRISH. 



To His Excellency the Governor : 

The tenth annual report of the Granite State Dairymen's 
Association for 1894 is herewith submitted: 

The annual winter meeting was held at Laconia, December 
28, in connection with the meeting of the State Board of Agri- 
culture. President J. M. Connor presided, and Selivered the 
following address : 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

BY J. M. CONNOR. 

In presenting a few thoughts in a general way at the opening 
of this session of our dairy meeting, I do not expect to offer 
anything particularly new, and it may be nothing interesting. 

We are treading in a beaten path. The men are very rare 
whose footprints may be distinctly seen who beat in an untrod- 
den way. We who follow in the lead of those pioneers can 
only impress the public by means of diversified ways, one by 
one illustration, another by another, all to enforce the same 
great truth. 

We can accomplish much more in this great work of dairy 
enlightenment by seeking how best to induce men to adopt truths 
already well established, than by trying to hunt up some- 
thing original. There are a multitude of simple truths which 
have been promulgated over and over again, which commend 
themselves to every intelligent person ; yet there are thousands 
of farmers who have not the courage of their convictions, who 
will not put in practice what they know or ought to know is 
for their best interest. 



244 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

While I address this class, and realize that they are numer- 
ous, I would not be unmindful of that goodly number, scat- 
tered all through the state, who have bravely left behind them 
the old traditional ways and advanced to the front and given 
our state a grand record and paved the way whereby thousands 
have been enabled to realize a fair competency from following 
dairying. 

The total product resulting from a slight gain by each cow 
in the state has often been dwelt upon, but I venture to again 
call your attention to this matter, in order to stimulate to higher 
activity and to show to the state what motive there should be 
for fostering this industry, and to show that the state is spend- 
ing its money in fruitless ways, whereas here is a field sure to 
produce goodly returns. 

We have in this state 110,000 cows, worth $3,000,000. An 
increase of one pound of butter in the product of each cow, at 
twenty-five cents per pound, would amount to $27,500. At 
what trifling effort could this be produced ! How little of 
dairy knowledge would be required ! What a slight effort to 
plant a few extra hills of corn for green forage ! How little 
extra care during the long winter months to result in one extra 
pound ! The most conservative and indifferent will admit this, 
while the more enthusiastic, the one who is alive and open to 
conviction, well understands that an increase often pounds per 
cow in one year requires no extraordinary effort. Ten pounds 
of butter, or its equivalent in milk, means an increase to the 
state of $275,000. Allow me to carry this illustration further: 
An increase of one pint of milk to each cow in the state means 
an increase of production amounting to $5,750, a sum sufficient 
to employ an able lecturer and expert in dairy management to 
go into all the leading towns of the state and proclaim the whole 
gospel of dairy truth. 

Think you that the extra pint from each cow would not be 
forthcoming from such an effort.? If it is to be the policy of 
the state to lend its aid to develop our resources, most assuredly 
that aid should come along those lines where the greatest good 
will result. 

During the year ending May 31, 1S94, the state paid for sal- 
aries to fish commissioners, and the building of three hatching 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 245 

houses, $9,495. For many years these appropriations have 
been made. What ai-e the practical results of such a large 
expenditure of money.'' What number of our people are fed 
from the fish that abound in our waters.'' Are they for sale in 
our markets.? Only here and there an expert angler can cap- 
ture enough for a good, square meal. The great majority of 
the families in our state are, and always will be, strangers to 
the use of such a luxury. 

But how about this noble animal, the cow, that is saving from 
despondency the 30,000 farm homes of our state, whose product 
is indispensable at every meal, from the humble home up 
through every grade and condition to the mansion of the 
wealthy.'' Hardly an individual of the 375,000 people of our 
state can pass a single day without her product in some form. 
What an alarming contrast between the efforts of the state to 
foster the two industries, when results are compared ! I submit 
this subject to the consideration of practical men, and ask you 
which of these two enterprises would you engage in with the 
hope of ample returns. 

Men are prone to go to extremes. Years ago they had no 
thought that any degree of warmth was necessary for their ani- 
mals in winter; indeed, butter-making in winter to any extent 
was unknown. But under the new departure, men hastily 
drifted to the other extreme. To such an extent has fine breed- 
ing been carried and the forcing of our cows with highly con- 
centrated foods, warm and ill-ventilated stables, with little or 
no exercise, that we are confronted with impaired health, deli- 
cate constitutions, and actual disease amongst our herds. There 
need be no great alarm. If the environments are what they 
should be, if the sanitary conditions are well understood, health 
will soon be restored. 

What should be the temperature of our stables in winter, and 
what are the best methods for ventilation, are questions that 
ought to be discussed. New Hampshire, so noted for its salu- 
brious climate, ought to receive no detriment in consequence of 
mismanagement of its dairy animals. Six months' confinement 
of this active and industrious animal, must be attended with a 
good degree of judgment to produce the best results. 

The use of medical terms may cause undue alarm. While 



246 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

very many people will go on in the even tenor of their way, 
consuming milk and beef as usual, it is becoming apparent 
that no small number of delicate, sensitive people consume 
these articles with abated relish. Tuberculosis in cattle, and 
bacteria in milk, are soundsthat grate harshly upon sensitive 
ears. 

The agencies that enter into all changes in milk and the ripen- 
ing of cream, and all fermentation of whatever character, have 
their proper place ; they have always existed, and always will 
exist. 

When we speak of different kinds of bacteria, the wholesome 
and unwholesome, we may just as well treat the subject under 
the head of the effects of different degrees of temperature, as to 
associate it with some living, disagreeable substance that will 
cause a nauseating feeling with some people. 

When treating upon the necessity of cleanliness about all our 
dairy utensils, the rule can be enforced without conveying the 
idea that in all the crevices and by-places there is lurking a sub- 
stance ready to spring forth and accomplish unwholesome 
results. I trust that whatever expression goes out from this 
association in regard to this unfortunate disease existing among 
our herds will be tempered with mildness and good judgment. 

We must not be carried away by the extravagent statements 
of the professional class who seem to secure this opportunity to 
ply their vocation, neither be influenced too much by the reck- 
less statements of those who are ignorant of all scientific investi- 
gation. It is unfortunate that, with our boasted knowledge and 
improvement along the lines of warmer winter quarters, better 
balanced rations and better breeding, that those places where 
we are wont to look for examples in our work are the very hot- 
beds of disease. It should admonish us, that theory must be 
combined with practice and good judgment. 

While we recognize the great progress we have made all 
along the line of dairy work in this state during the life of this 
organization, yet we cannot pass by without comment that 
large class who ought to cooperate with us. 

They excuse themselves that lack of time and means prevents 
their attendance and co-work. 

The man of progress, the man who desires " to live and let 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 247 

live," will never indulge in such excuses. From a purely sel- 
fish point of view it would be for his interest, but above all, he 
should put his shoulder to the wheel of progress and help roll 
the car along that is laden with hope and good cheer to all farm 
homes. 

Professor G. H. Whitcher delivered an address upon feeding, 
which was illustrated by the use of charts, and created an earn- 
est discussion at its close. 

The annual election of officers occurred at the opening of the 
afternoon session, with the following result : 

President — J. M. Connor, Hopkinton. 

Vice-Presidents — C. H. Waterhouse, Cornish ; G. S. Phil- 
brick, Tilton. 

Secretary — J. L. Gerrish, Contoocook. 
Treasurer — N. J. Bachelder, Concord. 

COUNTY TRUSTEES. 

Rockingham — Herman Noyes, Atkinson. 
Hillsborough — D. G. Roberts, Goffstown. 
Cheshire — J. S. Perry, Rindge. 
Sullivan — G. W. Stanley, Langdon. 
Carroll — J. L. Pendexter, North Conway. 
Belknap — J. W. Sanborn, Gilmanton. 
Grafton — W. D. Baker, Rumney. 
Merrimack — Arthur Jones, West Hopkinton. 
Cods — Albertt Corbett, Coos. 
Strafford — Lucien Tompson, Durham. 

Professor J. W. Robertson, Dairy Commissioner of Canada, 
delivered the following address : 

SUMMER AND WINTER FEEDING OF DAIRY 

COWS. 

BY PROFESSOR J. W. ROBERTSON, OTTAWA, CANADA. 

This afternoon I am to speak on summer and winter feeding 
of dairy cows. Why do we feed cows? A great many men 
feed cows for the sake of having company in the stable. I 
know no other adequate reason in some instances, — on the 



248 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

other side of the imaginary line, that is. Those who feed cows 
with any measure of good judgment, feed them to obtain food 
of a fine quaHty which they cannot get otherwise out of what 
they feed the cows. The primary object of feeding cows is to 
obtain a fine, delicious food of concentrated quality. The 
object of our agriculture is to obtain food and service out of the 
numerous plants that grow on our farms. If I had another 
chart in addition to the series which I am going to exhibit (for 
my object will be to teach through your eyes as much as I can) 
I would show you that the man, the farmer, must be on top, 
and all the forces of nature under him, — all the agents and 
agencies of farm work and farm products under him. But in 
many cases on this continent the farmer has been under every- 
thing and everybody, trying to carry that big load on his back, 
instead of putting those things under his feet with his own intel- 
ligent head on top for management. 

We feed cows to obtain food of fine concentrated quality, 
which we cannot get otherwise, or get so economically, or so 
much to our taste. That is my first proposition. When a 
man feeds cows by the use of his head, he will get far more 
milk and more profit from his cows than if he feeds them in a 
less intelligent way. 

We feed cows perhaps for another reason, — because we 
have made some progress in agriculture. Primitive agriculture 
in all lands was concerned with getting a primitive product, — 
the corn stalk, the wheat plant, the bean stalk, and grass plant ; 
but as men made progress they learned to put the living domes- 
tic animal between the primitive products and themselves, and 
make the cow elaborate for them something finer and richer for 
their taste or their stomach. We follow dairying and feed 
cows because we cannot eat corn stalks with much enjoyment, 
and we cannot eat wheat with much relish unless we have 
butter for our bread, or oats with entire satisfaction unless we 
have milk or cream for our porridge. We feed a portion of 
the coarse farm products to animals, and we put the cow there 
between them and us as a means towards an end. 

Unless we feed cows on our farms, we are ever under the 
necessity of buying, buying, buying, tons and tons of expensive 
nitrogenous commercial fertilizers, which very few farmers on 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 249 

our side of the line have enough business skill to make money 
by using. But when we feed cows on our farms, instead of 
selling off the farms what the plants take out of the land (and 
that was beautifully, scientifically, and eloquently explained 
this morning), four fifths of it goes back on the fields in the 
form of manure ; and we sell less substance off the land and 
receive more money into our pockets ; therefore we feed cows 
to protect the soil, and a man who robs his land is the poorest 
kind of a farmer. 

We do more than that. We feed cows to provide remu- 
nerative occupation for ourselves. What was it caused that dire 
calamity across the continent a year and a half ago, when so 
many people were without work, w^hen money was so wonder- 
fully scarce.'* Everybody's financial standing was in jeopardy. 
It was because a great many people had not the opportunity of 
remunerative employment to which to apply their strength and 
.skill. A farmer on this continent in this latitude cannot find 
remunerative employment on his fields in growing crops for 
more than five or six months in a year ; and unless he finds for 
himself some profitable employment during the other six 
months of the year, he will have to earn as much in six months 
as will keep him and his family comfortable for twelve months. 
Nowadays but few men can do that honestly ; therefore he 
must find employment for himself during those months when 
he cannot work on his fields ; and he can feed cows so as to 
aid him in obtaining the results which he desires, — specifically, 
to make profit out of the operation. 

If a cow will turn what you give her into a more valuable 
product, then you can feed her at a profit; if the cow will turn 
it into a less valuable one, you will feed her at a loss ; and just 
as the cow has ability and capacity for turning what you give 
her into a more valuable product so far she is a good ser- 
vant. If she does not do that she is a very expensive boarder 
on a farm ; and from what I have heard of your dairying here, 
there are some cows near Newburyport that have not paid their 
board bill in full for a long time. An animal does not destroy 
what it consumes, it changes it ; and unless it changes it into a 
more valuable form, it wastes. 

Then a cow that wastes is an ill-bred cow ; that is the mean- 



250 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ing of ill-bred everywhere, — a wasting of energies and oppor- 
tunities of all kinds. That is the best definition I have ever 
found of ill-breeding among cows, — as well as men. I have 
known cows that had a faculty for making men swear. If 
the cow becomes the medium of changing corn stalks into 
cussedness, she is a very badly trained cow. If you handle 
a heifer from the time she is three months old by an occasional 
rubbing of her udder, she will stand as quiet as an old cow 
the first time the milk-pail is put under her, and will return 
about twenty per cent, more milk. That only goes to show 
the necessity and importance of careful preparation for the 
milking season. 

Success in keeping cows depends a great deal upon the kind 
of feed you give them. I will use a few extravagant illustra- 
tions to make what I say stick in your memories. If you feed 
a cow on strawberries, it will not pay. There are many kinds 
of food which a cow will eat and relish, which she will not 
turn into milk at a profit : and therefore it does not pay to give 
them to a cow. 

Then a great deal depends on the man who manages. The 
man and cow are always in partnership. If a cow has her 
way, she will get the largest quantity of rich feed, and give the 
least of product in return for it. If a man of good judgment 
has his way, he will make the cow give the largest return in 
good milk for the least possible value in food. He will be the 
senior partner in the partnership, and his judgment should 
prevail. 

I have said so much by way of giving you the very edges of 
the theory of feeding cows. Any theory that has not grown 
out of facts is not a valuable theory ; but a theory that is built 
and based upon facts will enable a man who understands it to 
put his facts afterwards into such relationship that they will 
serve him better. In feeding cows certain constituents of feed 
called albuminoids, I want to know why the cow should get 
these things. Not because anybody who is an authority said 
so, not because a certain table or book recommended it, but 
because our bodies are in part composed of albuminoids, and 
we want the cows to give us in milk what we need as food. I 
have put on this chart those chemical compounds which are in 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 25 1 



the human body, of the average weight of one hundred and 
forty-eight pounds. 

Chart No. i. 

Chemical Compounds /« Human Body of One Hundred and Forty-eight 

Founds. 





Pounds. 


Percentage. 


Water 


90.0 

26.6 

23.0 

.1 

8-3 


60.9 
17.8 

.1 


Albuminoids 


Fats 


Carbotiydrates 


Mineral matter 


57 






148.0 


lOO.O 



The body needs these things to form the muscles and nerves, 
blood and skin and other parts of the body. In performing the 
functions of life some portions of those albuminoids are worn 
out from the blood and skin, the muscles and nerves, and are 
carried off in the sewerage system from the body. We must 
swallow something to replace what is worn off, else we shall 
wear out ; and I at least have no desire to do that for forty 
years, if I can help it. Therefore I want to get from the cow a 
part of her albuminoids. 

Then in my body and in your body are fats, — fats for heat 
and fats for lubrication. In feeding cows we find that albumi- 
noids are somehow in some measure transferred into fats. 
Now, if you can give a boy food rich in albuminoids, you give 
the boy what is called elbow grease to enlarge the efficiency of 
his body. But if you feed a boy on pastry and similar things 
you get something that is not elbow grease. I do not know 
what you call it over here. On our side we call it dys- 
pepsia plus laziness. The same principle applies to cows and 
calves. We have some cows that are absolutely lazy towards 
milking, from having been fed on the wrong food when they 
were young, — constitutional laziness from which they can never 
recover. 



252 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



The body is mainly composed of these things, water, albumi- 
noids, carbohydrates, fats. While my body is composed of 
certain substances, I, like other living organisms, need fuel to 
keep up the heat. There are almost no carbohydrates in the 
body itself; they are its fuel. 

Chart No. 2. 
Composition of Nutrients in Percentages. 





Nitrogen. 


Carbon. 


Oxygen. 


Hydrogen. 




16.0 
None. 
None. 
None. 


53-0 
76.5 
44.4 
42.0 


24.0 

"■5 

49.9 
51.0 


7.0 


Fats 

Carbohydrates, starch .... 
Carbohydrates, sugar 


120 

57 
7.0 



The albuminoids, fats, and carbohydrates come from four 
elements or sources. Albuminoids only of the three contain 
nitrogen. I would not have shown some of these charts, after 
that clear and comprehensive lecture this morning, except to 
make my own address as clear and serviceable as possible. 
Four fifths of the atmosphere everywhere may be termed nitro- 
gen. The albuminoids contain sixteen per cent, of it, and if 
you can grow any sort of a plant that will glean it from the 
atmosphere, then you may obtain it in such a form that the cow 
first, and the man afterwards, can use it as food. Hence when 
you say that people cannot live on air, the remark requires some 
qualifications ; because, when a man is wise enough to manage 
the agricultural agents and agencies of nature, he will live 
largely on air, or on what came from air. He has been doing it in 
the past, but he was not able to control the means intelligently. 

I was pleased to hear the learned lecturer state last evening 
that in his judgment skimmed milk was far more valuable for 
human food than we had yet come to recognize. The albumi- 
noids are all there, and it is a valuable food. Of sugar there 
are five pounds in every hundred pounds of skim-milk. Over 
large areas of your country and ours it is fed to swine. If we un- 
derstood its value as human food, we would count it too costly a 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 



253 



food to give to pigs, because that kind of sugar is worth rather 
more for sustaining life than any other sugar you can obtain. 

I will say a word or two on two or three typical foods. I 
need not try to give you definitions. One hears a great deal 
said in reference to the feeding of cows according to what is 
called the correct nutritive ratio. "•The nutritive ratio " is a 
phrase familiar to many minds, and its meaning is not at all 
clear to others. 

For the sustenance of human life in a healthy person, I dare 
say you would find oatmeal to have a very excellent nutritive 
ratio, that is, the quantity of albuminoids would be in such a 
proportion to the quantity of fat and carbohydrates as would 
meet the needs of a man's body in the best way with the least 
waste. Food may be spoken of as substances taken into the 
body to repair waste by replacing worn-out or worn-oft' parti- 
cles, to furnish heat or energy, and in the case of those animals 
that give an increase in weight or give a product, it supplies 
the materials out of which these are formed. 



Chart No. 3. 
Composition of Seine Common Foods in Percentages. 





Water. 


Albumi- 
noids. 


Corbo- 
hydrates. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Oatmeal 


1 0.0 
12.4 
15.0 
151 

lO.O 

75-5 
66.7 
87.0 

327 
12.0 

3S-0 


15.0 

7-4 
22.9 

25-5 
3-0 
2.0 

23.0 

3-5 

8.9 

1.0 

25.0 


69.0 

79-4 
57.8 
550 


5.0 

•4 
1.8 
1.6 

So. 5 

.2 

9.0 

37 
1.9 

83-5 
34.0 


1.0 


Rice 


•4 
2.5 
2.8 


Pease 


Beans 


Pork (fat) 


6-5 
1.0 


Potatoes 


21.3 


Beef (rather lean).. 
Milk 


1-3 

•7 
1.0 
1.0 


51 

55-5 
•5 

2-3 


Wheat bread 

Butter 


Cheese 


37 





254 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

If you compare rice with oatmeal, you will find that the dif- 
ference between these two means a great deal for the race. It 
shows the difference between the Scotchmen and the Chinese. 
Oatmeal or rice, — it means a great deal. If you use a well- 
balanced ration, then you will be a well-conditioned, effective 
individual. Down here I am told that you are fond of baked 
beans, but baked beans are not quite wholesome and econom- 
ical when eaten alone. You see they are rather rich in al- 
buminoids as compared with oatmeal. You will be right in 
measuring all those things — and probably most other things — 
by the Scotch standai'd ; and if you will put with your baked 
beans a small quantity of pork (you see the pork has too much 
fat and far too little albuminoids), then you will get a capital 
combination as to its nutritive ratio. Then take other things. 
Oatmeal and milk make a capital mixture. In potatoes you 
have far too little of the nitrogenous in proportion to the carbo- 
hydrates. How can you adjust that to make it good food for 
nourishing the best class of human flesh? I am speaking of 
man in his material nature only, you see. If you take the milk 
and take the fat out, and then add the remainder to the potatoes, 
why, you make the diet as good as a Scotchman's diet of oat- 
meal and milk. Thus potatoes and buttermilk for the Irish- 
man, judged by the results, are not a bad combination. 

I have mentioned these three typical foods to say that it was 
not an intuition that led people to combine these things, but it 
required long experiments, probably extending over several 
centuries, before we learned how to make an economical diet 
of the correct nutritive ratio suitable for ourselves, and it is by 
long-continued and carefully-conducted experiments that we 
have been led to the making of a ration of the correct nutritive 
ratio for our cattle. The cow was made to be a servant of 
man, and if a man persists in feeding a cow in disregard of the 
results from the long-continued experience of others, he will 
find that he is not following a very profitable or noble vocation. 
But if you will put these constituents in correct proportion in 
the cow's feed, getting them at the lowest possible rate of cost 
from your own fields, then the feeding of cows becomes one of 
the most profitable occupations that can be followed on farms, 
in spite of all competition from all sources and all lands. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 



255 



Let me illustrate that still further, because I find that gi^eat 
failure comes to our farmers from not understanding the first 
principles of feeding. It is not enough to give a cow plenty to 
eat, unless that plenty be of the right constituents. What 
would you think of a rich man who wanted to be kind to a 
poor family, and who sent them abundance of food when they 
did not have any fuel in the house, and did not send them any 
fuel .^ If they had to use part of the food as fuel in a stove in 
order to get the benefit of it, that would be a very extravagant 
practice, would it not.? That is what people do to-day who 
give too large a portion of albuminoids to their cattle. Or 
what would you think of a man who sent a family suffering for 
food a quantity of fuel, but nothing to eat? That is similar to 
what a man does who gives a cow lots of the fuel portion of 
food — the carbohydrates — and not that portion — the albumi- 
noids — which is required to build up the tissues of the body in 
which the fuel is to be burned. 

Chart No. 4. 
Composition of Bodies in Percentages. 



Water. 



Albuminoids. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Ox (half fattened). 

Ox (fat) 

Sheep (lean) 

Sheep (fat) 

Swine (lean) 

Swine (fat) 



51-5 
45-5 
57-3 
434 
55-1 
41-3 



16.6 
14.5 
14.8 
12.2 

137 
10.9 



19.1 
30.1 
18.7 
35-6 

23-3 
42.2 



4.66 
3-92 
3.16 
2.81 
2.67 
1.65 



I give you on this chart an illustration of the composition of 
the animal bodies, showing the average composition of a cow. 
The body is more than half composed of water, one sixth of 
albuminoids, one fifth of fat, and one twentieth of ash. You 
can see at a glance that a cow to be fed well must receive in 
her food certain proportions of these substances, or substances 



256 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

which can readily be changed into these in the process of diges- 
tion and assimilation. 

In the case of milking cows, as was stated in the lecture by 
Professor Whitcher yesterday, a quantity of albuminoids is 
required, equal to about two and a quarter, or two pounds, per 
fourteen pounds of carbohydrates, and four tenths of a pound 
of fat. We have found in our work, what most American 
investigators have found, that in this country a cow ought to 
have rather less albuminoids and rather more carbohydrates 
than the German standards call for ; and therefore in making 
rations for feeding cows economically, we make them in that 
proportion. 

The object I had in taking this chart of a cow — the least 
attractive of all my cow charts — was that I might escape any- 
thing that would stir up the feeling that ends in what is called 
" the battle of breeds " among farmers. I was sorry 1 did not 
have the very first crude sketch of a cow I ever drew for public 
use, or I would have brought that. It had a clear outline only 
of the typical dairy form of body. When I lectured in other 
places, after describing the qualities of the cow, from the very 
flimsy outline of her body, a farmer in the audience would say, 
" I am glad to hear you recommend the Ayrshire," — and I had 
not used the word in connection with the address. Another 
would sav, " I am glad you favor the Jersey ; that is the cow, 
after all." Others would tell me that I was in favor of the 
Guernsey, or Shorthorn, or Holstein ; and all from my remarks 
on that non-committal chart. It was the best kind of a cow 
chart I ever carried, because it made each man see something 
of value he liked in it ; whereas, if I took a likeness of a Hol- 
stein cow that I might explain from it, I fear the men who 
owned Jerseys would not be in a receptive mood. I am not 
going to talk about breeds at all, but talk about the cow as a 
milking animal, and speak of two organs which are largely 
concerned in the profit which each may yield to the man who 
feeds her. 

The first organ is her skin. All cows have that, and it is of 
similar value in all breeds. It is the most important organ of 
a cow, and is important for its function of digestion. The skin 
illustrates what I call constitution. We often hear people say 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 257 

such an animal or such an individual has a good constitution ; 
and when you have said that in praise of an animal, you have 
said a great deal. What do you mean by a good constitution.'' 
When I speak of it, I mean ability to continue in good health, 
to perform all the functions of life, and to render good service. 
It is the sum total of all the organs in their capacities and in 
their harmonious action. That is constitution. But go away 
back to the time when all that existed of the cow was a skin, 
filled with protoplasm — nothing but that. Take the very 
beginnings of cow life, and you have a very small ovum (Latin 
foj" egg), one cell and one skin. Then the cells multiply and 
are arranged in the form of a tiny globe. Inside of those cells 
is protoplasm, and by and by there comes an indentation of 
one side of the circumference of cells. The indentation grows 
deeper and deeper, until you have from what was originally 
one cell the skin of cells going all around the embryo and 
extending in a channel through the embryo. That becomes 
the skin of a cow after she is full grown, and the same skin 
goes around the body and through the body from the mouth 
through the bowels. The stomach of the cow is merely an 
enlargement of part of the channel of the inside skin. That is 
what I mean by saying the skin is a very important organ both 
inside and outside. It is the organ of digestion. The condi- 
tion of the skin outside has much to do with the activity of the 
skin inside. If a cow is put into a stable where an effort is 
made, or a condition without an effort exists, for feeding her on 
chaff", through the skin along her back, the skin inside her 
stomach will be in a very poor condition for aiding in active 
digestion. Why do you suppose a man curries a race horse.'' 
He does it because he puts the outside skin in such a whole- 
some condition that the inside skin digests food better ; and 
that is why a man should curry a cow. If a man wants to feed 
a cow for profit, he should use a currycomb or a brush over 
her skin every day. It is the best tonic you can use on a cow, 
— as well as on a man. 

I will not follow that point further. The skin is a most 
important organ, and its outside condition has much to do with 
the profit derived from the feed the cow swallows. This treat- 
17 



258 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ment of the skin also has an efl'ect upon the condition of young 
calves. 

Of course many of these things you know already, but some 
of you may not know that when a cow swallows bulk}', coarse 
food, it goes into her first stomach, and then goes back into her 
mouth to be chewed as her cud. I dare say that plenty of men 
who make their living from feeding cows have spent hours on 
a box in a grocery store, discussing politics, to one minute they 
have spent in watching and studying a cow as she feeds. It 
pays men best to look after their own business first, and make 
the country prosperous through their own prosperity ; thus they 
help on the general prosperity of the community. A man can- 
not feed a cow properly unless he sometimes watches her eat, 
and chew her cud. A man who feeds a cow without an intel- 
ligent understanding of her digestive capacity, sees no meaning 
in rumination, — rumen being the name of the cow's first 
stomach. The point I want to make now is, that the cow floats 
the coarse food back into her mouth, and if you watch her you 
will see her swallow the water by squeezing it out of the cud. 
Then she will chew the cud forty, fifty, or sixty times, accord- 
ing to the nature of the food she swallowed, and then send it on 
into the third and fourth stomachs for digestion, and thence on 
through the bowels. Now, if a cow gets any kind of food that 
goes into the third and fourth stomachs without going tinough 
the first stomach and being re-chewed, she cannot very well 
digest that food properly. The process of rumination is neces- 
sary for complete digestion. That is why I think all that a cow 
gets should be given in such a form that it must necessarily go 
into her first stomach. 

A cow should have succulent food and lots of water. The 
stomach of a cow will hold about one hundred pounds of water, 
to be there all the time as in a mash-tub in which she will soak 
the food herself in the best way. If a cow does not have 
abundance of water to drink, she cannot prepare her own food 
for digestion perfectly ; and one means of profit is to give the 
cow succulent food, and then plenty of water besides. 

That leads me to say this also, that we should give food in 
such a form as will both preserve and promote the health of 
the cow, and furnish all the material out of which increase or 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 259 

product may be built, and also stimulate her organs to activity. 
I am not afraid of using stimulants in my cow-stable, or any- 
where else ; but I would not give my cows any Scotch whiskey 
to drink, nor do I think it would be good for men to swallow 
much of tiiat stimulant either. But there are many useful, safe 
stimulants. Let me mention one. If you will put turnips and 
wheat straw together, you can winter dry cows on that in 
capital condition, because you have a stimulant in the roots and 
the bulky fodder which seems to act on the whole interior canal, 
and makes the organs of digestion and absorption work more 
actively. What do we mean by saying the organs are sluggish.'' 
In such a condition you may run food through them by the ton, 
and if the organs are sluggish, it will not be profitable. But if 
you stimulate them into activity they will appropriate nourish- 
ment from the food that is swallowed. The food for cows 
should be nutritious, bulky, juicy, stimulating, and cheap. 

I have occasion to speak of one other organ of the cow. I 
am confining myself to those two organs that are most affected 
in the feeding of a cow for milk. I have here a rough diagram, 
a sectional view, of a half of the cow's udder. The udder lies 
in two glands, as my two hands are placed now. You can take 
them apart, each one complete in itself, each one having two 
teats and sometimes having three. As far as I know, there is 
no circulation between the two glands, but there is circulation 
between the two quarters of one gland. Beginning at the bot- 
tom of the cow's teat and carrying the investigation upwards, 
we come to a valve which the cow seems to work as you would 
the mouth of a cotton bag or tobacco pouch. If you pull the 
strings running in opposite ways through its hem you close the 
mouth of it. A cow by the contraction of muscles here can 
close the valve, and when that valve is closed she is holding up 
her milk. The only key that will unlock this door of the cow's 
udder is the key of gentleness and kindness. The more 
unkindly you use a cow, the more she holds her milk up. 

The blood from the artery comes in at the top of the glands 
and spreads all through. The arteries branch and meet the 
milk tubes, so they are all interlaced. The water in the cow's 
blood seems to pass through the cellular wall and go inside, so 
that the identical water which is swallowed by a cow passes 



26o NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

through the cow's system out of her teats into the milk-pail. 
That is one reason why, especially in the case of farmers who 
are occupied in supplying milk for table use, the very greatest 
care should be exercised to see that the water for cows is pure 
and wholesome, — ^just as clean as the water you would drink 
yourselves. The inside of the lobes at the end of the milk ducts 
is lined with tiny cells, and you will get an illustration of what 
they are like under the microscope by thinking of the top of a 
honeycomb, each little cell covered over. The whole interior 
of the milk ducts is like that, only on a much smaller scale. 
When a cow is secreting her milk, the end of each of these 
cells seems to enlarge into a little bud, and when the bud is 
fully formed it drops off; and these make the fat-globules that 
trickle off and come down in the milk. That is why the 
strippings are richer than the fore milk of the cow, because 
these globules, being solid and only in suspension in the milk, 
come down less easily and quickly than the fluid portion. 
You see it is not easy to pour rich food into the mouth of the 
cow, have it go all through that mysterious process of digestion, 
have it go into the blood of the cow, and then come down 
through this gland called the udder, form these little globules 
of fat, and have a response in richer milk in two days after you 
have fed the richer feed at the mouth. We do that all right in 
a flour-mill or with some piece of machinery, which is not a 
living organism like a cow. The quality of a cow's milk 
depends upon the structure of the cow's udder. Good food 
will increase the activity of this udder's action and poor food 
will decrease its activity. Its activity will always be in pro- 
portion to the nature of the material supplied in the blood, that 
material out of which milk is made ; therefore the largest possi- 
ble supply of the best quality of material should be furnished. 
If you lessen the supply of material and energy, you reduce the 
quantity, but the quality as to percentage of constituents can- 
not be speedily, permanently changed. 

On our side of the line I have found many farmers who a few 
years ago fed cows in a most extravagant and wasteful way, 
because they thought particularly rich food would make speci- 
ally rich milk ; but when a man follows such a practice begets 
no adequate return. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEn's ASSOCIATION. 261 

A few years ago I conducted an experiment to discover the 
influence and effect upon the quality of milk, as to its compo- 
sition, by giving the animals rich food in one case, and what is 
commonly called poor food, in regard to its constituents or 
nutritive ratio, in another case. I will give you an illustration 
of our work with the three pens which I hold in my hand, that 
will save me some talking and you some questioning. I selected 
twenty-five cows and put them in three groups, dividing them 
as evenly, as to weight, breed, and length of time since calv- 
ing, as I possibly could. We had a Holstein, Shorthorn, Ayr- 
shire, a Qiiebec Jersey, and a grade Shorthorn in one group, 
and then we had these breeds represented in each of the other 
two groups. After a cow calved in one group she got a ration 
composed of forty pounds of corn ensilage, thirty-five pounds 
of roots, and five pounds of straw. That was the fodder part of 
her ration, — a rather weak but very succulent ration. To that 
was added four pounds of meal made from a mixture of barley, 
oats, wheat, and pease ground together. 

The cows in another group, of similar breeds, and as nearly as 
possible of equal weights, received the same fodder ration, 
with seven pounds of meal per day. The meal was weighed 
separately, so that they got exactly what I mentioned. Of the 
rough or coarser portion of the ration they were given all that 
they cared to consume. With respect to the third group of 
cows, it was arranged that when each cow " came in " she 
received the same fodder ration and four pounds of meal per 
day, beginning where the first group stayed all the time. 
After the lapse of two weeks the amount of meal was increased 
to five pounds per day for two weeks ; at the end of that period 
it was increased to six pounds of meal per day, — a progressive 
increase in the quantity of meal each fortnight. One group of 
cows was on a low-grade ration, one on a high-grade ration, 
and the third received a ration of progressively richer quality. 
The experiment was continued until the cows of the third 
group obtained twelve pounds of meal per head per day. We 
have conducted over twenty thousand single tests of milk. We 
have not based our conclusions on imperfect data. In those 
twenty thousand tests the milk was in every case tested morn- 
ings and evenings except on Sundays, and I did not find any 



262 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

greater increase in the percentage of solids in the milk of the 
cows receiving the progressive ration than I did in the milk of 
the covi'S of the other two groups. The conclusion I draw is, 
that if a cow gets a succulent ration and not more than six 
pounds of meal per day, she will produce as good milk as the 
cow fed on the riciier ration I have mentioned. 

My experiments lead to the conclusion that most cows are 
up to the limit of their capacity for richness of milk, but that 
few of them are up to their capacity in quantity of milk. Many 
cows can be fed with more meal, by which the quantity of milk 
can be increased ; but in the case of the cows at our farm I 
think they are almost all at their limit of capacity for percen- 
tage of solids. 

The object was not to carry out a fad, but for this purpose 
alone, that I believed, and believe now, that you cannot in our 
country feed more than six or seven pounds of grain per day 
with any profit to the average cow. I can make a cow eat far 
more than that, and I wanted to show the farmers they would 
not get any richer milk. I carried out the test, and found that 
with these richer rations I got a larger quantity of milk, and 
more butter per day ; but after I got past seven pounds of meal 
per head the limit of profit was reached. I got more butter, 
but at increased cost; and I would rather have less butter and 
more profit. 

I regard twenty-two cents a pound as the price of butter to 
predicate the price on. We do not get as much for our butter 
in certain seasons of the year as you do here ; but we do not 
have to pay quite so much for our feed, and the one balances 
the other. 

I must not forget to say, in this connection, that in handling 
cows it is impossible to develop the milk glands, the udder, in 
a large nieasure by treatment previous to the time when a cow 
begins to give milk. We had one remarkable heifer in our 
stable last winter, who was giving about three teacups full of 
milk a day a full year before she had her first calf. The 
udders of our heifers are rubbed systematically for three 
months before they come in ; and that develops the milk-secre- 
ting cells, so that heifers will give more milk the first year, 
and if they give more milk the first year, you can enlarge 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 263 

production from that foundation just as well as you can enlarge 
from a smaller one. The rubbing of the udder of the heifer 
makes a remarkable difference in her milking capacity. It 
should be done every day, only a few minutes at a time. 
When our heifers come in the first time they have a tendency 
to dry up after milking about six months ; but by persevering 
and insisting on the heifer giving milk for ten months the first 
year you will fix the habit in that animal, to which she will 
afterwards adhere. 

I pass on to say a few words on the preparation for summer 
feeding, and I may very well omit a good deal I had thought 
of saying on this subject, because I learn that you feed your 
cows here mostly in the stable in summer and in winter. I 
agree with those who said in the discussion yesterday that 
herdsgrass or timothy is one of the poorest kinds of hay for 
the production of milk. I would rather give the common salt 
marsh hay, so called, ton for ton, than pure timothy or herds- 
grass. 

Then we find that in seeding for hay and pastures it pays to 
add a large proportion of clover to the grass seed, antl we sow 
it to the extent of eight pounds per acre. We find that alfalfa 
is one of the excellent clovers. Grass is a model food for 
cows, but since you do not generally practise pasturing here, I 
will pass over that part of the subject with only a few remarks. 
Grass is a model food for cows in regard to composition and in 
regard to the condition of constituents ; and when it fails, you 
should try to supplement it with a crop of mixed cereals, such 
as oats, barley, wheat, pease, and horse-beans, because you can- 
not get more than five months of good pasturing in the year in 
this latitude. In seeding down for pastures, our botanist 
recommends the use of June-grass as the foundation or stock 
grass ; to that he adds two pounds of meadow fescue, two 
pounds of orchard-grass, one pound of red- top, two pounds of 
common red clover, two pounds of alsike clover, two pounds 
of alfalfa, and two pounds of white Dutch clover. In this way 
we get a much larger vield of food per acre than by sowing any 
one single grass. These come into good pasturing condition at 
different times, so that the pastures give a fresh bite to the cows 
for a longer period. In the management of pastures we find 



264 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

advantage from having the cows changed from one field to 
another from time to time. If one could pasture his cows in 
one field for a week and then give it a few weeks' rest by 
changing them to another field, he would get better results in 
his cows and better results in his fields than by having his cows 
roam over one field all the time. It is necessary to let cows 
have access to plenty of pure water, and there is a great gain 
in letting cows eat salt once every day. I made a test at one 
time with a herd of cows, by which I deprived part of them of 
salt for two weeks at a time ; and I found a loss of milk of about 
fourteen per cent, on the average where the cows received no 
salt for two weeks. I found the milk would turn sour quicker 
in the same temperature than the milk from cows in the same 
fields, treated the same in every way except in the matter of 
access to salt. In summer-time cows will lick all the way from 
two ounces to four ounces a day. I do not advocate the leav- 
ing of rock salt in the pastures, because I think the cows would 
satisfy their tongues before they satisfied their stomachs ; so I 
put down a box of ordinary coarse salt, and the cows lick that 
as often as they want it. A cow will not hurt herself in that 
way by taking too much. 

In connection with pasturing cows, we have to do some sup- 
plemental feeding in order that the cows may be kept from 
shrinking in hot weather, when pastures are apt to become bare 
and dry. For supplemental feed we find nothing earlier than 
winter rye, but it is not a very nutritious food, and it is not a 
feed that can be fed green for a long time, or that cows like 
very well ; so I prefer to supplement with mixed cereals, oats, 
pease, barley, and horse beans, combining the four in equal 
quantity, sowing one bushel each per acre, and cutting and 
feeding when the grain is in the milk. In the last four years 
we have used these cereals ; and I find the mixture gives the 
best results, putting all four together on the same field. I find 
spring rye also good food, but that lasts only a short period, 
and now we grow spring rye to get good bedding for our cows 
and good feed for our swine. Other crops will be necessary, 
but spring rye is excellent for these purposes and should be 
sown very early. 

There is not very much difference in appearance or quality be- 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 265 

tween winter rye and spring rye. I do not know as there is any 
difference in regard to the yield. I should not feed rye grain at 
all to cows. I have had no experience in the matter, but it is 
complained of as being a cause of abortion. I have not fed it to 
our cows, but have fed it to our swine. I find corn ensilage to 
be the best and cheapest feed for summer. This fall when we 
filled our silos we had twenty-five tons of corn ensilage left 
over after feeding our cows all summer. I do not find any 
supplemental food in point of cheapness and efficiency that 
compares favorably with corn ensilage for feeding in July, 
August, and early September. We save labor by that prac- 
tice. On an ordinary farm it costs a good deal to go to the 
field daily for green feed in the summer-time. You can get no 
crop to yield so large an amount of nutrients per acre as Indian 
corn, or with less labor ; and cows relish corn ensilage for sum- 
mer feed. When the pastures are dry we keep the cows in 
during the day-time. They escape the torment of flies, and 
can get the necessary exercise in the evenings and during the 
nights. They are fed corn ensilage in the morning and again 
in the evening before being turned out. I find that method the 
most economical way of eking out the pastures. We have corn 
fed direct from the field as early as July and August, but, as I 
shall show you in a moment, it is not economical to do so 
much before the last of August. 

We cut the corn when we put it in the silo. Let me say one 
or two words about the silo ; and I shall show you a sample of 
ensilage when I get through. We have found the silo a valu- 
able ally, and a means of making money from dairy farming to 
such an extent that we cannot do without it at all under the 
present keen competition. A while ago, when the fierce com- 
petition did not touch us so keenly, we could aflbrd to feed in 
a careless way ; but now, under the stress of competition from 
all quarters, we find the silo one of our best economies. Ensi- 
lage has come to mean any kind of fodder preserved in a suc- 
culent and cured condition for feeding cattle. There is a good 
deal of confusion in the minds of farmers as to the functions of 
a silo and the usefulness and value of ensilage. If a man puts a 
poor leg of lamb into his pantry, he does not expect that the 
pantry will improve the leg of lamb, — not very much ; but I 



266 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

have known men who would put the poorest kind of weak, 
watery fodder into a silo, and then marvel because the good 
LortI did not regenerate it into strong, nourishing feed, because 
it was put into a silo. A silo does not improve its contents. 
It is not meant for that. It is only meant to preserve what is 
put into it; and if it does that, it fulfils every function which 
pertains to it. I think a good many things become more pala- 
table by being put into a silo ; but a silo cannot add any nutri- 
ents to the fodder. If a man will grow corn broadcast, and get 
a great mass of watery, weak feed, he will find the silo and such 
ensilage a very expensive way of watering his cattle ; but if he 
puts into the silo suitable materials which will resist fermenta- 
tion, then he will get ensilage of the best quality to feed to 
his cattle in the best way. We do not find silo-building expen- 
sive in our countr3\ The simple and essential requirements 
for a silo are strength, closeness, cheapness, and durability. It 
should be sufficiently strong so the contents won't burst it. I 
would use just one-ply of lumber, put on horizontally in such 
a way as to make interlocking corners. I did build silos with 
four-ply of lumber and tar paper between them ; and I could 
not keep the ensilage any better than with one-ply of lumber, 
tongued and grooved or planed on the edges. 

We use pine and sometimes hemlock, and in some places 
spruce. One-ply of lumber lasts longer than two. There is 
less decay. Many of our silos last five years and longer. I 
examined one last year which had been built eight years, and 
I could not find a decayed place in the lumber. When it is 
filled with ensilage it does not rot quickly, but if the lumber 
is alternate!}' wet and dry it rots quickly. 

As the result of our cliinate, we find feeding in the stable to 
be necessary for six months of the year. In the stable the very 
first requisite is cleanliness. If a cow lives in a filthy stable, it 
costs more to feed the cow than if she is kept clean. A cow 
should live in a light stable. Otherwise the feed will not make 
so much milk or so good milk, will not make so much increase 
of beef or so good beef, because light is one of the great puri- 
fiers in the world, and keeps down disease and the germs that 
make for ill health. I would have a stable kept warm ; and in 
our country I would allow the question of ventilation to take 



GRANITE STATE UAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 267 

care of itself. I am just bold enough to say that.^ I would 
keep the stable light and reasonably warm, and througli the 
walls, doors, and windows, air will enter in sufficient quantity 
for the cows. We should make 'our stable-feeding productive 
and profitable by keeping the cows in milk during the winter 
season. We do that because milk brings a higher price from 
November to May than from May to November. We do that 
because we get the largest quantity of milk per cow per year 
by having the cows milked ten months or ten months and a 
half. We do that because we want our cows to give us calves 
directed in capacity and tendency towards large production of 
milk. 

I meet with an objection sometimes which I may meet here. 
" When a cow is kept in milk for ten months and a half in the 
year, isn't the cow made very weak?" I have known cows 
that were dry for six months, resting all winter, and they 
didn't gain enough strength to get up alone in the spring. 
Resting from their labors as milkers does not make them 
strong. But I never knew a cow that was milked all winter 
and decently fed, as she is almost sure to be, to be weak in 
the spring. Cows which are milked for a long season are the 
stronger and give you calves having habits like their own, with 
a large flow of milk every month. Then milking during tlie 
winter months provides employment for the farmers and farm 
helpers, and that profitable employment during the winter is 
one of the most important achievements in farm management 
to-day. I do not know how seriously it affects you down here. 
I will take time to suggest one illustration. I can think of a 
boy living on a farm, who, after putting in a real hard day at 
exhausting work binding grain or pitching hay, would come 
home without any fear of meeting anybody on the I'oad, — not 
feeling that he wanted to shrink away out of sight and apolo- 
gize for the condition of his person or of his clothes. I have 
watched that same boy, proud, manly, self-possessed, modest, 
noble, and strong, — typical of the boy who lives on the farm 
on both sides of the boundary line, the boy who does all of his 
work well. I have seen the same boy, when he had nothing to 
do on the farm except to idle at the unremunerative chores all 
winter ; when anybody would come to see him then, his man- 



268 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

liness had shrunken and he would sulk to the barn and pretend 
that he was busy, to nurse into life the high quality of self- 
respect that comes from being usefully diligent. Farmers 
should provide paying employment for themselves and their 
men and their boys during the winter, through the manu- 
facturing into milk, bacon, etc., of the primitive products 
obtained from their fields in summer. 

Then, having cows milking in the winter, how shall we 
grow crops to cost ourselves the least for the milk we get back 
from them.-* Indian corn is perhaps the best crop of the conti- 
nent for that purpose. It is a sun plant, a great accumulator 
of energy, a great conserver of energy for the farmers of this 
whole land. I would like to tell you of what magnificent, 
what stupendous service is rendered to mankind by corn plants, 
but knowledge and language alike fail me. They enable man 
to realize upon the powers of sun and air for his own service. 

The air is the other storehouse of plant food. Between 
ninety-two and ninety-eight per cent, of all the substances of 
plants comes from the air. The man who farms well will have 
his plants grow a suitable distance apart, as far as practicable, 
in order that the air may circulate freely and the sun shine in 
brightly, that the plants may get from the air the food it con- 
tains for them. This is one reason why it does not pay a man 
to grow a crop of broadcast corn ; the stalks are so close 
together that there is not enough circulation, the plants have 
less vigor and the soil becomes exhausted. 

The spring in mv watch is merely what the plant food is in 
the soil. The spring is a contrivance into which I store my 
own strength ; the plant food is a convenience into which the 
sun can store his strength, his energy. And then, when a horse 
eats a bundle of hay, he is merely transferring into horse- 
power the power which the sun rolled into that peculiar plant- 
spring. In that way the sun is doing all the work of the 
world. A long time ago the sun was shining down on the 
earth, hotly, vigorously, and continuously. He was rolling 
himself up, year by year, and century by century, into plants, 
— plants that stored his strength with avidity. Then there 
came great changes in nature, and those big trees and plants, 
full of the sun's energy, were buried away down deep in the 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 269' 

bowels of the earth ; but still they held the sun's strength. 
Men open mines, they dig up concrete sunshine and energy in 
the form of coal ; the furnace is filled ; the magic liberator — 
fire — is applied ; and as the mighty engine moves, wheels are 
turned to-day with the energy which the sun wound up in the 
vegetable kingdom of the earth ages and ages ago. 

The man who furnishes in the soil no plant food for the 
young plant keeps the sun idling on his field all the day long. 
So a man ought to make it his pleasure, as it is his privilege, 
to harness the old sun every day in his farm work, and make it 
do his will by making it roll its strength into such plants as he 
wants for his service. Now, a man could never afford to hire 
half a dozen men on a farm and have them " loaf" all day 
long, while he is wearing himself out with working. But the 
man who wears himself out with working and keeps the sun 
idling all day long is doing a far more foolish thing. So a 
man should recognize that he has the right — that he has the 
power — to control the sun's working, make it work upon his 
fields, and thus save himself from the reproach of leaving the 
best working power in the world idling on his place. The 
farmer requires skill, he needs knowledge, he must have above 
all things good judgment, in order that he may fitly control and 
exercise the power placed at his command. 

Let me show you what all this means, practically, in dairy 
farming. The man who farms successfully and skilfully in 
dairy farming will always have abundance of plant food in his 
soil, and therefore he will keep the sun working for him by- 
giving the sun the raw material out of which to build plants. 
If the sun be deprived of that, he does not intend — using the 
word figuratively — to work ; he will not make bricks for any 
man without clay. There are men who are all the while run- 
ning counter to these old foundation laws that were made for 
agriculturists. One man thinks that it makes no difference 
how much sunshine he has, or how little. It makes all the 
difference in the world. 

The sun exerts great energy on the earth all the time ; some 
of that energy is stored in the corn stalks, and that is the most 
economical channel through which this energy can be obtained 
for the feeding of cows. 



270 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

It is a hard task to feed a cow successfully, and I am glad it 
is. I do not want to do the easy jobs that any man can do. I 
am glad that dairy farming is difficult. I am glad that all farm- 
ing is hard to do, and that it is at least a little bit hard to make 
money from farms. If it were easy, it would take a low grade 
of men to do it, and then you and I would just stay at that low 
grade ; but because it is difficult, the people of these New 
England states have done for this country what Scotland has 
done for the world. You have fertilized it with energy, and 
ingenuity, and intelligence, because you have had to wrest 
what you have gotten from adverse circumstances, qualifying 
yourselves to do things which are hard to do, but which make 
you better men for the doing of them. When a man begins to 
think of getting the mastery in agriculture, and does it mod- 
estly, the more of real mastery for the service of his fellows 
comes into his life. 

Now, this corn plant which is stored full of sunshine, put in 
the soil, will keep on accumulating, and this chart is to show 
you the rate of accumulation at certain stages of its growth, 
taken from a comparatively large number of experiments. 

Chart No. 5. 

Indian Corn, Yields per Acre. 

Tasselled, July 30 : — 

Green weight (pounds) i!^,045 

Water (pounds) 16,426 

Dry matter (pounds) 1,619 

Silked, August 9: — 

Green weight (pounds) 25,745 

Water (pounds) 22,666 

Dry matter (pounds) 3,079 

In milk, August 21 : — 

Green weight (pounds) 32,650 

Water (pounds) 27,957 

Dry matter (pounds) 4,693 

Glazed, September 7 : — 

Green weight (pounds) 32,295 

Water (pounds) 25,093 

Dry matter (pounds) 7,202 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 27I 

Ripe, September 23 : — 

Green weight (pounds) 28,460 

Water (pounds) 20,542 

Dry matter (pounds) 7, 918 

We cannot get these substances containing dry matter any- 
where else as cheaply as through the corn stalk and put them 
into money values, and if the crop for feeding purposes is 
worth sixteen dollars at the tasselling stage the same crop is 
worth seventy-two dollars for feeding at the glazed stage of 
growth. That is why we cannot afford to cut Indian corn 
stalks at the tasselling stage and feed them to our cows in the 
summer instead of pasture. It does not pay to cut a corn stalk 
down at the early stage of its growth. It is like cutting a man 
oft" when he is twenty-five years old ; because if a man is worth 
anything to anybody at that age, he is worth much more when 
he is older, — he should keep on doing more and doing better as 
he develops and matiu-es. Corn should be cut at the glazing 
stage, when the corn kernels have passed out of the doughy 
stage. We wait until the lower leaves are yellow, and the corn 
is ready for the silo at that time. 

In talking of dry matter, not only is the dry matter more 
plentiful by the acre at the latter stage of growth, but it is 
worth tnore by the ton. 

One thing more in this connection. This is taken from an 
average of five trials, and part of my information was taken 
from the experiment station in New York. This is in the line 
of the last chart I showed you, showing the progressive increase 
of nutrients per acre. 

Chart No. 6. 

Comparison of Ahitrietits per acre, at Different Stages of Growth, of Indian 

Corn. 

Tasselled to bloom, July 24 to August 5 : — 

Dry matter (inches) 10 

Albuminoids (inches) 10 

Fat (inches) 10 

Carbohydrates (inches) 10 

Glazed to ripe, September 3 to September 23 : — 

Dry matter (inches) 30.5 

Albuminoids (inches) 21.4 

Fat (inches) 33.0 

Carbohydrates (inches) 36.5 



272 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



If the quantity of dry matter per acre at the stage of growth 
known as " tasselled " be represented by 10, then the quantity 
of dry matter in the same crop when it reaches the stage 
"glazed to ripe "will be represented by 30.5. The increase 
of the albuminoids is in the proportion of 10 to 21.4, of the fat 
in the proportion of 10 to 33, and of the carbohydrates in the 
proportion of 10 to 36.5. 

As large a percentage of this is digested as of that cut at 
the earlier stage. And there is this decided gain, that when 
any plant in a rather immature state is put into the silo it is 
liable to become very sour and pass into decomposition. If 
the same plant is allowed to come nearer to ripeness, it is 
much more robust, and comes out of the silo in a wholesome 
condition for cattle. 

Now, while corn is an excellent food, it is not in itself a 
complete food. It does not contain enough albuminoids in 
proportion to the carbohydrates it does contain, therefore we 
must find other crops to put with the corn to get the best 
I'esult. Many other crops get nitrogen or albuminoids from 
the land or air, and therefore contain it in themselves. You 
might put them with Indian corn as ensilage or fodder, and 
get good results from the combination. 

Chart No. 7. 
AHtrogen, PJiospho7-ic Acid, and Potash, in one ton each. 



Wheat :— 

Nitrogen 41.6 lbs. 

Phosphoric acid. 15.6 " 

Potash 10.4 " 

Barley : — 

Nitrogen 32.0 " 

Phosphoric acid 15.4 " 

Potash 9.0 " 

Oats :— 

Nitrogen 38.4 " 

Phosphoric acid 12.4 " 

Potash 8 8 " 

Peas : — 

Nitrogen ' 70.6 " 

Phosphoric acid 17.2 " 

Potash 19.6 " 



Beans : — 

Nitrogen 81.6 lbs. 

Phosphoric acid 23.8 

Potash 26.2 

Indian corn : — 

Nitrogen 32.0 

Phosphoric acid 11.8 

Potash 7.4 

Hay:— 

Nitrogen 31.0 

Phosphoric acid 8.2 

Potash 26.4 

Clover : — 

Nitrogen 39.4 lbs. 

Phosphoric acid 11.2 " 

Potash 36.8 " 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 



273 



Potatoes : — 

Nitrogen 6.8 lbs. 

Phosphoric acid ^.2 " 

Potash 1 1.4 " 

Fat cattle (alive) : — 

Nitrogen 50.0 " 

Phosphoric acid 31.2 " 

Potash 2.8 " 

Fat sheep (alive) : — 

Nitrogen 44.0 " 

Phosphoric acid 22.6 " 

Potash 2.S " 



Fat swine (alive) : — 

Nitrogen 34.S lbs. 

Phosphoric acid 14.6 " 

Potash 2.0 " 

Cheese : — 

Nitrogen 90.0 " 

Phosphoric acid 23.0 " 

Potash 5.0 " 

Milk :— 

Nitrogen 10.2 " 

Phosphoric acid 3.4 " 

Potash 3.0 " 

Fine butter : — 

Potash 0.5 " 

In dairying, we can protect the soil as well as feed the cow, 
because when wheat is grown and fed to cows, if butter only 
is sold, it carries off only an infinitesimally small portion of 
nitrogen from the farm. A ton of hay will carry oft' from the 
farm as much of the elements of fertility as eighty-seven tons 
of butter. 

But these crops, especially peas and beans, added to the 
corn, will enable the farmer to get the best combination for 
his cows, and the manure going back on his fields will keep 
them from being impoverished. That is only leading up to 
another chart. In getting these crops from the land and 
feeding them to cattle, and putting the manure back on the 
field again, in every ton of manure you have about seven 
pounds of nitrogen, three pounds of phosphoric acid, and 
eight pounds of potash. 

Chart No. S. 
Chemical Composition of Manures (Pounds in a Ton), 





Phosphoric 


rogen. 


Acid. 


7 


3 


12 


.12 


3 


3 


9 


4 


9 


I 


12 


7 


9 


4 


II 


6 



Potash. 



Cattle : whole 

liquid 

solid 

Swine : whole 

liquid 

solid 

Mixed farm manure < '^,! j 
( rotted 

IS 



5 
10 
10 



274 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



This chart confirms the teachings of the lecturer this morn- 
ing, — that in dairy farming it pays to look after the liquid 
voidings of the animals, because often the liquid voidings 
contain the largest portion of valuable constituents of food 
plants. This chart is used merely to show you that by rais- 
ing these crops and putting them with corn you get the manure 
put back on the land again and renew the fertility. 

I have spoken of using, as far as we could, some plant 
that will entangle the nitrogen, and give us the albuminoids 
required for feeding cows at the lowest possible cost to our- 
selves ; and I have put on the next chart the nutrients per 
acre that can be obtained from certain crops which I think 
are the best that can be grown for feeding cows summer and 
winter ; and this is, as far as my talk to-day is concerned, 
the conclusion of the whole matter. If I were running a 
dairy farm down here and could grow these crops, I would 
grow them mainly to feed my cows at the very lowest cost 
to myself, and to protect the soil. 

Chart No. 9. 

Quantities of Nutrients per Acre. 



Albuminoids 
(Pounds). 


Carbohydrates 
(Pounds). 


S73 


7,371 


653 


i,Si4 


352 


2.373 


271 


2,888 



Fats. 



Indian corn (9,000 pounds dry 
matter) 

Horse beans (12 tons, green)... 

Sunflower heads (7^ tons) .... 

Hay (mixed, 2 tons) 

Roots (carrots or mangels, 20 
tons) 



480 



4,320 



167 

729 

97 



I will speak a moment of horse-beans. I do not know that 
that plant is well known here. It ought to grow here, 
because the soil is similar to ours, and your climate is simi- 
lar to ours. The horse-bean is a plant with a square stem as 
thick as my little finger, growing four or five feet in height, 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 275 

and with pods on the sides. VVe grew that crop last year, 
planting two thirds of a bushel to the acre. We cut nearly 
thirteen tons of green fodder per acre. We grow it in rows 
three feet apart, like corn. It was grown quite largely last 
year on our side to mix with corn to make ensilage. We on 
our side have been compelled mainly to look after reducing 
the cost of these things. By the introduction of machinery, 
as well as by the stress of competition from elsewhere, our 
farmers have been compelled to try to reduce the cost of their 
products, and this is one means whereby we have been able 
to reduce the cost of feeding our cows a great deal. An 
analysis of horse-beans gives six hundred and fifty-three 
pounds of albuminoids per acre, and I think the largest pro- 
portion is obtained by the horse-beans taking nitrogen from 
the atmosphere direct. We are making the bean plant an 
agent for enriching the land and feeding our cows at the same 
time. Now we need something besides corn stalks and beans. 
In our climate we find the cattle doing better when they have 
rather more oil in their feed than we have been able to give 
them in corn and beans. 

The experiments which have been conducted in Germany 
have been most thorough, accurate, and reliable ; but then 
the Germans have not a climate like ours. Living in a cold 
climate, our cows may need a greater quantity of oil or fat 
in their feed ; and so I began to grow sunflowers for cattle 
feeding. We have grown six and a half acres this last year. 
Our cattle relish them keenly, and they give a delightful 
flavor to the milk and butter. We have been able to obtain 
729 pounds of fat to the acre in this crop, in a very cheap 
form, because we can grow sunflowers at a cost of $20.09 ^" 
acre for labor. Tlien on the chart I have put mixed hay. 
I need not speak of that ; and I have added roots, carrots, 
and mangels, because we can feed these two roots without 
injuring the flavor of the milk. I put them at twenty tons 
to the acre, although our actual crop was twenty-two tons of 
one and twenty-three of the other. In this combination, and 
growing this class of fodders, which have all three of these 
nutrients — albuminoids, carbohydrates, and fats — in the proper 
proportion, we get the bulk that is needed. The cow is an 



276 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

animal with a large stomach, and if you cause any cow to 
become small of belly, she comes to have a small udder. I 
find the two go together ; and cattle that have an enormously 
large belly will often have a very large milk gland, therefore 
I want bulky feed. If I could get the same quantity of nutri- 
ents in less bulk, I would prefer the larger bulk. I want cow 
feed that is juicy. I do not want to have it dry if I can help 
it. Juicy feed is best, and those feeds are best which are kept 
juicy in the natural state. 

The dairy expert, Mr. E. A. Harris, of Boston, made the 
following report : 

The butter submitted consisted of 68 packages. The high- 
est score made was 95 ; the lowest, 83 ; the average, 91 2-10. 
Sweepstake premiums: Hillside creamery, 95. Creamery 
prints. Hillside creamery, 95 ; 2d, Cornish Flats, 92 ; 3d, 
White Mountain creamery, 91. 

Dairy prints : Albert Corbett, 92 ; 2d, G. B. Mathews, 91 J^ ; 
3d, W. C. Pulsifer, 90 ^. 

Creamery tubs : Guernsey dairy, 93^ ; Plymouth, 93 ; 
Etna, 92. 

Dairy tubs : John W. Nye, 92^ ; J. W. Pulsifer, 92 ; S. W. 
Miner, 91. 

Granular butter: Isaac Weld, ist; G. H. Wadleigh, 2d; 
H. C. Smith, 3d. 

Sage cheese: H. C. Smith, 92; D. B. Pulsifer, 94; J. M. 
Pulsifer, 90. 

Plain cheese: W. C. Pulsifer, 89; H. C. Smith, 88; J. M. 
Pulsifer, 87>4 . 

By one of your rules we are excluded from making more 
than one award on butter, and deserving samples have been 
passed. 

Pro rata $20 divided among those scoring nearest the prize 
takers and scoring 88 or over : Mrs. E. Tuttle, Laconia ; Clare- 
mont creamery ; Contoocook Valley creamery, Henniker ; Bar- 
rington creamery ; Geo. W. Atwood, Ashland ; J. M. Connor, 
Hopkinton ; Mrs. J. Barnard, Hopkinton ; Mrs. George B. 
Hilan, Hopkinton; Hanover creamery; G. H. Wadleigh, 
Tilton ; J. W. Sanders, Laconia ; Algernon Cree, Colebrook ; 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 277 

M. W. Bennett, East Tilton ; F. H. Hunkins, East Tilton ; 
H. C. Smith, Holderness. 

At the evening session. Prof. J. W. Sanborn, of Gilmanton, 
delivered the following address : 



THE ACRE PRODUCT OF BUTTER. 

BY PROF. J. W. SANBORN OF GILMANTON. 

The slogans of the Napoleons of dairying have been, " Better 
butter and more of it per cow." They have led dairymen up to 
an improvement in the quality of butter until its level has been 
so far raised that the margin between the sale of good butter 
and gilt-edged butter has been greatly reduced. They have 
increased the ratio, we are satisfied, of the best quality of butter 
on the market outside of fancy brands. We are brought face 
to face with the fact that the market at tantalizing prices for good 
butter can enrich but a ver}' few. The quantity per cow has 
been so lifted under the inspiration of the deeds of these leaders 
that the margin of improvements in this direction is narrowing, 
although by no means wiped out. 

Specialists have their eyes so intently fixed upon a single 
point that their vision becomes narrowed. Expectancy has 
cramped itself too far in dairying into concentrated action along 
the line of increased production per cow. In its limited sense, 
a dairyman cannot become a specialist in butter making and 
achieve the highest success in his grasp. It is the glory of 
farming that it will not perrr^it a successful tiller of the soil to 
cramp himself into the narrow field that other industries permit, 
for he must handle collateral factors, into whatever field of agri- 
culture he may enter. 

The ordinary New Hampshire farm of one hundred and fifty 
acres does not include a net tillage acreage of over forty acres. 
The last census informs us that the average product of hay per 
acre in New Hampshire is but i.i tons, at which rate forty- 
four tons would be grown on forty acres. Of this amount, not 
less than twelve and one-half tons would be I'equired to keep a 
pair of horses and a pair of oxen, regarded as essentials of the 
business. This net of thirty-one and one-half tons of hay will 



278 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

keep but ten and one-half cows eating thirty pounds of hay per 
day for two hundred days of the year. This narrows the basis 
of improvement, so far as the cow is concerned, to so fine a point 
and so whittles away its possibilities under even ideal conditions 
as to rob the business of all temptations to pursue it. If above 
the level of returns received by good dairymen fifty pounds per 
cow is added to these cows, the gain sums up to but $131.25 at 
twenty-five cents per pound. Viewed in another light, that of 
two hundred and fifty pounds per cow at the rate of twenty-five 
cents per pound for the butter, a sum total of but $656.25 is 
received as the gross output of the farm, when specialized in 
dairying on the basis of present crops. The acre product 
realized for the tillage area is but $16.40, and for the total area 
of the farm, $4.38 per acre. This is not enough to maintain 
our farm civilization and therefore a demonstrated failure. We 
need not urge this point, for this audience is familiar with the 
expenses to be paid in the form of taxes, tools, help, risks, etc. 

Criticism might successfully attack the proposition laid down 
above, but at most it would establish minute deflections, without 
affecting the principle involved. If successful farming can be 
established upon no other basis than that of increased butter 
per cow, the business is self-doomed. 

The source of all organic life is the soil, which determines 
this origin of wealth on the farm to be the measure of all 
subsidiary products. The only hope of the establishment of 
successful farming in New Hampshire is centred in the im- 
provement of the soil. If this is the case, the greatest of all 
questions of concern to the dairyman is the acre product of 
butter. It is obvious that this problem has not been grappled 
with as seriously as its importance demands. Enthusiasm has 
pushed us along the line of selection and high-pressure feeding 
of cows more intently than it has in soil feeding. Incidentally, 
I may mention that the greater the acre product of crops, the 
less the ratio of these crops that goes to the maintenance of 
teams and the expenses of manipulation in the way of taxes, 
tools, etc. 

Let me give for the sake of illustration a conceded unpracti- 
cal view of the problem by the system of higher pressure crop 
gi-owing. An acre yielding twenty tons of fodder corn is the 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 279 

equivalent of five tons of hay ; multiplying this by the forty 
acres above considered we get a sum total of two hundred tons. 
From this is to be subtracted the feed, say for four animals to 
carry on the farm : dividing this by three, the number of tons 
required to winter a cow for two hundred days, we find that it 
will carry sixtv-two and one half cows, or six and one-fourth 
fold that which the average farmer of New Hampshire can 
now feed, raising the income by this ratio. 

If now we go one step further and assume that which is 
probably more than true, that one half the land of the one hun- 
dred and fifty acre farms in this state is capable of tillage, leav- 
ing twenty-five acres of the rockiest land for woods and fifty 
acres of the next roughest land for permanent pasture and 
seventy-five acres for tillage, the account would stand as fol- 
lows : Five tons per acre for seventy-five acres, three hundred 
and seventy-five tons minus fifteen and five-eighths tons for five 
horses required to till it with, furnishes net food enough to 
keep one hundred and nineteen and eight-tenths cows. These 
at sixty-two dollars and fifty cents per cow will give an income 
of seven thousand, four hundred and eighty-seven dollars and 
fifty cents, or twelve times the revenue of impassive farming. 
The audience that I am addressing will perceive without ex- 
planation that these two types are not held up as actually real- 
istic of the is or may-be, but as roughly marking the vast 
distinctions between two types of farming. As no good pur- 
pose is served in presenting the irrational and utterly impossi- 
ble, I hasten to say that I heartily commit myself to the belief 
that a system can be and should be entered upon on these old 
farms that will match in its several crops, relatively speaking, 
the figures above given. It would not be practical to grow 
continuously corn fodder alone, nor to substitute a crop that 
would equal this yield, but it would be possible, and I believe 
profitable to inaugurate a type of farming whose crops would 
be as large for their kind as the corn crop calculated, and in 
their sum easily five to six fold that received under the present 
system of management. This of course means extensive farm- 
ing. 

Our farming is different from that of any other civilized 
portion of the world with which I have become familiar. The 



28o NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

stranger who might study it from the purely statistical side, 
would at once dub it a spiritless farming, primitive in type. 
During my years in tlie Mississippi valley, I became very 
deeply impressed with the marked distinction upon one impor- 
tant side between the farming there and here. Upon the total 
area of tillage crops in Illinois, including grass to be mown, 
eighty and eight-tenths per cent, is under the grain crops, corn 
and potatoes, only nineteen and two-tenths per cent, being 
given over to mowing. This is an increase of mowing over 
the agriculture of Illinois of a decade or two ago. New 
Hampshire has in grain, corn, potatoes, and grass for hay, 
seven hundred and thirty-three thousand, four hundred and six 
acres. Of these, six hundred and fifty-two thousand, two 
hundred and seventy-two acres are mown, or eighty-nine and 
nine-tenths per cent., of the arable area of New Hampshire, and 
only ten and one-tenth per cent, is in the great staple tillage 
crops. 

Our farming is grass farming, that form of farming that 
requires the least capital, the least labor, the least machinery, 
the least skill, the minimum of executive talent, and the mini- 
mum crop returns. It is evident, on the face of it, that it is not 
a vitalized agriculture behind which the great forces of the 
world have their shoulders. If we pass to England, or France, 
or other continental powers, we find agriculture capitalized, 
and tillage preponderant. Ours is an industry whose votaries 
seem deficient in faith in their occupation, for its limitations are 
certainly not due to deficiency of capital, for tens of millions of 
their money is in the hands of brave and hopeful men who are 
developing the agriculture of the West. 

Tillage may be deemed an essential of good agriculture and an 
inevitable concomitant of farming, in which are invested labor, 
machinery, capital, skill ; one that has become an intellectual, 
forceful, and capitalized business. It is only imder tillage that 
the soil yields up quickest and fullest its stores of wealth. 
Deep tillage means tall crops, or much tillage great crops. It 
means the union of nature with man in extorting from the soil 
its highest possibilities. The very beginning of any effort to 
secure a maximum crop of butter per acre must be in broadened 
tillage. I would have one half of every acre of land in New 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 281 

Hampshire capable of tillage, made familiar with the plow 
every season of the year, or the whole area capable of plowing 
feel its touch every other year. 

Rooted in several generations of passive farming, the New 
Hampshire farmer will raise that which to him would be 
regarded as insurmountable objections to extensive tillage. 
The pivotal ones I will name. First, a soil unfriendly to farm 
machinery ; second, inability to secure plant food in abundance ; 
third, the price and inadequacy of labor. Others would add 
as a strong negative factor the lack of capital. This is regarded 
as too trivial an objection to require sober discussion, for 
unknown millions are sent a thousand or more miles from our 
own farms and by our own farmers into a section where capi- 
tal is far less abundant, and into the hands of men who possess 
only industry and courage. Capital may limit, but its want 
has never paralyzed, New Hampshire agriculture. 

In the advocacy of extensive use of machinery in New 
Hampshire, I shall cross the public judgment. No concession 
can be made to such an opinion. The glory of our times is the 
power of mind to harness the energies of nature to the service 
of man. These energies must operate through mechanism. 
The acknowledgment that they cannot so operate robs our 
agriculture of its brightest hope. Demonstrate the correctness 
of this adverse opinion, and my own farm is for sale. 

Where machinery operates at a minimum, there culture, 
wealth, and character will have minimum development. If 
muscle is to make the strokes of agriculture, then New Eng- 
land agriculture is doomed to the level of the civilization of 
muscle. Nature has placed more obstruction to an easy and 
prolific agriculture on New England soil than elsewhere. 
Mind, then, has the task to make here all the greater drafts on 
such of nature's forces that can be applied to surmounting these 
obstacles. In this era of the dominance of mind, machinery 
for our soil is indispensable, therefore inevitable. It is simply 
a question of lifting the rocks, and removing some of the use- 
less and less than useless cross walls. Two prongs of iron, a 
beam, two handles, a pair of wheels, two yokes of oxen, or two 
pairs of horses, and, at the word, out comes the great majority 
of rocks that stand in the way of the sulky plow and all attend- 



282 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ant machinery. Pass the small rocks into ditches in the runs, 
open up the smooth spots in the pasture, and make way for 
furrows sixty to one hundred rods each, and machinery shall 
do for New Hampshire agriculture that which we have been 
made keenly to feel it has done for the West. Will it pay? 
Farming by muscle or by old processes is dead, and successful 
farming cannot exist without this feeding of land. The cost is 
but nominal per acre, and a value is given to the land where 
none existed without the change. The fact that the possibility 
of the full and free use of machinery is called in question, is 
proved bv the inertia of our agriculture. 

Once more, on the question of profit, a demonstration can be 
made mathematically that the balance sheet will fall easily and 
heavily on the right side, but enough to say, that whatever the 
western farmer can do with machinery we must and can do 
here, and, speaking emblematically, with our hand on as good 
a plow, we can look him squarely in the eye, and bid him to 
the contest, confident that the best man will win, and not the 
best soil. Herein lies an important point in the competition of 
our agriculture with that of the world, — the best man will be 
best equipped for progressive agriculture. 

I am pleading for the tillage of more ground against a tidal 
wave of public opinion in favor of less tillage, that the crops 
grown may be well fed. In these days of broadening efforts 
and of cheapening processes thereby, it is far too late to pro- 
claim the gospel of narrowing operations in our already petite 
and cramped operations. As in manufacturing and other 
industries, the success of agriculture must rest upon small 
profits per unit of production, many units being relied upon 
to create a reasonable aggregate. We are learning that the 
purchase of nitrogenous foods from the West and South is a 
source of soil fertility. Unfortunately the margin of profit on 
these foods places a limit upon their use, while the system 
itself is a slow one. To this we must add the quick, profita- 
ble, and limitless source of plant food found in the storehouse 
of nature, which is readily fabricated for use by fertilizer man- 
ufacturers. It is about too late in the history of chemicals to 
waste time on an audience of this intelligence in discussion of 
their competence to grow crops. As to their profit, it may be 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 283 

said that chemicals to grow fifty bushels of corn, using one- 
half ratio of nitrogen, will not cost theoretically but twenty 
cents a bushel, or some three to four cents less than it costs to 
freight corn from the West to the East. The practical cost 
may slightly exceed, and should slightly exceed, the transporta- 
tion rates of corn from the Mississippi valley, yet this will be 
overbalanced by the superior value of the two and one-half 
tons of corn fodder grown with it. Join chemicals to the pur- 
chased grain, and the problem for plant food for this increased 
area is solved. In my own farming, I am leaning heavily upon 
the good offices of crop rotation to serve me, and to aid in fur- 
nishing adequate fertility. 

The effect of tillage crops on the solubility of the soil and 
the conserving effect of cover crops alternated with them, the 
advantage of alternating deep and shallow-rooted, of narrow 
and broad-leaved plants, of crops of unlike feeding capacities, 
the effect of these rotations on parasitic plant enemies, the dif- 
ferent rates with which crops exhaust water of the soil and 
other factors, especially this relation of rotation to the distribu- 
tion of labor throughout the year, make rotations a pivotal if 
not an indispensable part of the system of high farming. 
Chemicals affect New England at a providential time, and 
make it possible for the sons and daughters of our soil to 
maintain the old hearthstones and surround them with the 
evidences of the wealth and culture of this and of coming 
time. 

When beginning operations on Wilson farm last April, 1 was 
told that one of the hardest problems to solve would be that of 
the labor question, and at first there seemed to be exemplified 
in my practice the wisdom and justice of the remark, but at 
length, though only as the months passed by, did there come 
evidence that the problem has its solution. To-day we have 
six regular men on the farm and two or three irregular men, 
whose services are at command. How far the times have 
tendered assistance I know not, but the cottage homes, the 
wife and the babies along, regular payment in legal tender, 
and regular labor throughout the year have had their attractions, 
and perhaps largely explain the apparent success in overcom- 
ing this obstacle. But intensive farming backed by a system 



284 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

of rotation that distributes labor throughout the year makes it 
possible for me to guarantee labor tor three hundred and thir- 
teen days of the year. 

The labor will be found ready, I apprehend, when the farmer 
becomes dead in earnest to secure it. Much of the decla- 
mation against fate is but an apology for the passive attitude 
in which we have fallen. If this phrase is offensive, then it is 
an apology for the fact that we have allowed the West to out- 
run us in the agricultural race. Nay, my friends, our task is 
to surmount obstacles, and nature has given us the fibre and 
taught us the industry to accomplish every essential task that 
lies before us. Let us look at the Scotch and the Swiss and 
take courage. I have made it evident that ambition, in the 
belief of the speaker, should not stop at the narrow fields 
mapped out by the fathers. They enclosed fields to the limit 
of their time, when organizing farms, and of the necessities of 
their day. 

Our age is confronted by problems unknown by the fathers. 
It is an age of both broad and intensive operations. We can- 
not carve our fortunes out of a spot only large enough to turn 
around on when machinery bids us expand operations and fur- 
nishes us the means to do it. The bi'oad sweep of mechanism 
on the plains of the West compels us to reach out. It calls for 
a bigger man, and he in turn demands more room. 

The fathers did not always take in the best land. Let me 
enforce a moral in a question — Why feed a cow in summer on 
land that yields minimum returns, and in winter from that giv- 
ing maximum returns? Have you an answer? I have not a 
good one. Again, can you hold your own with the Western 
brother whose cow fills her stomach almost within the sweep 
of her neck while yours roams over acres for a breakfast? 
VV'ill some one say? Can you ; if not, what do you propose 
to do to match the fertile pastures of the West? I do not 
know that I have the solution of the difficulty, but regard the 
problem as one that has to be fully met. I am starting out 
in farming on the tentative scheme of taking into the fields 
every available acre, and of placing in the rotation the practice 
of pasturing, that is, if the farm is divided into seven parts 
for a seven years' rotation, it will, under the new plan, be 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 285 

redivided into nine parts — two years of the rotation being 
included as pasturage, the ground being seeded down with 
reference to these ends. By this method, the ground can be so 
enriched as to carry a cow to the acre. A cow to the acre is 
a great multiph'cation of the pounds of butter per acre, for I 
suppose under the present system something like six acres are 
required to pasture a cow. What a using-up of land for the 
pounds of butter secured ! It occurs to us that if this is busi- 
ness it is that of easy-going men. 

Let us look for a moment at the food required to keep a cow 
for one hundred and sixty-five days during the growing season 
at thirty pounds of hay per day or three per cent, of her live 
weight daily when producing butter. This amounts to four 
thousand, nine hundred and fifty pounds of hay or its equivalent, 
or, in round numbers, two and one-half tons for the season. 
It is a good acre that will carry such a cow, especiallv when 
we recall the fact that the average production of our fields is 
but one ton to the acre. I farmed in Utah, pastures containing 
nine varieties of mixed grasses and clovers that would carry 
nearly a cow and one half to the acre for five months. Irriga- 
tion, as it should here where water is available, pushed up 
the yield. It is difficult to estimate the yield of our pastures, 
but it is probably not over one-half ton to the acre. It is not 
the yield that genius demands, yet it is our business to expend 
genius on our farms. 

Another method will be entered upon experimentally on 
Wilson farm to solve this question of increased butter per acre 
from our pasture grounds. Chemical fertilizers are the ready 
means of supplementing the manure made by feeding in the 
barn from forage crops or grains. It may appear in the future 
that, after all, the better method would be to adopt soiling out- 
right. For several reasons I am not at present ready to adopt 
the system in lull. 

Another system must be weighed before a method is finally 
adopted in lieu of rotating the fields and pastures — the seeding 
of the pastures and the maintenance of fertility and large crops 
on them by the use of chemicals. Manipulation of the figures 
that entered into the calculation seemed to show that about ten 
dollars per acre in chemicals would be required to make it 



286 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

capable of sustaining a cow. It must be remembered that 
aside from the chemicals added, the pasture will receive the 
droppings of the cow, which will be approximately one half 
of the food consumed or more, so that the pasture will have 
the advantage of ten dollars in chemicals and one half the crop 
product of these chemicals returned in droppings and added 
material from rains and from soil decomposition. This will 
probably ultimate in a reduction in the annual cost of chemi- 
cals required to produce the crop for the sustenance of the 
cow. These are suggestions that lie along the line that I pro- 
pose to follow in the recuperation of my farm. 

Doubtless there are dairymen here who have had experience 
in the renovation of pastures who will give it when the ques- 
tion is open for debate. I have had some personal experience 
that will throw some light on the matter, but it has not reached 
the point that gives the right of decision between the several 
systems. These systems I will recount. 

First, the rotation of fields and pastures; second, chemical 
fertilization, or that of yard manure; and third, the soiling 
system. These may be variously added to, but there are these 
three clearly marked and distinct methods of increasing the 
butter per acre from pasture lands now in use. The objection 
to the first system lies in the difficulty of forming economically 
a close mat of the varieties of grass demanded for an ideal 
pasture. The second system is lame in the fact that a pas- 
ture continually fertile is under a close mat, excludes the air 
and reduces to a minimum the decomposition of the soil, and 
to the further fact that it, as well as the previous system, 
returns less per acre under grazing than it would if mowed. 
The third method, or that of soiling, has the obvious objection 
of cost of tilling, cutting, drawing crops to the barn and the 
manure back to the soil again. At the same time, it reduces 
below the desirable point, I believe, the exercise taken by the 
cow. It will keep, however, more cattle to the acre ; proba- 
bly will keep a cow and one half where but a cow could be 
kept from pasture fertilization. 

Who can balance the relative advantage of these methods, — 
for I assume that one of them must be used, — and select with 
accuracy the right system as a law or rule of action? 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 287 

In conclusion, permit me to say that I have generalized per- 
haps as never before in a paper written by me. I did so under 
the belief that I should stand before one of the most intelligent 
farm audiences that gather in this state, one more alive to the 
great forces that have made the vast changes in the drama of 
the industry, and that are now impelling us on to other changes 
whose end cannot be foreseen, but whose movements and some 
of their consequences are partially visible. It was believed that 
this general survey of the necessities of the dairyman in his 
effort to increase his butter output would meet with men so 
informed on the general progress of agricultural science and 
agricultural art that their interest would be better served in 
generalization than in specialization, and that to questions and 
discussions might safely be left whatever of amplification the 
thought suggested might demand. The position of the writer 
in this paper is that the great demand now upon the dairyman 
of New Hampshire is the use of more capital, more labor in a 
broader and more intensive system of farming, in which tools, 
tillage, and rotation of crops is to become an essential part. 
That these should be applied to the renovation of pastures 
equally with the renovation of fields, and that when the sturdy 
sons of the state have applied their powers and resources to 
these hills, they will be able to meet the competition of other 
states and peoples ; and that if nature has stuffed our soil with 
less fatness than those occupied by other children of the soil, 
she has made ample amends in giving to the sons and daugh- 
ters of our granite hills physical and mental fibre equal to the 
demands that may be placed upon them. 

Following this address, there was a general discussion of the 
subject, participated in by President Connor, Vice-President 
Waterhouse, Secretary Gerrish, F. W. Sargent of Amesbury, 
Mass., and others. This closed an interesting meeting, and a 
successful one in all particulars, except in point of attendance, 
which was on account of the prevalence of one of the most 
severe storms of the season. The interest in dairy matters is 
on the increase throughout the state, and the subject offers a 
wide field for study and investigation. 

J. L. GERRISH, Secretary. 



OFFICERS— 1896, 



President—^. M. CONNOR 

Vice-President— Q. H. WATERHOUSE 
G. S. PHILBRICK . 
Secretary—]. L. GERRISH 

Treasurer—^. J. BACHELDER . 

TRUSTEES. 

Rockingham— \{Y.^yiO^ NOYES 
Strafford— U^QIY.-^ THOMPSON 
Belknap—]. W. SANBORN 

Carroll— ^. J. TOWLE 
Merrimack—]. ARTHUR JONES 
Hillsborough— V>. G. ROBERTS . 

Cheshire— \NYLl.AR.D BILL, JR. 

Sullivan— G^O^G^ W. STANLEY 

Grafton— \N. D. BAKER 

Co^.y— ALBERT CORBETT 
19 



Hopkinton. 

Cornish. 

Tilton. 

Contoocook. 

Concord. 



. Atkinson. 
. Durham. 

Gihnanton. 

Freedom. 
. West Hopkinton. 
. Goffstown. 

Westmoreland. 

Langdon. 

Qiiincy. 

Colebrook. 



RKPORT. 



In presenting this report, we are unable to assert in positive 
terms the exact condition of the dairy interest. While the re- 
port of the expert would indicate that we, as dairymen, are 
almost as high as is possible in quality of product, it is also 
true that some butter has to be sold at low figures in summer. 

In the states all over the country, the war against '• oleo " 
has been waged with rather gratifj'ing success, but the flank 
movement of the enemy on the cheese interest has made it 
necessary to act vigorously on the defensive with regard to the 
filled cheese movement at Washington. At date of writing, 
there seems to be some reason for encouragement in hope of an 
honest product. 

It seems that what is most needed at present is a thorough 
knowledge of economical grain feeding, so as to take advantage 
of low prices, and also of correct management in having fresh 
cows in the months when butter commands the best prices. 

Notwithstanding all that has been feared regarding over- 
production, it will reach last, if it comes at all, a strictly fine 
winter butter. 

J. L. GERRISH, 

Secretary. 

Since writing the above, the filled cheese bill has become a 
law, and that is a victory for the dairy interest at large, and 
especially for those states which were directly interested. 

It is refreshing to know that we are represented by men who 
are not afraid to cast their vote in favor of an honest product, 
and of branding adulterated goods by their right name. 

G. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 29I 

GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. 

PREMIUM LIST. 
Lancaster Exhibit, December 26i/i atid zyih, 1895. 

Class A. 

Per cent. 
D. H. Foster, Lebanon, ist ....... 97 

Mrs. L. Tuttle, Laconia, 2nd and 3rd ..... 961I 

H. B. Hough & Son, Lebanon, 2nd and 3rd .... 96^ 

Class B. 

S. T. Noyes, Colebrook, ist 97I 

W. C. Pulsifer, Canipton, 2nd ...... 97^ 

J. W. Pulsifer, Holderness, 3rd ...... 96 

Class C. 

R. T. Gould, Contoocook, ist . . . . . .97 

J. M. Pulsifer, Campton, 2nd ...... 95^ 

D. T. Atvvood, Ashland, 3rd 95 

Class D. 

Colebrook Creamery, ist . . . . . . . 97^ 

Hillside Creamery, 2nd . . . . . . . 96^ 

Piermont Creamery, 3rd ....... 96 

Class E. 

Claremont Creamery, ist . . . . . . . 96 

Peterborouo;h Creamery, 2nd ...... 95I 

Class F. 

Sanborn's Creamery, Deerfield. ist . . . . . 97^ 

Baker's River Creamery, West Rumney, 2nd and 3rd . . 97^ 

Sutton Creamery, 2nd and 3rd ...... 97^ 

Class G. 

E. C. Goodell, Sanbornton, ist. 
H. C. Smith, Holderness, 2nd. 
Israel's River Creamery, Lancaster, 3rd. 



292 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Class H. 
S. T. Noyes, Colebrook ....... 97I 

Class I. Plain Cheese. 

W. C. Pulsifer, Campton, ist. 
S. T. Noyes, Colebrook, 2nd. 
D. B. Pulsifer, Campton, 3rd. 

Class I. Herb Cheese. 

J. M. Pulsifer, Campton, ist. 

J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster, 2nd. 

H. C. Smith', Holderness. 3rd. 

Class J. 
Broadlands Cheese Factory, South Lancaster, ist. 

IVorcester Salt Company'' s Special Prizes. 

Creamery. 

1st, Sanborn's Creamery, Deerfield. 
2nd, Colebrook Creamery, Colebrook. 

Dairy. 

1st, S. T. NoyeS, Colebrook. 
2nd, W. C. Pulsifer, Campton. 

Pro Rata Preniiiuiis by Association. 

Barrington Creamery. 
D. A. Pulsifer, Campton. 
H. C. Smith, Holderness. 
John W. Nye, Keene. 
Haverhill Creamery. 
Cornish Creamery. 
H. Richardson & Son, Littleton. 
Mrs. George Randall, Keene. 
George A. Hartford, Lancaster. 
Algernon Cree, Colebrook. 
J. W. Sanders, Laconia. 
Lisbon Creamery. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 293 

Lebanon Creamery. 
Guernsey Dairy, Contoocook. 
Bristol Creamery. 
Israel's River Creamery. 
J. H. & C. Aldrich, Dalton. 
Lyman Creamery. 
J. M. Connor, Hopkinton. 
N. J. Derby, Lancaster. 



THE FUTURE OF DAIRY FARMING IN THE EAST. 

BY J. D. SMITH, DELHI, N. Y. 

Because my subject indicates an expression of thought con- 
cerning the future, I hope none will think for a moment there is 
lingering in my mind the faintest suspicion that I am a prophet, 
or the son of a prophet. While the untried future may hold for 
all of us many hidden mysteries, yet I deem it wisdom to forecast 
the future as best we may, and thereby provide against impend- 
ing evil. I have not come to you to-day, my friends, with a sci- 
entific address ; I leave such for other and abler minds to pre- 
sent. And yet, lest I be misunderstood, allow me to say here, 
I have no word of criticism to offer concerning the application 
of science to agriculture, and especially to dairying. On the 
contrary, we are deeply indebted to scientific research for the 
position the dairy interest occupies to-day. 

I come to you as a practical farmer and dairyman, from 
among the rugged hills of the county of Delaware, N. Y., the 
county that to-day occupies the front rank as a dairy county in 
our state, and the conclusions I have arrived at, be they right 
or wrong, have been the result of combined thought, study, 
and active work upon the farm. 

Our judgment of the future will, without doubt, be far more 
accurate if we keep in mind the condition of men and things in 
the past. Men of this generation do not differ materially from 
those of former times, but things have greatly changed. 

This is my first visit to the old Granite state, and you may 
be sure I have not come with my eyes closed. I wish to say 
to you, gentlemen, from what I have in so brief a time been 
able to see of your agricultural resources, as I note the evi- 



294 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

dences of thrift and industry as shown in your well-laid-out, 
well-kept farms and commodious farm buildings, that I am 
proud of what I see. I ask no better proof of a high grade of 
intelligence among any people than well-cultivated, cleanly- 
kept farms, with substantial, tidy farm buildings, whose sur- 
roundings give evidence of thought and culture. 

In following the line of thought suggested by my subject, I 
am sure you will pardon me if, as illustrative of the truth 
I desire to present, I confine myself more particularly to 
scenes and localities with which I am most familiar; and yet 
the general conditions that affect the agricultural and dairy 
interest are much the same with us as with you. As I have 
said, my native county is, and always has been, a dairy county. 
Such eminent authority as the late Col. F. D. Curtis, of our 
state, a gentleman, no doubt, well known to many of you, used 
to sav of us : "In no other county of New York state have I 
seen such evidence of as general prosperity among farmers as 
I find in Delaware county." I mention this fact because back 
of it there is a reason, and I desire to suggest the inquiry 
whether or not the most prosperous sections of your own state 
are those where dairying has been most continuously and intel- 
ligently pursued. A year or so ago, I met a gentleman who 
was reared upon a farm in my own town, who left the farm to 
engage in school work in the city of Brooklyn. He has risen 
step by step until he is to-day one of our most thoroughly 
learned men, and has under his supervision more pupils than 
any other man in New York state. He has traveled exten- 
sively throughout our own and foreign lands, and is, withal, a 
very keen observer. He said to me : " I find in this dairy 
county better barns, larger and finer farm-houses than in any 
other section I have visited. Surely it is not because the soil 
is more productive, or as easily cultivated as in many other 
localities." I replied that, in my judgment, it was due to our 
system of farming. 

For a long term of years, we have been adding to the fertility 
of our farms by supplying more food elements to the soil than 
have been removed, just as a bank account continued for a term 
of years, whose deposits exceed its drafts, at length accumu- 
lates a handsome sum. I have no doubt there are before me 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 295 

those who have seen this truth practically illustrated. No 
doubt some of you are keeping three and four times the amount 
of stock you could keep twenty-five years ago, brought about 
by this same system of feeding the soil ; and yet, perhaps, 
right beside these farms there are others whose fertility has as 
steadily decreased from year to vear. 

1 read of abandoned farms in New Hampshire. We have 
them in New York state, but in every instance, I believe, the 
blame lies with the farmer and not with the farm. Begging 
pardon for a personal allusion, we have quadrupled the stock- 
keeping capacity of the old homestead since 1868, and yet 
adjoining ours, with soil not unlike, there are three abandoned 
farms. Liberal grain feeding, with great pains taken to manu- 
facture and save manure, in the one case ; while plowing, sell- 
ing off farm crops, and neglect, in the others, have brought 
about the different results. 

But I imagine I hear some practical farmer saying, You 
have been farming in different times from these. You forget 
these are not days of thirty-five and forty cent butter, with 
other farm products bringing proportionately remunerative 
prices. I beg your pardon, my friend, I do not forget. On 
the contrary, I have a keen remembrance of those times, and 
the fact that added years and lessened physical strength make 
careful painstaking all the more necessary, led to the selection 
of my subject. 

It is said he is a wise man who is able to foresee coming 
difficulty and provide against it. I would not convey the 
impression that I am an alarmist, or that in pessimistic folly 
I can see no good in the future. No, on the contrary, it is a 
part of my nature to hopefully look forward to next year, 
expecting better things than the present brings ; and yet it were 
folly unmitigated to close our eyes to certain developments 
that call for the exercise of wisdom and forethought. That 
the future of farming here in the East will never again be what 
it has been within the recollection of many of us, seems reason- 
ably certain. We are just beginning to realize the fact that 
ours is a great, a vastly great country. 

I well remember, while attending the annual meeting of the 
New York State Dairvmen's Association at Oneonta, some 



296 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

years ago, the late Hon. Samuel F. Miller, a member of con- 
gress from that district, made the statement that dairying could 
never be overdone, for the dairy belt was and would be con- 
fined to portions of the New England states, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, and a portion of Ohio ; and, strange as it may now 
seem, these were generally accepted at the time as prophetic 
words. But lo ! what do we see.'' 

From Ohio to, and even beyond, the Mississippi, where once 
waved the golden wheat fields, now may be seen dairy herds 
quietly grazing. From Missouri to the Dakotas, from Prince 
Edwards Island and Canada to Manitoba, may be heard the 
hum of dairy machinery. Upon the Southern plantations, 
instead of only fields of cotton, where the colored man labored 
unceasingly and without reward, urged on by the whip of the 
cruel task-master, to-day we find growing luxuriant fields of 
corn, wheat, and crimson clover. Even as far south as Mis- 
sissippi and Floiida, we find Jersey herds that rival ours in 
both quality and quantit}^ of butter. 

With these facts staring us in the face, it becomes us to 
inquire diligently concerning our future. If we consult the 
weekly market reports, we shall see shipments of Western but- 
ter to Eastern markets are rapidly increasing from year to year. 
The Western grain grower has been looking over our farms, 
and he finds them carrying more than double the stock they 
did when he left this locality, less than a quarter of a century 
ago. He realizes the fact that he has been selling us the fertil- 
ity of his farm in the form of corn, wheat, bran, and oil-meal, 
and that our farms have gained while his have lost ; hence the 
headlong plunge into dairying all over the West, and the high 
prices paid for our dairy cows. 

While New York stands first with her 1,500,000 cows, Iowa 
closely follows with 1,200,000. I mention these things, to 
show what is going on in the world about us, and the neces- 
sity of our taking thought as to the niche we are destined to fill. 

As I have already intimated, we may not hope for as high 
prices for farm products as we used to obtain, and yet I do not 
believe the bottom has entirely fallen out of everything, as we 
sometimes say. It does seem as if the outlook for the eastern 
dairyman was not encouraging, when we contemplate the vast 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 297 

amount of territory devoted to this industry ; but we do not for- 
get that our consuming population is increasing vastly faster 
than the producing, and very much faster in proportion than 
the number of cows. The millions of non-producers in our 
cities must be fed. Again, other important industries in the 
West have been almost abandoned in favor of dairying. Take 
for instance horse breeding. A friend from Iowa assures me 
that a few years ago from one to fifteen brood mares were 
found upon nearly every farm, while now, one may visit fifteen 
farms and not find a brood mare or young colt. A radical 
change is sure to come in the horse market, and that soon. 

If the western farmer can realize his profits as readily from 
beef production as in dairying, because of the increased labor 
attending dairying, he will fatten steers instead. Already com- 
plaint comes up concerning the character of the young cattle 
that contain a greater or less percentage of Jersey blood, that 
they are not profitable beef-producing animals; and he is a 
wise man, in my opinion, who is thoroughly equipped for 
producing first quality of beef in the West, who makes no 
change. The markets of the world have always demanded 
good meat, and they always will. What, then, is the outlook 
for the eastern dairyman? I beg your indulgence while I 
present a few thoughts that suggest themselves to my mind. 

Let us take the situation as we find it here to-day in the East. 
Wherever the system has prevailed, of feeding the soil through 
the animal, as is the case in dairy sections, farms have 
steadily improved, until the majority are in a high state of culti- 
vation. Many of these farms are owned by a class of men who 
have passed the meridian of life, and desire to exchange the 
active duties of farm life for a more quiet, restful one in town ; 
and the farm lands, with all the improvements, can be pur- 
chased for less than the original cost of the buildings alone. 
A case in point is a farm in my own neighborhood, purchased 
some thirty years ago by a young Scotchman. Ten children 
followed each other in quick succession, and when the youngest 
was a babe, the husband died very suddenly. The widow kept 
the farm, brought up and educated her children, put on exten- 
sive improvements in farm buildings, and paid for all. A few 
days ago, the youngest boy becoming of age, the property was 



298 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

sold to one of the boys. The farm will keep twenty-five to 
thirty cows, and team, and was bought for $3,300. The house 
and barn alone, which are large, modern ones, could not be 
built for that money. But, the young man who contemplates 
making dairying his calling, begins at once to argue that prices 
for farm products are so low he cannot live and meet his pay- 
ments ; but is this indeed true.'' 

Two years ago, it was my pleasure to spend a couple of weeks 
in the noted Elgin district, where land is worth from $75 to 
$100 per acre. Many of these farms are still owned by the 
original settlers, and are rented to a thrifty class of Germans. 
I was told these German families almost universally succeeded 
in accumulating enough in a few years to make a first payment 
on a farm. Being desirous to know more about how they did 
this in spite of high rents, for a farm there without stock or 
tools will rent for more than one in our locality will with a full 
stock of both, I called upon them and made inquiry. I found 
them genial, well-disposed people. One intelligent man with 
a wife and some half a dozen children, in answer to my inqui- 
ries, said, — '•'■ You see our milk is where we get most of our 
money. We take the best care of our cows, and we men folks 
attend to the cows and farm crops. We buy lots of wheat bran 
and mix with the corn we raise, and feed our cows liberally. 
The bran must be paid for out of our milk money ; but there 
are other expenses, such as clothing, groceries, etc., and these 
are met by the women and children in growing cucumbers, 
which they sell to the canning factories ; so we have the 
balance of our milk money, after the grain feed is paid for, to 
pay our rent and save up to buy a farm some day." One man 
had I'ust bought a farm only a short distance from the depot, 
paying $14,000, who began but a few years before on the same 
farm as a hired man. 

I do not say all can do, or should do, as these German 
families do, in all respects ; but, with certain modifications, 
their plan is worthy of our adoption. If we are to succeed in the 
future, and hold our place alongside those in more favored 
localities, we must, in some respects, go back to primitive 
methods. We are living in a fast age. 

We buy too much and sell too little. We cannot go back to 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 299 

the customs of our fathers, and produce upon the farm every- 
thing we need, including clothing ; but we can and must look 
to the farm for many things we now buy at large profit to the 
dealer. 

The grand difficulty with us to deal with is, we want too 
many fine things we cannot afford. A young man rents a farm. 
The owner leaves upon the farm a two-seated spring wagon, 
which he has made answer his purpose. The young man and 
his wife sigh for a covered buggy and finally purchase one, 
agreeing to pay for it from the butter money in the fall. It is 
nice, of course, to have the covered buggy and the silver-mounted 
harness, but some of us can recall the fact that we struggled 
with mortgages and debts for over twenty 3'ears, before we felt 
we could afford the luxury of a buggy or a fine cutter. The 
crying need of to-day is a more careful consideration of little 
things. During the inflated period, when money came easy, 
we seemed to forget the value of the pennies, and "It is only 
ten cents," or "A quarter isn't much," became our motto. I 
wish to say to you, fellow-dairymen, this disregard of little 
matters, little expenditures, the neglect to save and economize 
in little things, is the millstone about our necks to-day. 

The young farmer runs up a bill at the village grocery, and 
when a statement is handed him, nearly every item is a small 
amount, but he is astonished at the aggregate. Two young 
men of my acquaintance each bought a farm : No. i had only 
sufficient capital to buy his stock, so ran in debt for the whole 
purchase price of the farm. When he and his wife went to 
town to trade, they took their lunch and ate it on the road, 
going or coming, and took along feed for their team. The 
other one would put up at the best hotel, and order dinner for 
himself and wife, and the team fed. When he paid his bill, 
which was likely to include half a dozen cigars and a glass of 
beer, he found his cash account short from one to two dollars. 
A few trips to town, and the first has saved, while the other has 
needlessly spent, the interest on a hundred dollars. Under- 
stand me, fellow-farmers, I would not be understood as advo- 
cating going through life depriving oneself of all comforts or 
luxuries, even ; but it has been truthfully said, " Economy in 
youth is the easy chair of old age," and I have noticed that 



300 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

young people who will ride at twenty-five are quite likely to 
walk at sixty. In making our estimates of future success, one 
thing must never be lost sight of, and that is, the education of 
the people. No plan or system that leaves this out need be 
entertained for a moment. This is preeminently an age of 
thought and investigation, and the demand to-day is vastly 
greater for brain than brawn. The dairyman who expects to 
succeed in this day of strong competition without a thorough 
understanding of the principles that govern successful dairy 
work, will surely meet with ultimate failure. The question is 
not, whether he can aflbrd such help as he will find in our first- 
class dairy journals, but, can he afford to be without them ? A 
dairyman has no more business to be without the aid of several 
first-class dairy journals in his home than a physician without 
his medical journals. I wish I could impress upon all who 
listen, the importance to the farmer of keeping in touch with 
those who are in the lead in his calling; and how shall he do 
this except he read? Why, indeed, should he conclude this is 
not a necessity to him as well as to men of other professions? 
Every week brings accounts of those who have made a grand 
success by reading and profiting b}' the experience of some one 
who, by the use of brain-work, has changed the account from 
loss to profit and continued prosperity. 

I hope never to see the day when the eastern dairyman shall 
have laid to his charge the sin of as extensive food adultera- 
tions as some must one day answer for. Let no young man 
embark in dairying, building upon other foundation than honest 
goods and honest dealing. A few may accumulate wealth by 
dishonest methods, but rarely does it benefit the second genera- 
tion, and it means disaster to the maker. The curse that is 
sapping the life-blood of the dairy industry to-day is the manu- 
facture and sale of such enormous quantities of bogus dairy 
goods. For example, witness the state of things in the state of 
Wisconsin. But a few years ago, the name " Wis." branded 
on a cheese was a sufficient guaranty that the purchaser was 
getting a pure article, and an immense trade, both home and 
foreign, was being built up. At length, some "imp" con- 
ceived the idea of taking the milk from which every particle of 
butter fats had been removed, and substituting neutral lard or 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN's ASSOCIATION. 3OI 

Other oils, and branding the product, "■ N. Y. Full Cream," 
"Herkimer Full Cream," etc., thus manufacturing that prince 
of frauds — filled cheese. And, fellow-ftu-mers, I am ashamed 
to admit that there were found plenty of farmers who were 
unscrupulous enough to furnish these manufacturers with 
the skim-milk, knowing full well the fraudulent article that 
was to be made from it. Note the result of this nefarious busi- 
ness. 

As I have said, this filled fraud was branded "full cream " and 
sold as such. The consumer who had formerly bought Wis- 
consin cheese and found it uniformly good, becomes aware of 
the fact that he is being imposed upon. Complaint is made to 
his home dealer, and thence to the shipper, with the final result 
of loss of trade and loss of markets. Laws have since been 
enacted in Wisconsin making the business of manufacturing 
these bogus goods a penal offense, and now unscrupulous par- 
ties in Illinois are manufacturing tons of this vile stuff and 
bi-anding it "• Wisconsin," because it is known the law forbids 
it in that state. 

What of the future.'' Just so sure as we arise not in our dig- 
nity and check this tendency of our times toward tlie adultera- 
tion of all kinds of goods, not excepting the foods needed to 
sustain life, just so sure we go down in ruin. What we want 
to-day is more of that Puritanic honestv that controlled the lives 
and acts of our forefathers. 

The laboring man who toils diligently to earn an honest dol- 
lar, can never compete with the base counterfeiter, and why 
shall the legitimate industry of dairying, that gives employment 
to, nav, becomes the support of, millions of our people, be 
handicapped and ruined, that a few may fatten and grow rich 
in the manufacture of that which is only a counterfeit and can 
only be sold in semblance of the genuine? Gentlemen, if we 
will only arise as one man and demand what is clearly our 
right, if we will faithfully stand by the men who have under- 
taken the task of securing such legislation as shall properly 
protect the legitimate interest of dairying in this country by the 
enactment of suitable laws, we need have no fears concerning 
our future. The National Dairy Union, with that grand and 
noble man, Ex-Gov. W. D. Hoard, at its head, than whom no 



302 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

living man has done more to secure for the common dairy 
farmer the right and recognition to which he is justly entitled, 
has undertaken this work, and I appeal to you, fellow-dairy- 
men, as you value your homes, and the farms you till, as you 
believe in the protection of right and the suppression of evil ; 
to stand by these men who are giving time and means that you 
may not be robbed of home and an honest livelihood. 

Permit me, then, to say in conclusion, that I deem the future 
bright with hope to the eastern dairyman, if we will but firmly 
grasp and ever bear before us the banner of right ; and while 
we hope not for fortunes made in a day, by carefully giving 
heed to the lessons of the hour, these hillsides and these valleys 
will become each year more productive, and contentment will 
fill the home, because of continued prosperity. 

Let us never lose sight of the fact, that God rules as certainly 
to-day as in any past age, and His promise is as sure to those 
who walk uprightly. Did it ever occur to you, my friends, as 
you look out and behold these sun-kissed hilltops ; as you have 
watched the sparkling fountains that burst forth from beneath 
these granite rocks, chasing each other down into the valleys, 
furnishing sustenance to growing crops, thence passing on sea- 
ward, bringing joy and gladness everywhere, did you ever stop 
to think that in selecting the best land in all the earth for His 
chosen people, the Almighty selected a land like yours? 

We find in Deuteronomy ii:ii, these words: "But the 
land whither ye go to possess it, is a land of hills and valleys, 
and drinketh water of the rain of heaven." Surely, then, 
ours is a goodly heritage. We have come into its possession, 
not through bloody conquest on our part, but handed down to 
us by our fathers and mothers. These fertile valleys, these 
comfortable homes represent the toil and hardship of those to 
whom we owe our lives ; and as we cherish their sacred mem- 
ories, let us prove faithful to the trust committed to us. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEn's ASSOCIATION, 303 

HOW TO BUILD UP A PROFITABLE DAIRY. 

BY GEORGE T. POWELL, GHENT, N. Y, 

How to build up a profitable dairy, is a question which is not 
only of vital importance to those who are dependent on dairy 
work, but in it is involved the dealing with skilful work and 
scientific principles. 

With the development that has come in railroad building 
through the richest portions of our country ; with the stimula- 
tion that has been given to immigration in the millions of foreign 
representatives who have been encouraged to come to our 
country and receive farms almost as free gifts in many of our 
new western states, conditions in farming have been changed, 
and new problems have arisen for us to meet, especially on 
eastern farms. 

The prices of grain have been steadily lowered to a point, 
where, as a cash crop, no profit can be obtained from grain 
growing; our farms at the East have valuable improvements 
upon them, good buildings in houses and comfortable barns, in 
the underdraining of much of the land, and we have now to meet 
the competition of those who have land at almost a gift, with 
little or nothing invested in improvements, where cattle and 
sheep are herded and fattened in pastures ; where pork is made 
in the cheapest possible manner, and by cheap newspapers, we 
find the products of cheap land, cheap labor, and cheap living 
in our markets. 

We are now placed in the position of sharp competition, tlie 
same as are our merchants and manufacturers, and those who 
now study their business the closest and most carefully, will 
achieve the best results. 

There has been a most serious depression in our agriculture 
all along the line, and increasingly so as the years go by. The 
wheat growers of the West are poverty-stricken. Nowhere are 
more distressing scenes to be witnessed than about the homes 
of many of the wheat growers of the West — yet when we go 
through some of the dairy districts of New York, there are 
homes to be found that are about as distressing as those of the 



304 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

western wheat growers, and what is the cause for this condition 
in our dairy work? 

New York has 1,556,000 dairy cows, and the average butter 
production per cow will not exceed 130 pounds annually. 
This simply means to many who are engaged in dairying, a 
hopeless struggle for existence. 

The first years of my own experience in dairy work were not 
satisfactory. The mistake we make generally in our dairy work is 
judging our dairies by gross results, by the number of cans of milk 
produced as the number of pounds of butter made by the herd. 

The important first step to take in improving or building up 
a successful dairy is to make a careful individual examination 
of the herd. When this is done there will be some surprising 
revelations, and in times like these, when profits are so small 
and incomes are light, it is important to know the capacity and 
production of each cow standing in our stables. 

This is not difficult to do. Prepare a fevy sheets of paper 
properly ruled in columns, place the name of a cow at the 
head of each column, and leave a column at the left for the 
days of the month. Prepare these sheets for every seven days 
and at the end of the week copy the figures into a book where 
a record can be preserved. Prepare a set of scales, adjust them 
so that no deduction need be made for the pails by the milkers, 
and record the milk of each cow night and morning, until the 
value of the cow can be fully determined in regard to the 
amount of her production. 

The next step to be taken is to apply the Babcock test to de- 
termine the value of each cow's product. This need not be 
done oftener than twice a month. When I applied these two 
tests to my own herd of sixteen cows for the first year, I made 
the very important discovery that the profits of my entire herd 
of sixteen cows were being made by only six of the number, 
butter making being our special interest. There were cows that 
showed great promise when they were fresh ; they would fill a 
pail to overflowing for a short period, yet the scales told the 
surprising story with some of these, that after seventy days they 
steadily dropped off* in quantity. This would not be believed 
if the figures did not show it daily, and for several months they 
would not give enough to pay the cost of their support. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 



505 



I found that one cow gave over 10,000 pounds of milk for 
the year and made her butter at a cost of eleven cents a pound ; 
while the next cow to her, carrying an excellent pedigree, pro- 
duced her butter at a cost of twenty-seven cents a pound. Her 
milk yield was light, her butter fat low, and she made her 
product at aristocratic prices. 

These conditions will be found in about all of our dairies, 
and we shall find plenty of dairy depression until we eliminate 
these unprofitable cows from our business, and we can only do 
it by keeping careful accounts with our herds, for we cannot 
judge correctly by external appearances. The importance of 
this record keeping is very forcibly shown in the results 
obtained by Cornell University, which is doing most valuable 
service for the agriculture of not only New York, but for our 
whole country. Professor Roberts collected for the experiment 
station a herd of cows picked up as most herds are, by select- 
ing and buying about that section as best he could, and I give 
the figures from a few of the cows, which is similar to my own 
and the experience of many others that could be presented. 

The following shows the cost of support and amount and 
cost of product for one year : 



Cow. 


Food Cost. 


Milk. 


Cost of 
100 lbs. 


Butter. 


Cost 
per lb. 


Daisy 

Gem 

Beauty 

Pet 

Sue 


$41.24 
36.24 
44-24 
48.12 
49.08 


2,829 lbs. 

3.3S7 " 

8,028 " 

9.776 " 

10,754 " 


$1.48 

1.07 

•55 

•44 

.46 


159 lbs. 
197 " 
391 " 
330 " 
439 " 


$.26 
.18 

■Hi 

•13 
.11 



These conditions will be found in any dairy, and in most of 
them there will be found Daisys whose product costs more than 
it is worth. To build up a profitable dairy, select the strongest 
producers as foundation builders and they exist in everv herd — 
and from these, breed. When a dairyman enters the field of a 
breeder, he must have a much broader knowledge, for he is 
dealing with scientific principles when he attempts to raise up 
one generation that shall be better than the preceding. The 
20 



3o6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

selection of a sire is of vital importance. He must be a pure 
bred animal, for it is through him that the power of transmis- 
sion is obtained. He has the power of prepotency, the power 
to transmit his qualities, or stamp them upon his offspring. 
Something more than pedigree must be considered. The 
power of transmission is just as great in fixing poor quality as 
good, and therefore, in the selection of a sire, in addition to a 
good pedigree, there should be obtained a record of strong pro- 
duction through several generations, dams and grandams 
showing great power in their records. 

There is a dairy law, and if we would succeed, we must work 
in harmony with this law in the dairy cow. The trouble is, 
this law is poorly developed in many animals ; we have too 
many cows that are the result of no care or recognition of this 
principle or law in breeding, and they have little power to 
utilize food profitably. There are many animals in which 
this dairy law is very highly developed. Pauline Paul is one 
example; she gave in one year 18,619 pounds of milk, making 
1,154 pounds, 15 ounces butter. Another very famous Hol- 
stein cow is Reterge 2nd, who produced 30,318 pounds of 
milk in one year. Brown Bessie, the three-year-old Jersey 
heifer at the World's Fair, was making a straight record of 
1,000 pounds of butter for the year up to the time of her death. 
In these great cows, is an illustration of the possible develop- 
ment of the dairy cow, and we must know more about this and 
co-operate more with it in the future and build up strong herds 
upon this principle. 

The demand in the future will be for cheap food supplies, 
the same as for cheap manufactured articles, and we cannot 
hope to even obtain again high prices, and we must study to 
produce at lower cost and here increase our profits. Consum- 
ers in cities have a right to milk at the lowest cost, and we 
have no right to expect these consumers to pay us a profit on a 
cow's milk that costs $1.48 to produce, when milk can be pro- 
duced for 100 pounds with a profit at much less. If we are 
obliged to sell butter at twenty cents a pound to produce it 
does not necessarily imply that there can be no profit in butter 
making at that price. Consumers will not pay us a profit on 
butter that costs twenty-six cents to produce, neither will we 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 307 

pay merchants or manufacturers for goods the cost of which is 
higher because the best and most economical methods of manu- 
facture have not been used. The question of foods becomes 
one of vital importance. We must consider cows as machines, 
capable of utilizing food most profitably. The cow has quite 
as much to do with our profits as the market. Our profits 
depend quite as much on the ability of our cows to use food 
profitably, as upon the prices we receive. 

A railroad corporation does not, in these times, hitcii two 
engines to a train that one can pull, yet too man}^ of our dairy- 
men are running twenty-cow dairies that are not giving more 
product than ten ought to give. We must have cows with 
strong power of digestion and assimilation of food. Every 
animal in the World's Fair dairy test was a strong representative 
of her breed, with great power to consume food and give large 
product economically. 

The selection and combination of foods is a great study in 
itself; the individuality of animals must here be studied care- 
fully ; some are capable of consuming with profit double the 
quantity that others can. 

The dairyman must assume the place of a manufacturer. He 
must turn his corn, oats, hay, etc., — raw material — into the 
manufacturers' product of milk, cheese, and butter, and he 
must study the cow as his machine to be skilfully handled, and 
his farm crops to be economically and judiciously combined 
and fed. There are other considerations of importance in dairy 
work, and among one of the most important, is that of the 
health of the cows, in order that confidence of consumers may 
be maintained. There has been much public instruction that 
has been fallacious and misleading on the subject of close hous- 
ing of cows. The constant confinement of cows in a stable 
months at a time, is a violation of every principle of good man- 
agement, and the longer the practice is followed, the greater 
the evil that will follow. The ability of a cow to digest food 
and resist disease depends on her power of using her lungs. 
When out in the open air in the pasture, she is mo\*ing about 
drawing in strong drafts of air, expanding her lungs, giving 
greater vitality, stronger digestion and better products. Where 
cows are kept confined to their stable for months at a time, 



308 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

they are deprived of all opportunity to make exertion ; they 
fail to use their lungs, except only partially, and generations 
will be raised with no lung power, or ability to resist disease. 
Cows had far better be turned out of their stables in all sun- 
shiny days for a time, even though the temperature may be 
cold, that they may get some sunshine on their bodies and 
inhale deeply of pure air. They will bring forth far stronger 
offspring, and will not give materially less product. 

For dairymen who buy cows in the fall, milk them out and 
turn them off, close confinement 's not so objectionable, but 
for dairymen who keep their herds and raise the calves, it will 
be best to give them the open air every pleasant day, and some 
opportunity for lung exercise and muscular development. The 
future promises better things for those who will do more skil- 
ful work, and will bring the aid of a scientific knowledge to 
their methods. We have at the East population and money, 
we have easy transportation, and while the West has been 
rapidly developing, her methods are wasteful and destructive, 
and when her soil fails, as much of it is rapidly doing, the cost 
of production will be increased and our Eastern fi\rming will 
again be more profitable. 

FODDERS FOR DAIRY COWS. 

BY HON. Z. A. GILBERT, AUGUSTA, ME. 

The economic production of fodders for dairy stock is one of 
the most important matters connected with the business of 
dairying. Feed is the principal factor of cost connected with 
the care and keeping of a cow, and therefore should be the first 
to command the attention of the dairyman. Even a good cow 
has no superior value to her owner unless she can be fed at a 
profit, and any one can readily see that the margin of that 
profit is no more measured by the amount of product furnished 
in the year, than by the limit of cost of the feed that produced 
it. 

In starting out with a discussion of the subject I have chosen, 
it is important that we have a clear understanding of the term 
cost^ as applied to fodder products on the farm. Many times 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 309 

there is a wide distinction between cost and value, and in some 
cases this difference has led to erroneous figuring, and there- 
fore to false and unsound conclusions. The cost of fodder 
products to a farmer on his farm is the outlay in money or its 
equivalent involved in placing them there, whether purchased 
from outside or grown on the farm. In so far as the produc- 
tions of his own farm are concerned, the cost has no relation 
whatever to market value. But not so with fodders purchased. 
In case of grain and that sort of material, purchased to go with 
the farm-grown products, the market value, with something 
added for handling, becomes the cost to the farm, whether 
more or less than the selling value. A farmer in my state 
acquired a very handsome competency years ago in raising and 
growing up steers for sale. Figured at the selling value of hay 
and other products, every steer run him in debt ; and yet he 
made money. Being asked how he made his money, the reply 
was, that he did not know unless it was raising steers at a 
loss. Many stations have made this error of using value for 
cost in their computation of feeding problems. Especially has 
this been the case in comparisons of corn ensilage with hay. 
The ensilage is carefullv figured out at actual cost, and then 
the comparison made with hay at selling value in the market. 
But a few days ago I ran across an elaborate problem, in which 
this error ran all through it. So, in any comparison of fodders 
the feeder may grow, they should be reckoned at cost. 

Dairying on your New Hampshire farms has assumed busi- 
ness proportions. In efforts towards the development and 
extension of that business, you and all the rest of us have been 
trying to see how much product a cow can be made to furnish. 
This usually is the leading theme at conventions of this kind 
and the leading study of the farmer on his farm. Through 
these efforts, we have made great progress in this one direction. 
But, Yankee like, we are never satisfied, and where we are 
now getting an average of three hundred pounds of butter a 
year, we are trying to make it five. In all honesty I raise the 
question, whether it is not quite time to turn our attention to 
another factor of the problem. Profit is what we are all after. 
The measure of this may be quite as much enhanced by efforts 
to increase the number of cows the farm can carr}' as by the 



3IO NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

number of pounds of product from a cow. The amount, kind, 
and cost of the fodders grown for the cow becomes, then, 
quite as important to the business as does the problem to which 
we have so long and studiously been applying ourselves. Any 
reduction in the cost of fodders we may be able to make en- 
larges to the same extent the margin of profit of the business. 
Hence, I ask you to let the old cow alone for a time while we 
give a measure of attention to this other side of the problem of 
successful dairying. 

In this great question of fodders for stock, we never should 
lose sight of our location and of prevailing local conditions. 
We are thrust way up here in this northern latitude, and so 
long as this is the case, we must grow our fodders where we 
are located. Our summers are short and winters long. Of 
my own state, some wit has said that " we have but three 
months of summer, and that is late in the fall." 

The kind of crops grown for fodders must be governed by 
our location. We never can get away from this fact. And it 
is left for us to learn among ourselves what they shall be. If 
not continually on our guard, even the farm literature will be 
more misleading than instructive. Nearly all books on the 
different branches of farming, and most of the agricultural 
papers are prepared for and find their chief application in a 
belt of latitude from three to five hundred miles south of us 
here. Hence, much of their teachings, sound for the location 
for which prepared, do not find their application here, and we 
should be continually on our guard against being misled by 
them. As a matter of fact, many are misled and at great loss 
in the end. As an example, I have just been reading a new 
book on " Indian Corn Culture," in fact the onl}' book extant 
on that subject, written by Prof. Plumb of the Indiana experi- 
ment station. It is Western all through, and has much that can 
be no guide to us in New England. "• Curler's American 
Dairying " is another late work emanating from Illinois, and 
though the demands of the subject matter of this work have a 
more general application than many others, yet even this con- 
tains much that is not for us and our location. This illustrates 
the point I would make, but it is leading me from my subject, 
so I will return. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 3 II 

In this matter of the best fodder crops to grow, there has 
been nothing new brought out of late that is of special value 
to us in our location. So, I must disappoint you in not 
bringing forward anything new and formerly unknown, or that 
is remarkably valuable to the dairyman over what you have 
already been growing. We have all heard much of soja-beans, 
cow peas — which, by the way, is not a pea at all, but a bean — 
vetch, serradella, alfalfa, crimson clover, etc. This last has 
been boomed by a widely-read New York agricultural paper, 
till one might conclude, if he did not keep his head level, that 
a farmer was an old fogy gone to seed, if he did not go to work 
at once and enrich his farm at pleasure by growing and plow- 
ing in this new clover. But none of these new crops are for 
us. They find their home in a different latitude and milder 
climate than ours. Some of them may be grown here un- 
successfully, but are not the equal of those we now have 
with us. 

Hungarian grass, though not of very recent introduction, is 
the only fodder crop of all that have been introduced to our 
attention since the days of our fathers, that stands recommended, 
and proves to be an acquisition. This is a profitable crop for 
the dairyman to grow, and more will be said of it before I get 
through. 

Though we are located up here in this northern belt, yet our 
situation is not altogether bad. Nature has her compensations 
wherever the location. As an economical fodder crop for us 
here in the North, nothing equals our common grasses. Here 
they grow in the greatest profusion. They are everywhere 
with us and about us. So common is this humble grass, and 
so easily is it grown, that we are inclined to overlook its great 
economic value and the ease and surety with which it is pro- 
duced as a farm crop. The warmer climate and longer sum- 
mers, of what we sometimes are inclined to feel is a more de- 
sirable section of our common country, may grow a wider 
range of products, but they cannot match here in the north this 
best and most valuable of all stock fodders. It is an interesting 
fact to note in passing, that as we go south, the dense grass sod so 
vigorous, so beautiful, so tenacious of life here, gradually thins 
out and weakens till finally lost entirely to the natural vegetable 



312 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

growth. This is nature's compensation to go with our rigor- 
ous winters and short summers. 

I have said that we are inclined to overlook the importance 
of the grass crop in our farm economy (and in the term grass 
as here used, I include the clovers). I am here to claim that 
on the strong New Hampshire and Maine soils there is no crop 
know to our agriculture with which we can grow stock fod- 
der at so small cost as with grass ; and further, there is no crop 
grown among us in which the food nutrients are stored in form 
and in proportions so well to meet the wants of the stock for 
which it is produced. Thus it is above all others the natural 
food of our domestic animals. These are facts it is well for 
farmers to hold in mind. The more I have grown and fed this 
crop on my own farm and watched the results, the more has 
my appreciation of its superior economic value to the farm 
been forced home to my convictions. 

I am quite well aware that some of you are not now quite 
ready to follow me in full with my placing the grass crop at 
the head of the list as a low cost fodder crop. The fact is, the 
stations and many prominent farmers following their lead have 
been experimenting largely with corn and other fodder crops, 
and farmers, many of them — most of them, have been so taken 
up with the reports of their success, that though bulletins and 
newspaper articles have been so freely spread before the peo- 
ple, for the time they have lost sight of the old-fashioned 
crop of grass. I give the corn, and the oats, and the peas the 
full value these experiments have shown, and I credit the sta- 
tions and the corn growers with the great work they have done 
in bringing out the fodder value of the crops they have been 
experimenting with. But above them all, and over all, stands 
the greater economy of grass as a fodder crop, and I ask your 
indulgence further while I show you some facts and figures in 
proof of my position. 

In aid of a knowledge of the comparative value of fodder 
crops, the stations have done a great work. Professor Jordan, 
director of the Maine Experiment station, conducted a series 
of experiments with the view of a comparison of the acreable 
yield of actual food contents of several different kinds of crops 
used for stock fodder. The crops were grown for the purpose 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 



3^3 



on the station farm. For the purpose of comparison witii the 
grass crop, I call your attention to some of the results of his 
work. All of you know that the measure of food value of a 
fodder is in its digestible food contents. I give here the average 
results of some of the fodder crops adapted to our locality, and 
add such others as I wish to call your attention to : 





Digestible dry matter per acre. 




Protein 
lbs. 


Carbohy- 
drates lbs. 


Fat lbs. 


Total 
lbs. 


Maine corn, average of seven years, 
one acre 


245 
370 
270 


2,749 
2,563 
3,100 


82 

87 
8c 


3,076 
3,020 

3,450 
2,000 


Mixed grasses, three tons, air dry. . . 
Hungarian hay, three tons 


Oats hay, 2 1^ tons (estimated) 


Pea vines 











Oat straw and its grain 





















These figures seem to give an idea of the approximate com- 
parative feeding value of an acre of the several crops named in 
the tabulation. We all know from years of experience the 
feeding value of good hay from our upland soils. We know 
about how much a cow will eat of it, we know what it will do 
for her ; in short, we know all about its value as a fodder. 
Hence, hay becomes a good basis for comparison with the other 
crops named. In such comparison, it takes a high, if not the 
leading, position. Hay it will be borne in mind is simply 
grass dried, grass minus the most of its water. Hence, hay and 
grass are interchangeable terms for practically the same fodder. 

Three tons of mixed hay to the acre — or the grass that will 
make it — under generous treatment of the land, and with this 
as the special crop in view, is neither hard to find nor difficult 
to reach, and in seasons not unfavorable, in the two crops is 
frequently exceeded. I am aware that you will at once recall 
the fact that the general average at large of this crop in your 
state and in mine is only about a ton to the acre. But that is 
under the let-alone system that leaves the fields many years to 
the crop without attention. Good crops of any kind are not 



314 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

grown under that system. On our agricultural college farm, 
where every load of hay is weighed when it goes into the barn, 
on lands hoed the previous year, for years in succession, they 
have averaged of mixed clover and the grasses three and a quar- 
ter tons of hay to the acre in the first crop. Fields producing 
such crops will give a second crop to be fed oft' or mowed, of 
at least a ton to the acre. Many other farmers are doing just 
as well as this. I have in mind a farm where the soil is devoted 
exclusively to grass production. It is not done by top-dressing 
but by plowing, manuring, and reseeding. It is not a special 
grass soil, but in several instances I have seen the extreme 
amount named taken from the fields in a season in two crops. 
I am not an intensive farmer myself, carrying on a large farm 
as I do, yet tlie past summer I have taken three and a half tons 
in two crops from my best managed fields. This shows what 
the grass crop is doing for us when that is made the leading 
object. But if there is any one here who claims these crops 
named are too large to draw safe conclusions from, for his ben- 
efit we will come down to the common crop of two tons to the 
acre, and still, on our low-priced lands, the economy of this fod- 
der product will be found hard to match with any other crop 
adapted to our situation. And with good farming on natural 
grass soils, this quantity is sometimes the average on the entire 
farm, and with but little labor involved in keeping it up. 

But the yield of food material to the acre is not the only 
measure ot the economic value of this crop. From the nature 
of its growth and the consequent methods called for in its man- 
agement, the labor cost required in its production is compara- 
tively small. It needs no Breed's weeder, sulky cultivator, nor 
hand hoe. The seed put into a properly- prepared seed bed 
sprouts, grows, and cares for itself till its rich treasure of nutri- 
ents is ready for the harvest. This crop is so common with us, 
and we have so long been the recipients of its many advantages 
that I fear we are inclined to overlook the comparatively small 
outlay called for in its production. 

In the harvest, it again has an advantage over most other 
crops. On our smooth fields, in good grass, it need not cost 
over a dollar a ton to cut, cure and store the hay for safe-keep- 
ing till wanted for use. One of the large growers in my state? 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 315 

and a careful figurer. says he could not afford to pay other par- 
ties seventy-five cents a ton to have his crop covered in. 

Now, then, go back to the chart, and you see that an acre of 
good grass equals or excels in food nutrients, in kind and qual- 
ity, an acre of any other of the cultivated crops that can be 
grown in our climate. Then take into the account the small out- 
lay involved in its cultivation and the small cost of harvesting 
and storing, and the economic importance of the crop is plainly 
apparent. No one can fail to admit that it leads any and all 
other crops known to our New England agriculture as a low 
cost, readily available fodder, while at the same time the con- 
stituent elements in its composition are such as best meet the 
full wants of our domestic animals. Truly, grass is the great 
fodder crop of the North. Yet, at the present time, few of us 
seem to be aware of what the crop can do for us under an in- 
tensive system of culture. 

In the early years of the introduction of the dollar-a-pound 
butter business in the neighboring state of Vermont, grass was 
the almost exclusive reliance for the cows engaged in that fancy 
work. With a trifling addition of cornmeal to keep up the 
flesh of the animals, it was grass fresh, sweet, and nutritious for 
the summer feed, and grass dried and carefully stored, sweet 
and fragrant, for the winter diet. With all our study of cotton- 
seed meal, linseed, gluten, and shorts, and with the silo and its 
sunflower mixture and Professor Conn's bacillus 41 thrown in, 
we have not excelled the texture, color, and delectable aroma of 
the golden prints made and colored from the sweet grasses 
grown on the Green Mountain hillsides. 

Hungarian grass is a fodder crop worthy of more attention 
from dairymen than it has ever yet received. This is a variety 
of millet. It is a curious fact, that of all the many fodder 
plants that of late have been introduced for trial since the days 
of our fathers, this is the only one that has stood the test of our 
Northern location, and has proved worth retaining. And it is 
a question still, whether even this one has any advantages over 
what may as well be secured through modified methods of cul- 
ture of the clovers and the grasses. Hungarian, however, is a 
valuable fodder crop. Its points of merits are : 

I. It is 1-ich in food nutrients. In this regard it is better 



3l6 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTUUE. 

than timothy or other English grasses, as is shown by its food 
contents given on the chart. 

2. It is palatable. Cows, cattle, and other stock of all 
kinds eat it well, both in a green and in a dry state. 

3. // isjine strawed. From an economical standpoint, this 
is a high qualification. As a result, it is easily dried by sun- 
power, when it is desired to store it for future use, and also, 
stock eat it better and cleaner from being thus fine in straw. 

4. // is a hot weather plant and groivs quickly. It should 
not be seeded till the middle of June, so that the work involved 
comes after all the other work of seeding is over and out of the 
way. Also in the harvest, the hay and the grain are safely 
housed before this calls for attention. Thus it fits into the vacant 
places to advantage, and calls for no hoeing while growing. 

5. It yields large crops to the acre. On a good soil thor- 
oughly prepared, three tons to the acre is easily secured. The 
instructor in dairying at our college dairy school says that in 
his private farming, he harvested eighteen tons from four and a 
half acres. Reference to the chart shows that the common 
crop of three tons to the acre furnishes more actual cow food 
than an acre of well-grown corn. Taking into the account the 
small outlay of labor required in the raising of the crop, and 
the large yield of food nutrients to the acre, Hungarian must 
be placed next to the grasses as a low-cost fodder crop for the 
dairy farmer. Where its merits have been learned, it is receiv- 
ing the increased attention it deserves. 

Corn, as a fodder crop, has greatly gained in favor of late, 
as cheaper methods of culture and less costly ways of handling 
have been learned. Of it I need not say much. You know all 
about it. It has its home on the warm, corn loams, grows on 
a larger scale, and involves the silo in which to preserve it for 
future use. Its economy, as a fodder crop, is largely in the 
important place it fills in a rotation, and in its adaptation to a 
class of soils where grass is not at its best. As a grain crop, 
it also holds a needed place ; so that while it must be set to a 
subordinate place to grass and Hungarian as a low-cost fodder 
crop, yet it has enough to its credit in other respects to give it 
the appreciation it has among all good farmers, and with none 
more than with myself. 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 317 

Oats are a low grade fodder crop, but are so easily and 
cheaply produced, that under certain conditions they are a desir- 
able crop to grow to feed either in a green state or dried into 
hay. The average yield of food nutrients is not as large 
as with the several crops previously named, and beside 
the larger proportion of the material is of the less valuable 
kind. So far as I know, the stations have done very little work 
on this fodder crop, so all the data from which to draw, is the 
judgment of those who have grown and used the crop. So few 
analyses have been made of this kind of fodder, that without a 
knowledge of the condition of the crop and the stage of matur- 
ity when cut, there is little to rely upon in that direction. I 
have grown and fed the fodder several years. Fed in a green 
state, it has been quite satisfactory. To dry for hay, it should 
not be cut till the field begins to tinge with yellow. But my 
experience in feeding out hay has led me to the conclusion that 
more stock food will be realized by letting the oats stand till 
full. Cut at the right stage of ripeness, there is more stock food 
in the grain and in the straw combined than in the hay form ; 
and the straw, bright, clean, and sweet, is as palatable to stock 
as when earlier cut. I am now feeding my cows a light feed of 
such fodder each day. 

To show at what low cost this crop can be produced, and 
clover and the mixed grasses as well, I will give you a little of 
my experience in the two last years. I had a field of two and 
a half acres fairly well prepared, which was planted to sweet 
corn. The seed proved poor, and there not being a stand of 
corn sufficient for a profitable crop, the whole thing was har- 
rowed up the first of June and sowed to oats for fodder, and 
seeded to clover and grass. I cut three two-horse loads from 
the field to feed green, and the rest was dried for hay. The 
weather was fine, and the fodder was thoroughly dried. From 
the field was taken nine two-horse loads of the dry fodder as 
large as we could possibly put on. This past season, of the 
clover and the mixed grasses, we cut in two crops three and a 
half tons of hay to the acre. In the cutting and making of 
this hay, no other tool but the mower and the rake touched it till 
the forks were used to pitch it on the carts. Next year I shall get 
another good crop though not quite as heavy. Now, where is 



3l8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

the farmer who does not know that with liberal manuring, this 
three years rotation can be substantially repeated indefinitely? 

SUMMER FODDERS. 

On the cheap lands here in the East, there is no keep for cows, 
at so low cost, as pasturage. Nor is there any manage- 
ment that keeps them in so natural and therefore healthy condi- 
tion as that which allows them to roam the pastures and crop 
their feed from the soil where it grew. Theory of soiling in 
summer looks well. One can sit down in an office, make the 
butter, and feed the cows with a pencil, and figure out an 
immense advantage from growing the more productive crops 
and feeding them to the cows in the barn. But when put to 
the test of practice, the calculated results and the balances 
actually obtained do not always " prove." The fact is, that 
pasturage on our low-priced lands costs but a trifle, and so little 
that nothing else can match it. But our pastures do not in 
general furnish a full supply of grass for the entire pasturing 
season. Even in the seasons most favorable for its production, 
the growth falls off in the later summer, and unless new pas- 
tures are available, the supply of feed runs short and the flow of 
milk falls off. Many of our old pastures long in grazing fail to 
furnish such bounty of feed as the wants of the cows call for 
even in the flush of their growth. To do good work at produc- 
tion, cows must be provided from some source with all the feed 
needed at all times. It does not answer to have an abundance 
one month of the year and then allow the supply to run 
short the next. The right course and the course that brings 
the owner the greatest profit, is to feed them enough every day 
in the year. So long as our pastures do not supply this, it thus 
becomes necessary to make up the deficiency from other 
sources. Hence a partial soiling, or feeding, from stored 
fodders, is a necessity on all dairy farms. Whatever the 
pastures fail to furnish must be made up. In my own case, I 
fed my herd of cows at the barn last summer every night for the 
season. 

Now, what crops to grow for this summer feed, becomes an 
important question. The idea is quite widely held that among 
the many new fodder plants whose wonderful merits have been 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 319 

SO industriously heralded abroad, there must be something 
especially desirable for this summer feed. But let me say that 
even for this purpose, there is nothing that we want save what 
I have already named. 

It is desirable, of course, that this summer soiling feed be 
available as early in the season as practicable. But the com- 
mon opinion entertained that a food article is more valuable 
for the purpose in its watery and succulent condition, cut 
directly from the field, is in part an error. A good mow of 
bright, clean, sweet hay is the cheapest and best fodder for 
this early feeding that is within our reach. In the time that 
the early pasture grasses are so immature and watery, this 
supplementary food is better dry. It is eaten better, and better 
relished, and seems to meet the natural wants of the cows 
better than a watery fodder. I do not hesitate to lay it down, 
that hay is the most desirable soiling fodder for the early 
summer use. Up here in your state, you needn't trouble 
yourselves about winter rye for an early fodder crop, for 
neither in quality nor economy can it match your hay crop. It 
does one good to see how the cows relish a feed of dry hay 
after having fed in pasture through the day in early June. 

Clover is the crop earliest ready for use of anything we can 
grow here in our latitude. On a warm soil made rich, this will 
attain a growth that may be cut for feeding at the barn as early 
as the loth of June. The common grasses will make, possi- 
bly, as heavy growth by that time, but will be less mature. 
Clover taken ofi' thus early will make a second crop quite as 
heavy and well matured for another harvest, early in August. 
And, remember, out of the two crops, you get an amount of 
food nutrients to the acre equal to anything in the form of a 
crop that we can grow. 

This clover can be cut from till the first of July, when what 
remains can be cured and stored for use when needed. Mean- 
while, the other grasses have come on aud furnish the feed in 
suitable condition to cut from till nearly or quite up to the first 
of August. 

Oats, or the same mixed with peas, come in here to fill a prob- 
able gap following grass. Though not so rich a fodder as clover 
and the grasses, yet, in my own practice, I have found the crop 



320 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

a desirable one. This is cheaply produced and comes in as a 
preparatory crop, in rotation, for the clover to follow. This 
crop may be brought along suitable to begin to cut by the 25th 
of July, and one seeding will continue in condition for use 
about ten days. By a second seeding later, this crop can be 
made to furnish its supply up to the middle of August. If one 
has never tried this crop, he vv^ill be surprised at the amount of 
fairly good fodder a rank and tall-growing variety of oats will 
furnish to the acre, and also at the low cost at which it can be 
produced, 

Hungarian grass, sown the middle of June, in sixty days, 
or about the middle of August, will be sufficiently mature to 
begin to cut for soiling purposes, and will continue fresh and 
green for another ten days ; and if a second sowing a week 
later is made, it will fill the time, if needed, till September. 
This will be found an excellent crop for the purpose, and 
cheaply grown. 

Corn now comes in for its place as the great soiling crop 
of the country. By the last of August — and earlier, if desira- 
ble, — varieties grown for the purpose will be sufficiently mature 
to begin to feed, and may be depended on through successive 
plantings and different varieties till October, or up to such time 
as the frost places its withering touch on all tender vegetation. 
If a frost occurs, the corn can be at once cut and put in shock, 
from which it can be fed with substantially the same results as 
when fed green. 

After the advent of frost, we still have that best and cheapest 
of all crops — the grass — to rely upon. It also may come in to 
fill any gap that may occur between the crops that have been 
named. In its second crop, either cut green from the field, or 
previously dried and stored, it comes along to fill a place of 
need as no other crop can do. 

Barley is sometimes recommended for a late green fodder 
crop, since it will stand heavy frosts without injury. But the 
economy of any late sown crop, depending on autumn growth, 
is yet to be proved, and for two reasons. One is, that in Au- 
gust and September the weather is frequently too dry to force a 
rapid growth on such young plants, and the crop will be a par- 
tial failure in consequence. Another is, that autumn is the 



GRANITE STATE DAIRYMEN S ASSOCIATION. 32I 

wrong end of the year in which to make a success of growing 
forage crops. As a consequence, all such cropping is carried 
on to disadvantage, and the resulting products are correspond- 
ingly costly. We can grow fodders at less cost and get larger 
yields in the season natural to their growth. 

Two crops a year on the same land is a taking theory, and 
one on which there is much said and written. But here, again, 
we are handicapped by our short seasons. There is n't time 
to go into this matter in detail now, for I have already drawn 
out this subject at too great a length. So, for short, I will say 
that grass is the only product of which we can successfully and, 
therefore profitably, grow two crops a vear from the same soil. 
Under intensive culture, this can be done with marked success, 
even here in the North. 

I have thus gone over the list of crops best adapted here in 
our northern locality for the feeding of cows, both winter and 
summer. Whether the one or the other should be given promi- 
nence, depends on conditions peculiar to each individual farmer, 
and can only be determined by himself. If you want stock 
fodder with the smallest possible outlay of man labor, grass 
will give it to you. If you have the corn loams, warm and 
friable, or you want to work your land in rotation, corn is the 
crop. If you want to work your teams and your men in the 
interim of time between other pressing labor in June and in 
August, the Hungarian is the crop to do it with. Other con- 
ditions will, at times, let in the peas or the oats. As you 
thus study to fill your time and work your land to the best 
advantage, so will you be prospered in your dairy work. 

Gentlemen, I thank you for the attentive audience you have 
given me. 

J. L. Gerrish, 

Secretary, 
21 



N. H. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hon. N. J. Bachelder, 

Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture^ 

Concord^ N. H. : 
My Dear Sir : In accordance with the provisions of the 
laws of New Hampshire, I have the honor to submit to you for 
publication in the Agricultural report for iS95-'96 the report of 
the Transactions of the New Hampshire Horticultural Society 
for those years. 

Yours respectfully, 

W. D. Baker, 

Secretary. 



OFFICERS FOR i895-'96. 



President. — C. C. Shaw, Milford. 
Vice-President. — J. W. Fair, Littleton. 

Secretary. — W. D. Baker, QLiincy. 

Treasurer. — T. E. Hunt, Lakeport. 

Directors. — G. F. Beede, Fremont ; J. M. Hayes, Dover; 
J. L. Davis, Centre Barnstead ; Alonzo Towle, Freedom ; J. T. 
Harvey, Fittsfield ; E. M. vSliaw, Nashua ; Harvey Jewell, 
Winchester ; Charles McDaniel, Springfield ; T. S. Pulsifer, 
Plymouth ; J. D. Howe, Lancaster. 

Executive Committee. — President and Secretary, eA--(9^c/t) ; 
J. D. Howe, Lancaster ; J. T. Harvey, Pittsfield ; Adam 
Dickey, Manchester. 

Committee on JVotnenclature. — J. M. Hajes, Dover ; George 
F. Beede, Fremont ; A. T. Sanger, Concord. 

Entomologist. — Prof. C. M. Weed, Durham. 

Mycologist. — Prof. H. H. Lamson, Durham. 

The first public meeting of the society in 1895 was held at 
Concord, January 23, the first session being held in the after- 
noon, at Grand Army Hall, and the evening session in Repre- 
sentatives' Hall. The afternoon meeting was opened by a brief 
address by President C. C. Shaw, describing the organization 
and object of the society, and then the president introduced 
Hon. Henry Robinson, mayor of Concord, who delivered an 
address of welcome, which was responded to by the secretary, 
W. D. Baker. 

Addresses were made by George M. Beede, of Fremont, on 
"Small Fruits"; Z. Breed, of Weare, on "Packages and 
Packing Fruit for Market," and President C. C. Shaw, on 
"General Fruit Culture." 

Prof. C, M. Weed, of Durham, then delivered a most val- 
uable address on "Insects Injurious to Plants and Vines." 



326 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The evening meeting, at Representatives' Hall, was quite 
successful. Prof. S. T. Maynard of Amherst, Mass., was the first 
speaker, and gave an address on " Fruit Culture in New Eng- 
land." A discussion followed the address, and then Prof. C. M. 
Weed, of Durham, spoke on "•' Fungus Diseases." A discussion 
followed, and then the subject of setting out orchards was taken 
up by Secretary Baker, and discussed by President Shaw and 
others. The subject of keeping winter fruit came up, and 
Professor Maynard gave a very interesting account of the cold- 
storage method employed at the Massachusetts College, at 
Amherst. 

The thanks of the society were unanimously extended to 
Professors Maynard and Weed for the addresses delivered, and 
the first institute meeting was brought to a close. 

Through the efforts of the friends of the society, the legisla- 
ture made an appropriation of $300 per year for the two fol- 
lowing years, and it was accordingly decided to accept the 
invitation of the Concord Commercial Club, and hold the second 
annual exhibit at Concord, October i, 2, and 3, at the City Hall, 
and the premium list was revised, and liberal inducements 
offered for exhibits of fruit, vegetables, plants, and ffowers. 

The first day was devoted mainly to installing and arranging 
the exhibits, which were quite numerous, considering the great 
scarcity of apples in the state, there being 41S entries. 

The exhibit was formally opened on the morning of the 
second day, by President Shaw, who spoke briefly of the objects 
and aims of the society, and then introduced H. H. Metcalf, 
secretary of the Concord Commercial Club, who, in the absence 
from the city of Mayor Robinson, delivered an address of wel- 
come, which was responded to by Secretary Baker. President 
Shaw then called upon Dr. H. H. Lamson, of the Experiment 
Station at Durham, who told something of the work being done 
at the station. 

The features of the exhibit were the fine display of hardy 
apples made by J. D. Howe and others, of Lancaster, the 
exhibit of fruit made by President Shaw, and the floral and 
plant exhibits made by George Main, and W. L. Wilson, of 
Concord. The New Hampshire Experiment Station also made 
a fine and instructive exhibit, illustrating the results of the uses 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 327 

of insecticides and fungicides, which attracted much attention, 
and was under the personal supervision of Professor Lamson. 
The following is a list of premiums awarded : 

PREMIUM LIST. 



Alexander: ist, VV. C. Hodgdon, Lancaster; 3d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Fameuse : ist, J. M. Stewart, Concord; 2d, J. C. Mills, 
Dunbarton. 

Gravenstein : ist, Oilman Bros., Exeter. 

Holland Pippins: 2d, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 

Duchess of Oldenburg : ist, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster; 
2d, J. W. Farr, Littleton. 

Mcintosh Red: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton; 2d, C. W. 
Hunt, Oilford. 

Porter: ist, C. W. Cheesman, Lancaster; 2d, C. A. Hol- 
den, Rumney. 

Twenty Ounce: ist, C. C. Smart, Rumney. 

Jersey Sweet: 2d, J. W. Farr, Littleton. 

Hawthornden : 2d, J. P. Wallace, Quincy. 

Sweet Pearmain : 2d, C. C Smart, Rumnev. 

Green Sweet: ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill; 2d, C. C. 
Smart, Rumney. 

Paradise Sweet: 2d, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Johns Sweet; ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill. 

St. Lawrence: ist, C. L. Wilder, Lancaster; 2d, W. S. 
Leonard, Rumnej'. 

Gideon : ist, J. C. Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Fall Jenneting: 2d, J. B. Rowell, Lancaster. 

Canada Renniette : ist, J. W. Farr, Littleton. 

Summer Sweet : W. D. Baker, Qiiincy. 

Beefsteak: ist, W. D. Baker, Quincy. 

General display of Winter Apples: ist, W. D. Baker, 
Quincy. 

Baldwin: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, J. P. Wallace, 
Quincy. 



328 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Ben Davis: ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill; 2d, J. D. Howe 
& Son, Lancaster. 

Colvert : ist, J. P. Wallace, Quincy. 

Danvers Sweet: 2d, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Esopus Spitzenburg: ist, E. A. Webster, Rumney ; 2d, 
Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill. 

Golden Pippin : E. P. Cone, Rumney. 

Golden Russet: ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill; 2d, C. C. 
Smart, Rumney. 

Black Gilliflower: ist, W. D. Baker, Qiiincy. 

Hubbardston : ist, C. A. Holden, Rumney; 2d, E. R. Gal- 
ley, Quincy. 

King: 1st, Gilman Bros., Exeter; 2d, E. P. Cone, Rum- 
ney. 

Mother: ist, W. H. Caldwell, Peterboro. 

Spy: ist, J. P. Wallace, Qiiincy ; 2d, T. S. Pulsifer, 
Campton. 

Newton Pippin : 2d, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Nodhead : ist, W. D. Baker, Qiiincy; 2d, J. D. Howe 
& Son, Lancaster. 

Pewaukee : ist, E. A. Webster, Rumney; 2d, Geo. W. 
Dearborn, Hill. 

Pound Sweet: ist, J. S. Peavey, Lancaster; 2d, W. D. 
Baker, Qiiincy. 

Pearmain : ist, J. B. Rowell, Lancaster; 2d, W. C. Hodg- 
son, Lancaster. 

Rhode Island Greening : ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill ; 2d, 
T. S. Pulsifer, Campton. 

Roxbury Russet : ist, Gilman Bros., Exeter; 2d, Geo. W. 
Dearborn, Hill. 

Flushing Spitzenburg: 2d, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 

Tolman Sweet: ist, Geo. W. Dearborn, Hill; 2d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Wealthy: ist, G. S. Wilder, Lancaster; 2d, J. W. Farr, 
Littleton. 

Yellow Bellflower : ist, Gilman Bros., Exeter; 2d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Swaar : ist, Gilman Bros., Exeter. 

Stark : ist, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 329 

Fallawater : 1st, C. W. Cheesman, Lancaster; 2cl, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Haas: 2d, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster. 
Sheepnose : ist, W. D. Baker, Qiiincy. 



Display of pears : Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Bartlett : zd, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Belle Lucrative: ist, Fred C. Gowing, Dublin; 2d, Chas. 
G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Beurre Bosc : ist, Fred C. Gowing, Dublin; 2d, Chas G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Beurre Clairgeau : ist, Mrs. T. F. Robinson, Concord; 2d, 
B. F. Virgin, Concord. 

Beurre de Anjou : ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, Mrs. 
T. F. Robinson, Concord. 

Buffum : ist, George F. Beede, Fremont; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Clapp's Favorite: 2d, Charles G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Duchess de Bordeau : ist, A. T. Sanger, Concord; 2d, 
A. W. Gale, Concord. 

Doyenne Bousock : ist, R. D. Gay, Manchester. 

Flemish Beauty: ist, Fred C. Gowing, Dublin; 2d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

GIou Morceau : ist, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Concord. 

Howell: ist, R. D. Gay, Manchester. 

Lawrence: ist, Geo. F. Beede, Fremont; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Louise Bonne de Jersey: ist, Mrs. T. F. Robinson, Con- 
cord ; 2d, J. C. A. Hill, Concord. 

Mount Vernon : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Onondaga: ist, J. M. Stewart, Concord; 2d, Geo. Main, 
Concord. 

Duchess: ist, Mrs. Geo. E. Todd, Concord. 

Seckel : ist, Mary L. Corning, Concord; 3d, Fred C. 
Gowing, Dublin. 

Seedling: ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Sheldon: ist, R. D. Gay, Manchester; 2d, Geo. F. Beede, 
Fremont. 



330 NEW HAMPSHIRFi; AGRICULTURE. 

St. Michael: ist, Geo. Main, Concord. 
Tyson: ist, Chas. G. Piilsbury, Londonderry. 
Urbaniste : ist, Geo. Main, Concord. 
Winter Nelis: ist, Geo. F. Beede, Fremont. 
Vicar: ist. Home for the Aged, Concord; 2d, Geo. F, 
Beede, Fremont. 

GRAPES. 

General exhibit: ist, J. N. Sanborn, Sanbornton. 

Brighton: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d. J. N. Sanborn, 
Sanbornton. 

Concord: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, J. N. Prince, 
Ambers . 

Delaware: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d. Mrs. J. H. 
Sargent, Concord. 

Isabella : ist, J. N. Sanborn, Sanbornton. 

Niagara: ist, Geo. F. Beede, Fremont. 

Worden : ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord ; 2d, Geo. F. Beede, 
Fremont. 

New Seedlings: ist, J. N. Sanborn, Sanbornton. 

PEACHES. 

Crawford Late: ist, J. U. Prince, Amherst. 
Crosby: ist, Geo. F. Beede, Fremont. 
Nixon : ist, A. W. Gale, Concord. 

Rareripe: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton ; 2d, Michael Cham- 
bers, Concord. 

Blood Seedling: ist, F. F. Fisk, Mast Yard. 
Stump: 1st, J. U. Prince, Amlierst. 

VEGETABLES. 

General Exhibit Vegetables : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

BEETS. 

Egyptian: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 

Eclipse: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford; 2d, John M. Potter, 
East Concord. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 33I 

Edmunds: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Arlington Favorite: ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord. 

Mangel Wurtzel : ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord. 

CABBAGES. 

All Seasons: 1st, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown ; 2d, Geo. M. 
Wooster, Concord. 

Fottlers Brunwick : ist, Dennis Brodeau, Concord. 

Red : 1st, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord. 

Marblehead Mammoth: ist, Dennis Brodeau, Concord. 

Drumhead : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Savoy Drumhead : ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord. 

Succession: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

CARROTS. 

Danvers : ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord ; 2d, C. C. Shaw, 
Milford. 

Long Orange: ist, vS. B. Gilchrist, Goflstown. 
Short Horn: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 
Chetenay : ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 
Early Scarlet Forung : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 



Grant Paschal: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Golden Self Blanching : ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 

SWEET CORN. 

Crosby: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Mexican : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Stowells Evergreen : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Burbanks Early Maine: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Watermelons: ist, I. L. Emerson, Concord. 

ONIONS. 

Danvers: ist, Joseph Dow, Bow; 2d, S. B. Gilchrist, 
Goffstown. 

Silver: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 



332 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



PARSNIPS. 

Arlington: ist, C C. Shaw, Milford. 

Hollow Crown: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Abbotts Improved: ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord. 

PUMPKINS. 

Field: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, East Concord; zd, Clar- 
ence C. Sanborn, East Concord. 

Sugar: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, East Concord. 

Sweet: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, East Concord. 

Display of Potatoes: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn. 

Early Rose: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton ; 3d, Fleming 
Mosee, Concord. 

Beauty of Hebron : ist, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Burbank Seedling: ist, J. H. Stewart, Concord. 

White Star: ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

New Queen : ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 

Stray Beauty : ist, John M. Potter, East Concord. 

Irish Daisy: ist, Charles B. Flanders, Concord. 

White Delaware: ist, J. C. Mills, Dunbarton. 

SQUASHES. 

Hubbard: ist, Joseph Dow, Bow; 2d, C. H. Morgan, Con- 
cord. 

Marblehead: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Bay State: ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord; 2d, C. C. 
Shaw, Milford. 

Marrow: ist, C. H. Morgan, Concord; 2d, C. C. Shaw, 
Milford. 

Dunlap : ist, I. L. Emerson & Son, Concord; 2d, Joseph 
Dow, Bow. 

Turban: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Sibley: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Essex Hybrid: ist, Geo. M. Wooster, Concord; 2d, C. C. 
Shaw, Milford. 

Fordhook: ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 

Faxon: ist, I. L. Emerson, Concord; 2d, C. C. Shaw, 
Milford. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 333 

Warren : 2d, C. C. Shaw, Milford. 
Delicata : ist, J. B. Walker, Concord. 

TOMATOES, ETC. 

Rogers Giant: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Aristocrat: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Dwarf Champion : ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Stone: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goftstown. 
Ignotum : ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 
White Star Lettuce: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Savoy Spinach : ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 
Sweet Potatoes : ist, Fleming Mosee, Concord. 
Salsify : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 
Display of seeds: ist, H. F. Paul, Concord. 

PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

General Exhibit of Flowers : ist, Geo. Main, Concord. 

General Exhibit of Plants: ist, Geo. Main, Concord; 2d, 
Mrs. J. S. Sargent, Concord ; 3d, G. J. Benedict, Concord ; 
Special, Wm. S. Wilson, Concord. 

Exhibit of Geraniums : 2d, Mrs. J. S. Sargent, Concord. 

Exhibit of Pansies : ist, C. C. Shaw, Milford: 2d, Mrs. 
Harry Leighton, Concord. 

Racincis : Special, Morton M. Cheney, Concord. 

Potted Strawberry with fruit: Special, Joseph Dow, Bow. 

The association was under obligations to Mr. H. H. Metcalf, 
Mr. A. T. Sanger, and others, for assistance rendered. 

The exhibit was a fine one and was pronounced by all a 
credit to the state. 

MEETING AT MEREDITH. 

In accordance with an invitation from Winnepesaukee 
grange of Meredith, an institute meeting was held at the Town 
Hall in Meredith Feb. 19, 1896. 

There were two sessions, afternoon and evening, which 
were quite fully attended, and a great deal of interest was 
manifested. 



334 N^^ HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The afternoon meeting was opened by President C. C. 
Shaw, who delivered an address on " Fruit Culture in New 
Hampshire," which was very instructive, and called up quite 
a discussion. 

Professor C. M. Weed, of Durham, then gave an address on 
"■ Insects Injurious to Fruit," which was listened to with the 
closest attention, and at the close the professor was kept busy 
for some time answering the many questions that the subject 
brought out. 

Secretary Baker spoke on judging fruit by score card at 
exhibits, illustrating by scoring several plates of apples which 
were exhibited. 

Qiiite a number of varieties of apples were brought in for 
identification or name, and the afternoon session closed with a 
discussion on varieties most profitable to raise in New Hamp- 
shire. 

The evening meeting was opened by President Shaw and 
the speakers were Prof. C. M. Weed of Durham, who spoke 
on "Insecticides and Fungicides " and Prof. F. Wm. Rane, 
also of the College, who spoke mainly on the advantages and 
methods of irrigation for fruit and gave a very interesting 
account of the experiments at the West Virginia and Maryland 
stations in that line. 

There was also a question box, which was opened by Prof. 
Weed and answered by the speakers and others. Extended 
discussion followed each address and the meeting was very 
successful. 

The third annual exhibit was held at Phenix Hall, Concord, 
Sept. 22, 23 and 24, 1896, at the invitation of the Concord Com- 
mercial Club. The display of plants made by the florists. 
Main, Wilson, and Colby, and also by the N. H. Asylum for 
the Insane, was pronounced by good judges as the finest ever 
seen in tlie state, and the entries of fruit were much larger than 
ever before, there being about 2500 exhibits. 

President C. C. Shaw again entered his fruit for " exhibition 
only" and made a ver}^ meritorious display, which fully occupied 
one of the large tables. The expert judge, Mr. Warren Fenno, 
of Boston, found it a very difficult task to examine such a large 
exhibit where so many meritorious plates of fruit competed, 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 335 

there being more than one hundred and thirty varieties of 
apples alone, but his awards gave good satisfaction. 
The following is a list of the premiums awarded : 

PREMIUM LIST, 1896. 

General Exhibit Summer Apples: 3d, J. D. Howe & Son, 
Lancaster. 

General Exhibit Fall Apples: ist, J. D. Howe & Son, 
Lancaster; 2d, W. D. Baker, Quincy. 

General Exhibit Winter Apples : ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere ; 
2d, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster; 3d, W, D. Baker, Quincy. 
Strawberry: ist, W. D. Baker, Quincy. 
Sweet Bow: ist, W. H, Stinson, Dunbarton. 
Red Astrachan : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 
Alexander: ist, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster; 2d, J. W. 
Farr, Littleton. 

Autumn Strawberry: ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton ; 2d, 
W. H. Stinson, Dunbarton. 

Foundling: ist, J. C. Mills, North Dunbarton; 2d, Samuel 
F. Frescott, Concord. 

Fameuse : ist, Joseph E. Shepard, West Concord ; 2d, Geo. 
E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Gravenstein : ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere ; 3d, J. H. Stewart, 
Concord. 

Holland Pippin : ist, J. W. Farr, Littleton. 
Maiden's Blush : ist, Frank E. Dimond, West Concord ; 2d, 
H. H. Crowell, Hopkinton. 

Duchess of Oldenburg : ist. Miss H. A. Harris, Qiiincy ; 
2d, J. D. Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Mcintosh Red : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton ; 2d, 
Samuel F. Prescott, Concord. 

Porter: ist, E. M. Shaw, Nashua; 2d, Chas. A. Holden, 
Rumney Depot. 

Pumpkin Sweet: 2d, Bert D. Paige, Goftstown. 
Red Beitighemier : ist, Arthur B. Cross, Concord. 
Twenty Ounce: ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere; 2d, T. G. 
Stevens, Qiiincy. 

St. Lawrence: ist, Elden Farnham, Lancaster. 



336 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Baldwin: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, A. W. Hobbs, 
West Concord. 

Ben Davis: ist, Charles G. Pillsbury, Londonderry; 2d, 
Joseph E. Shepard, West Concord. 

Colvert : ist, J. P. Wallace, Quincy ; 2d, Geo. E. Barnard, 
Hopkinton. 

Golden Pippin: ist, G. C. Lang, Qiiincy. 

Golden Russet: ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton; 2d, 
C. C. Smart, Rumney Depot. 

Black Gilliflower: ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere ; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Hubbardston : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton; 2d, Chas. 
G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

King: 1st, G. E. Waite, Goffstown ; 2d, Joseph Comfort, 
Grasmere. 

Green Sweet; ist, G. E. Waite, Goftstown ; 2d, J. C. 
Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Northern Spy: ist, J. E. Pecker, Concord; 2d, Geo. E. 
Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Newton Pippin: ist, John L. Whipple, Goffstown; 2d, 

F. O. Colby, Grasmere. 

Nodhead : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton; 2d, Dr. A. S. 
Russell, Rumney. 

Pewaukee : ist, Frank [E. Dimond, West Concord; 2d, 

G. C. Gillett, Rumney Depot. 

Pound Sweet: ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry; 2d, 
J. H. Stewart, Concord. 

Blue Pearmain : ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere ; 2d, Joseph 
Comfort, Grasmere. 

Rhode Island Greening: ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere; 2d, 
A. W. Hobbs, West Concord. 

Roxbury Russet: ist, Bert D. Paige, Goffstown ; 2d, Frank 
E. Dimond, West Concord. 

Spitzenburg Flushing: ist, J. C.Mills, North Dunbarton; 
2d, A. W. Hobbs, West Concord. 

Talman's Sweet: ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton; 2d, 
G. E. Waite, Goffstown. 

Wealthy: ist, Bert D. Paige, Goffstown; 2d, J. W. Farr, 
Littleton. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 337 

Wolf River : ist, Chas. A. Holden, Rumney Depot. 

Yellow Bellflower : ist, J. S. Peavey, Lancaster; 2d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Display of Crab Apples: ist, J. W. Farr, Littleton; 2d, 
John L. Merrill, Grasmere. 

Granite Sweet: ist, Ned Annis, Grasmere. 

Arctic : 2d, J. P. Wallace, Qiiincy. 

General Exhibit of Pears : 3d, Chas. G. Pillsbury, London- 
derry. 

Bartlett : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry; 2d, Arthur 
W. Gale, Concord. 

Belle Lucrative: ist, J. H. Stewart, Concord; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Beurre Rose: ist, Hugh Tallant, East Concord ; 2d, Chas. 
G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Beurre C'largeau : ist, Old Ladies' Home, Concord; 2d, 
Hugh Tallant, East Concord. 

Beurre Diel : ist, George Main, Concord. 

Beurre d'Anjou : ist, Mrs. T, F. Robinson, Concord; 2d, 
Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Clapp's Favorite : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Duchess : ist, John H. Pearson, Concord ; 2d, Geo. E. Bar- 
nard, Hopkinton. 

Doyenne Boussock : ist, J. C. Mills, Nortii Dunbarton. 

Flemish Beauty: ist, Fred C. Gowing, Dublin; 2d, J. D. 
Howe & Son, Lancaster. 

Lawrence: ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry ; 2d, Geo. 
E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Louise Bonne de Jersey : ist. Miss M. A. Downing, Concord. 

Mount Vernon : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton. 

Onondaga : ist, J. H. Stewart, Concord. 

Seckel : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry; 2d, Geo. 
Main, Concord. 

Sheldon: ist, H. Farrington, Concord ; •2d, Old Ladies' 
Home, Concord. 

Urbaniste : ist, Geo. Main, Concord. 

Vicar: ist, Old Ladies' Home, Concord ; 2d, Hugh Tallant, 
East Concord. 
22 



338 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Winter Nelis : ist, Geo. E. Barnard, Hopkinton ; 3d, Chas. 
G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Coe's Golden Drop Plums: ist, S. F. Prescott, Concord. 

Egg Plums: 1st, B. F. Virgin, Concord. 

Jefferson Plums: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord. 

Brighton Grapes: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, S. B. 
Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Concord Grapes: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Delaware Grapes: ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord: 2d, Chas. 
G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Green Mountain Grapes: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Hartford Grapes : ist, B. F. Virgin, Concord ; 2d, Chas. G. 
Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Worden Grapes: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown ; 2d, B. F. 
Virgin, Concord. 

Merrimack Grapes: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Rogers No. 3 Grapes : 2d, Arthur W. Gale, Concord. 

Display of Vegetables : 2d, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 

Egyptian Beets: ist, F. W. Lovering, Concord; 2d, Geo. 
McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Eclipse Beets: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook; 2d, 
J. C. Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Edmunds Beets: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 

White Sugar Beets: ist, F. W. Lovering, Concord. 

All Seasons Cabbage: ist, G. M. Wooster, Concord; 2d, 
F. W. Lovering, Concord. 

Flat Dutch Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Fotler's Brunswick Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, 
Penacook. 

Red Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook; 3d, 
S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Marblehead Mammoth Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, 
Penacook. 

Drumhead Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Savoy Cabbage: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook; 2d, 
Hugh Tallant, East Concord. 

Stone Mason Cabbage : ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook ; 
3d, F. W. Lovering, Concord. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 339 

Danvers Carrots: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goftstown ; 2d, 
F. W. Lovering, Concord. 

Long Orange Carrots: ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook ; 
2d, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Short Horn Carrots: ist, S. B, Gilchrist, Goftstown; 2d, 
Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Golden Self Blanching Celery: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, 
Concord ; 3d, F. W. Lovering, Concord. 

Cranberries: ist, W. D. Baker, Quincy. 

Corey Sweet Corn : ist, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Moore's Early Concord Sweet Corn : ist, Chas. G. Pills- 
bury, Londonderry. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sweet Corn : ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, 
Londonderry ; 2d, Geo. McC, Sanborn, Penacook. 

Portland Hybrid: ist, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Amber Cream : 2d, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Display of Pickling Cucumbers: ist, D. G. Roberts, Gras- 
mere. 

Kohl Rabi : 2d, Chas. G. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 

Watermelons: ist, Wm. M. Emerson, Concord; 2d, S. B. 
Gilchrist, Goftstown. 

Mushmelon : ist, Wm. M. Emerson, Concord. 

Cantaloupe: ist, Wm. M. Emerson, Concord. 

Danvers Onions: ist, F. W. Lovering, Concord. 

Silver Onions : 2d, J, C. Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Hollow Crown Parsnips: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goftstown. 

Long White Parsnips: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord; 
2d, F. W Lovering, Concord. 

Field Pumpkins: ist, Clarence G. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Sugar Pumpkins: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goftstown; 2d, Geo. 
McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Clark's No. i Potatoes: 2d, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Chas. Downing Potatoes: 2d, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Pena- 
cook. 

Polaris Potatoes: 2d, Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

New Qiieen Potatoes: ist, D. G. Roberts, Goftstown. 

Early Harvest Potatoes: 2d, J, C. Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Hubbard Squash : ist, G. M. Wooster, Concord ; 2d, F. W. 
Lovering, Concord. 



340 NEW HAMPSHIRE- AGRICULTURE. 

Marrow Squash: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord; 2d, 
Geo. McC. Sanborn, Penacook. 

Bay State Squash : ist, G. M. Wooster, Concord. 

Mammoth Chili Squash : ist, Wm. M. Emerson, Concord. 

Faxon Squash : 2d, S. B. Gilchrist, Goft'stown. 

Bell Pepper: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown ; 2d, Chas. B. 
Flanders, Concord. 

Cardinal Tomatoes: ist, J. C. Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Stone Tomatoes: ist, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

Ignotium Tomatoes: 2d, S. B. Gilchrist, Goffstown. 

English White Turnips: ist, Chas. B. Flanders, Concord. 

Purple Top Munich : 2d, J. C. Mills, North Dunbarton. 

Display of Canned Fruit: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Peaches: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Apples: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Plums: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland, 

Canned Pears: ist, Mrs, O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Strawberries: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Blueberries: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Raspberries: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Cherries: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Tomatoes: ist, Mrs. J. E. Holt, Concord; 2d, 
Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Canned Blackberries: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Display of Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Apple Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Crab Apple Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland; 2d, 
Mrs. A. W. Gale, Concord. 

Grape Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland ; 2d, Mrs. 
A. W. Gale, Concord. 

Current Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland; 2d, Mrs. 
A. \V. Gale, Concord. 

Blackberry Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

Raspberry Jellies: ist, Mrs. O. P. Smith, Ashland. 

FLOWERS. 

Dahlias: ist, C. W. Sargent, Concord; 2d, Daniel C. 
Elliott, Hooksett. 

Helianthus : ist, Mrs. Theo. H. Barker, Concord. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 34I 

Asters: ist, Fred Reed, Concord; 2d, Miss Mary A. 
Downing, Concord. 

Sweet-peas: ist, Wm. A. Whittemore, Concord. 

Pansies : ist, Mrs. Harry Leighton, Concord; 2d, Etta May 
Cook, Concord. 

Cacti : ist, Mrs. J. S. Sargent, Concord. 

In addition to the above premiums awarded, a number of 
most meritorious exhibits were made, which were not entered 
for competition, among which were a very fine general exhibit 
of fruit, consisting of apples, pears, plums, and grapes, made 
by President C. C. Shaw, and the fine displays of hothouse 
plants made by the N. H. Asylum, W. S. Wilson, Geo. Main, 
and Warren M. Colby, all of Concord. Hon. J. B. Walker 
of Concord exhibited a large trace of seed corn that was dis- 
played in a very attractive manner. 

The exhibit as a whole was the finest yet made by the society, 
but the attendance was not what was expected and far below 
what such an exhibit merited. 

The work of the society is very much restricted on account 
of lack of funds, and it is earnestly hoped that the legislature 
may increase the present appropriation sufficiently so that the 
exhibits can be made free to the public and thus be of greater 
usefulness as a means of educating the people to the advantages 
of fruit culture in our state, as well as to advertise the fine 
quality of our fruit to the consumers. There is probably no 
agricultural industry in our state that offers so large a remu- 
neration in proportion to the amount of labor and expenditure as 
fruit culture, and the possibilities of this industry are almost 
unlimited, and there is no agency that can accomplish so much 
good in this direction as a State Horticultural Society. Many 
of our sister states made liberal appropriations to their respec- 
tive societies some years ago, and now they are reaping more 
than a hundredfold on the result of this wise expenditure. 

In Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, the value to the 
states from the work of these societies has been almost incalcu- 
lable, and New Hampshire ought to take her place with them. 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 



In response to a call from the State Board of Agriculture a 
Good Roads Convention was held in Concord, opening at 
Phenix Hall, May 13, at 11 o'clock a. m. 

The attendance of road agents and selectmen was larger 
than the most sanguine could have hoped for, and the hall 
was well filled when Mayor Robinson delivered his address 
of welcome. The mayors of several of the New Hampshire 
cities were present, as were representatives of the Good Roads 
organizations of several states. 

Mayor Robinson's words of greeting were as follows : 

MAYOR Robinson's address. 

Concord, with a population hardiv reaching 30,000, has 300 
miles of streets and roads. They radiate invitingly toward the 
whole state, and converge in the equally accessible approaches 
to our homes and our hearts. 

If we take any particular pride in being the capital of the 
commonwealth, it is that on an auspicious occasion like this the 
pleasing privilege is ours to express what you already realize, 
that you are heartily welcome. Nature has spread her spring- 
time carpet of fresh verdure, and clothed the trees in opening 
blossoms of rich promise and unfolding leaves of new beauty, 
and the skies have rolled back their curtains to lend becoming 
cheerfulness to our cordial greeting. We hail you with the 
enthusiastic congratulation that here, this week, under the 
auspices of our State Board of Agriculture, and especially of 
its energetic and indefatigable secretary, Nahum J. Bachelder, 
is to be inaugurated a comprehensive movement that means the 



346 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

best development of the Granite State in rich material resources 
and in healthful pleasure resorts. 

Isolated man needed no highway ; the infrequented path 
through the vale or over the mountain, the uncertain trail along 
the river, was enough for his cramped purpose ; the unen- 
lightened native in the dugout felt the want of no thoroughfare 
except the unbroken wilderness in which to hunt for game that 
browsed unscared. But as his brother man built his hut across 
the way, they cut out from between them the underbrush and 
pounded down the clod, that they might the more readily meet 
to exchange words, wares, and produce for mutual advantage. 
With higher civilization came the inevitable and imperative 
pressure for the best* practicable facilities and conveniences for 
travel and transportation, until in this day and generation the 
comfort, prosperity and Christian intelligence of a community 
are largely indicated and measured by the character of its 
public highways. 

Every dollar reasonably and rightly expended in making and 
maintaining good roads is a dividend-paying capital and 
enhances the value of all property. So thoroughly alive to the 
important truth of this proposition have the people become, 
that the only question now seems to be how best to work out 
the practical problem in the most economical and efficient way, 
and to the consideration of this living question will be directed 
your attention by those qualified much better than I am to 
speak on this scientific subject, to which has been given great 
study, deep thought, and superior learning. 

In every age, in every decade, in every epoch, some one 
pointed issue has been forced upon the public mind. With us 
in recent years it has been, perhaps, the rescue of the Union, 
the emancipation of the negro, the reconstruction of the South, 
the public schools — sometimes it has been one thing and 
sometimes another — and just now the paramount principle at 
stake is this one of almost universal interest throughout the 
United States, of good roads. Considering this term good roads 
in its widest application, we have included railroads, common 
highways, and city streets, and the magnitude of the subject in 
its various ramifications begins to dawn upon us. New Hamp- 
shire, one of the original thirteen states, will hasten to place 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 347 

herself in the advancing procession of sister states that are now 
concerned in the legishitive and other phases of this important 
work. All interests — agricultural, mechanical, mercantile, 
manufacturing, industrial, wage-earning — join in the loud 
acclaim for good roads. They are the foundation, the substra- 
tum upon which literature, philosophy, art, and science must 
rest for material and essential support. 

It has been estimated by the secretary of the national farmers' 
congress that the wagon transportation of the country amounts 
annually to 500,000,000 tons ; that this has to be moved an 
average distance of eight miles ; that it costs an average of $2 
per ton to move it ; that this is 60 per cent, more than it would 
cost to move it if we had good roads over all the country, or an 
extra cost in production and marketing of our agricultural 
products of $600,000,000. And when we consider that the 
total annual value of all agricultural products is only $2,500, 
000,000, we see that practically one fourth of the home value 
of all our farm products is lost by bad roads — 25 per cent. 

In the state of Illinois the money lost because of bad roads, 
to farmers alone, is estimated on good authority at $16,000,000 
per annum. This, of course, is not the whole tax, since the 
people in towns bear their full share in loss of trade and 
increased cost of living, but it will be a safe basis of calcula- 
tion ; and at this rate the total loss for the United States would 
approximate $300,000,000 per annum. The average earnings 
of capital in this country may be taken at about 3 per cent, at 
which rate this $300,000,000 is tjie interest of $10,000,000,000, 
or one sixth of the entire wealth of the country. Thus it will 
be seen that the loss sustained by reason of bad roads is 
enormous, and almost fabulous. 

But of these things others are to speak to you more under- 
standingly and in detail, and it is my mission in this opening 
hour of your convention merely to wish you God-speed in your 
enterprise, and bespeak for you the hospitality and good graces 
of the beautiful city of which I have the honor just now to be 
the chief executive. 

It has been on different occasions my agreeable duty to speak 
sincere words of welcome to various worthy orders and organi- 
zations that have found it convenient to gather here, and this 



348 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

is one, free from sectarian, denominational, political, or other 
dividing lines, wherein I feel assured that I speak the earnest 
sentiment of the whole people in extending to you as I do, in 
their behalf, the right hand of good fellowship. 

The next speaker was Hon. Moses Humphrey, who was 
chairman of the meeting. Mr. Humphrey is president of the 
State Board of Agriculture. He spoke of the great good that 
results from having the highways of a state in perfect condition 
and the consequent saving to farmers and everybody who is 
obliged to haul their products to the market or railway station. 
A little effort on the part of the road commissioner of each town 
and city would result in a large degree to the benefit of the 
farmers and bicyclists. The bicycle is a new factor to be con- 
sidered in the maintaining of good roads. Next to religion, 
good roads are the most important subject of the present day 
and generation. 

Secretary N. J. Bachelder spoke as follows : 

ADDRESS BY THE SECRETARY. 

The legislature of 189^ imposed upon the board of agricul- 
ture the important duty of investigating the means and methods 
to be most usefully employed by the state in the improvement 
of highways, and imposed the further trust of reporting to the 
next legislature upon this important matter. Perhaps few 
of those present have given the subject sufficient consideration 
to realize the magnitude of the work involved in the first, but 
you all have sufficient knowledge to know the uncertainty at- 
tending a report of any kind to such a body as the average New 
Hampshire legislature. Therefore we state at the outset that 
the magnitude of the one and the stewardship of the other is 
somewhat problematical. This fact, however, does not deter us 
from an honest and earnest effort to comply with the recom- 
mendation of the general court. 

The subject of such highway improvement, when considered 
in the broadest sense, resolves itself into subdivisions known as 
educational and executive. The former consists of imparting 
information upon the building and repairing of highways, and 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 349 

the latter of putting into practice those ideas by the expendi- 
ture of funds provided for the purpose. It needs no argument 
to establish the fact that any system of public education that 
fails to recognize the importance of proper instruction in the 
building and maintenance of highways, is faulty indeed. There 
is no division of opinion upon this point. How far a state govern- 
ment should exert its authority in the management of highways, 
is a question for future events to determine. This convention 
has been called for the purpose of promoting instruction upon 
this subject, and to aid the board of agriculture in forming an 
opinion as to the action which the state of New Hampshire may 
legitimately take in highway educational matters, and in the ex- 
penditure of public funds in road building. 

We are constantly reminded of the unsatisfactory condition of 
the roads in our country towns, and the unfortunate road agent, 
who bears the burden of the complaint, perhaps is the only in- 
nocent man connected with it. Until very recently there has 
been no effort made by which men could in any degree prepare 
themselves for the important position of road agent. In many 
instances they have been elected with no fitness for the duties, 
and are doing the best they can. Skilled men in other branches 
of engineering are fitted for their positions, and command good 
salaries. Is there any reason why so important a matter as the 
care of public highwavs should be intrusted to other than qual- 
ified men .^ How this can be remedied is one of the important 
questions confronting us to-day. The time has gone by when 
any man who could tell a pill-box from a powder-horn could at- 
tach M. D. to his name and legally practice medicine; when 
any man who could tell a case of garget from a case of glanders 
could write V. S. after his name, and practise veterinary sci- 
ence, and the time is surely coming when the requisites for a 
road agent will be something besides knowing at which end of 
the road machine to attach the team. I am saying this in all 
kindness to the road agents, but with much earnestness to those 
who make the laws of our state and country in educational mat- 
ters. The object of this convention is not to fully qualify men 
for road agents, but to call their attention to some of the things 
that need to be learned, and to call the attention of the people to 
some of the things in which their road agents should be proficient. 



350 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

The useof improved machinery is as essential in road construction 
as in any other field of labor, and we have invited all manufacturers 
of road machinery to exhibit the product of their factories for the 
benefit of those interested in road building. This feature of the 
convention will be of special interest. After two days' work 
upon the roads, we will assemble around the banquet table, enjoy 
the fruits of our labor, and listen to such sentiments as will in- 
spire feelings of high appreciation of the advantages to be 
derived by all the people from better public highways. 

Such, Mr. Mayor, are some of the objects of this convention, 
which you have been pleased to welcome in so courteous and 
graceful a manner, and for those kind words, as has been well 
said by our chairman, you have our profound and sincere 
thanks. 

At the conclusion of this address there was a general discus- 
sion of the subject of good roads, those participating being Hon. 
Joseph B. Walker, member of the board, Capt. E. M. Shaw of 
Nashua, E. G. Harrison of New Jersey, secretary of the 
National League of Good Roads. A recess was then taken until 
7 : 30 o'clock in the evening. 

During the afternoon there was an exhibition of the working 
of portable stone crushers on the city lot on Warren street, and 
the steam roller spiked up and repaired a portion of Park street 
in the vicinity of the opera house There were large gather- 
ings of spectators at these exhibitions. 

Phenix Hall was crowded at the evening session, many addi- 
tional out-of-town visitors being present. Hon. Austin Corbin 
of New York, who was to have delivered the principal address 
of the evening, was not present, and E. G. Harrison of As- 
bury Park, N. J., secretary of the National League of Good 
Roads, filled the vacancy. 

Hon. Moses Humphrey presided, and introduced as the first 
speaker, Dr. Alonzo Towle of Freedom, who spoke as follows : 

ADDRESS BY ALONZO TOWLE, M. D. 

It is assumed that the necessity for better highways is no longer 
a debatable question — that expedience demands at our earliest 
opportunity a uniform system of road building under the auspices 
of state or county. But to make our talk practical, we must 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 35 1 

confine ourselves to our present condition and suggest, if pos- 
sible, some methods of improvement in the expenditure of the 
$450,000 which it has been estimated is annually appropriated 
for road purposes. If I fail to make any advanced statements, 
I hope to disseminate more generally the teachings of expert 
road engineers. 

The idea seems to possess the average road master that when 
he has gone along either side of the road-bed with the road 
machine, drawn by eight to twelve inexperienced steers, or four 
to eight green horses, scraping worn-out material, sands, vege- 
table refuse, and turfs into the centre of the road, and has lev- 
eled up the horse path and wheel ruts, he has performed his 
duty as a servant of the town. The horror of such detestable 
practices is better felt than expressed. In one sense I sympa- 
thize with the road master — for, while he is hampered with a 
lack of money, and cannot do what his common-sense otherwise 
would prompt him, I find myself hampered for want of time 
as I stand before you, attempting to discuss the science of road 
building with its many intricacies and multiplied conditions. 
Of necessity, I must be brief and make allusions only to gen- 
eral principles, and trust the details to be conditioned by the 
road masters, according to time and place. 

Road engineering includes locating, grading and draining as 
well as the building and maintaining of the road-bed and sur- 
face, and I shall make special mention of each. 

Location applies in our state, not so frequently in regard to 
new roads, but changing the alignment of the road already 
located with the object in view to avoid hills, sand, marshes, and 
the crossing of streams. How many miles of extra travel econ- 
omy will justify, to avoid climbing the hill, or pulling through 
sand, or the extra expense of drainage through marshes, or 
bridging streams, must be determined upon business principles, 
the amount and kind of traftic being important items in forming 
a conclusion. 

As the strength of the chain is measured by its weakest link, 
so the weight of a load must be determined by the steepest grade 
over which it is to pass, other things being equal. Hence it is 
false economy to put a road into first-class condition and leave 
on it a hill with a grade which practically destroys a great part 



352 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICUI.TUUE. 

of the advantages to be derived from the excellence of the road- 
way. 

The amount of tractive force required to move a load on a 
very good macadamized road is about 40 pounds to the ton, or 
1-50 of the weight of the load. Allowing that the horse that by 
bringing into action his reserved force can exert an extra pull 
on the hill double his regular pull on a level or grade of i to 50 
will require this force to that, this would seem to be the 
maximum grade on such a road. On a gravel road of good 
character, the traction force required to move a ton is about 140 
pounds, or 1-15 of the weight of the load, and by doubling the 
force may be pulled up a grade of i to 15. Steeper grades than 
this it is seldom necessary to have, and this suggests the fact that 
the haid gravel road should be the typical road in our hilly dis- 
tricts. The better the road surface, the better should be the 
grade. A dead level, however, should be avoided, as the water 
gutters beside the road-bed should have a fall of at least i to 120, 
or one inch to ten feet. 

Water is the greatest enemy to our roads. In a large major- 
ity of instances it is the sole agent of destruction. To take the 
water out and keep it out, is the only means of remedy. Both 
surface and subsoil drainage is indispensable to good road 
building. Crowning the surface one inch to each three or four 
feet may be sufficient for surftxce drainage on Macadam roads, 
but on gravel or earth roads, it should not be less than one inch 
to two feet, and the steeper the grade, the more crowning the 
road surface. 

Open ditches, blind ditches, and tiling are proper means for 
subsoil drainage when built to meet the necessary conditions. 
No water should find lodgment along either side of the road- 
way. 

No cross drainage or culverts should be less than two feet by 
eighteen inches — faced and sloping enough to insure free deliv- 
ery. Late in the fall and again before the spring thaws, these 
drains should be carefully cleared of the mud, sand, and vege- 
table refuse. The time required for these details cannot be 
spent to better advantage. 

By road-bed we mean the foundation upon which the super- 
structure is to be placed, constituting the roadway. It should 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 353 

be made of earth — raised about the level of adjacent lands and 
made compact, firm and unyielding' — for this the iron roller is 
very essential. Cotton fabric may be used on an embankment 
of sand and plank on embankments of clay. The width of the 
road-bed should be fixed to meet the demands of public traffic, 
20 feet from gutter to gutter being sufficient for the average 
country road. It is better economy to have a narrow good road 
than a wide poor road. 

Having settled the location, determined the grade, introduced a 
system of thorough drainage, prepared a road-bed of sufficient 
width, compact, firm and unyielding, the material used for 
surfacing will give name to the road, either stone, gravel, or 
earth. 

Stone roads, both Talford, Macadam and Macadamized, call 
for a liberal expenditure of money at the outset ; yet we advo- 
cate that it would be true economy in many towns, with their 
present appropriations, to build one or more miles of such roads 
each year. 

This would necessitate the buying of stone crushers. But as 
these roads are generally built under the direction of skilled en- 
gineers, a description of them here is unnecessary. 

There are but few districts in our state which do not afford 
access to coarse gravel pits. Of this material good substantial 
roads may be built at a comparatively small expense. It should 
be put on in layers of three or four inches, and heavily rolled 
when wet, shoulders being provided on either side of the road- 
bed to hold it in place. The number of layers, whether one, 
two, or three, also the width, will be determined somewhat by 
the amount of money to be expended. If ruts appear, they 
should be immediately filled in with like material. 

The earth roads comprise by far the largest class of roads in 
our state, ramifying in ever}' direction. Although perhaps not 
of the most importance, yet they are important, and it is upon 
tliese roads that we see exercised the most indifference and care- 
lessness, approaching even ignorance in the expenditure of 
money. 

All remarks previously made as regards locating, grading, 
draining, building ditches and culverts, raising, rolling and 
23 



354 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

crowning the road-bed, apply to tliese as well as all other roads. 
Now remove all sizeable stones, and strive to keep the centre of 
the road the highest point. As fast as the road surface wears 
out and is converted into dust, scrape it into heaps with the road- 
machine, and convince the farmer that it is a privilege for him 
to haul and spread it upon his land. 

To sustain the crowned surface, fill up the horse-path and 
wheel ruts with earth as grandly as possible. No sods or vege- 
table refuse should be used on the road surface. Clay roads 
may be benefited by mixing in sand ; sandy roads may be ben- 
efited by mixing in clay. 

In conclusion, I will say, the way to keep a road good is never 
to let it get bad. 

It has been wisely said that the only way to learn how to build 
a road is to build it. It has been unwisely said that with plenty 
of means any one can build a road. One is as false as the other 
is true. 

It is evident that we need more general knowledge in econom- 
ical road building. Meetings of this kind are especially intended 
for that purpose, and free discussions cannot fail to give this 
result. It is also evident that the rural districts need more 
money or less mileage of road. This justifies the movement to 
have the main thoroughfares in every town built and maintained 
by the state. 

Prof. C. H. Pettee, of Durham, was then introduced, and 
spoke as follows : 

ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR C. H. PETTEE. 

Mr. President., Ladies and Gentlemen: 

You will not expect me, in the few moments at my disposal, 
to give an elaborate explanation of the art of road building. I 
can only hope to hint at some of the important points that need 
to be impressed upon the minds of the general public, and espe- 
cially upon those of our road builders. 

I do not propose to discuss the question of state aid to roads, 
or the best form of such aid if rendered. I take it for granted 
that we cannot expect any rapid advance in building permanent 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 355 

roads until the state in some way leads off and teaches, at least 
most of the towns, how to do it; compelling in main thorough- 
fares uniformity of methods, and consequently of results. Fur- 
thermore, I do not propose at this time to discuss the details of 
building macadamized roads. It is the most natural thing in 
the world for one who has become interested in the subject of 
improved highways to advocate the buying of a stone-crusher 
with the confident expectation that in a short time all our lead- 
ing thoroughfares will be permanently macadamized with 
material found in stone walls and neigliboring fields. When, 
however, we are confronted with the fiicts of the cost of such 
roads in other places, and find it running from $2,000 to $6,000 
and more, per mile, according to width of road, amount of 
grade required, and other conditions ; when we consider that 
the average mileage of road per town is well above fifty, of 
which thirty miles are important and fifteen are main thorough- 
fares, it is evident that the ordinary appropriations in our 
country towns, ranging usually from $500 to $2,500 for all re- 
pairs on highways and bridges, will not put us ahead very 
rapidly in road building. Again, we find the experience of 
many cities and towns is against using, at least for surfacino-, 
the cheap material that is usually urged for the purpose. The 
city of Manchester, with a complete crushing plant of its own 
buys all its surfacing stone and cars it from Salem, Mass., at a 
cost of $1.75 per cubic yard, or $1.40 per ton delivered. If our 
towns are to bond their property in order to secure permanent 
roads — for this is what it must mean in most cases — it is a seri- 
ous question how much poorer than the best they can afford to 
secure. 

While we are waiting the practical settlement of such dis- 
puted questions, and while the era of permanent road construc- 
tion is still largely ahead of us, there are many importantquestions 
that it is the duty of the present to meet and discuss. In what 
way can we make the best use of the material at hand in road 
construction? How can we prepare for the future while work- 
ing for the present? On such points I wish to speak for a few 
minutes this evening. 

The main points in road construction are, attention to o-rade 
drainage, shape of road-bed, and surfacing. All of these ex- 



356 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

cept the last, are as necessary for a good common road as for a 
macadamized one ; and if attended to now will be ready for the 
good time coming when all main roads shall be covered with 
crushed stone. The surfacing, too, is useful ; no better founda- 
tion is needed for a broken-stone road than a well-built gravel 
road. The minimum of crushed stone will give good results on 
such a basis. There is, then, every incentive to build the best 
I'oads possible with the material at hand, so that we may be 
ready later on to cover these with crushed stone at a low cost, 
and thus make them reasonably permanent. 

Of the points noted above as important in road construction, 
the subject of grade is the most important, partly because it is 
most neglected. All hills on main roads should be cut down to 
a maximum grade of five per cent, or a grade of one twentieth. 
The instrument called a grade level, which has been on exhibi- 
tion here to-day, and whicli is described in bulletin 30 of the New 
Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, will be found very 
convenient in planning work of this character. No such work 
should be commenced until a complete plan has been formed for 
reduction to standard grade. Then everything done should be 
done with an eye to count on the final plan, even though all the 
work is not completed at once. Something in this line should be 
done each year. It is necessar}-, practical, common-sense, and 
within our means, and public opinion ought to condemn the lack 
of it. In short, we shall not see much improvement in our 
roads without it. 

I cannot stop to speak of drainage in detail. Its importance 
is generally recognized. The main thing is to do as well as 
we know, and drain when necessary. 

The form of the road-bed should be very nearly the same as 
that of the finished surface above, and should be generally built 
up with the cheapest available material, in the least expensive 
manner. Worn-out road material, sand, sods, etc., may be 
profitably brought in from the ditches and used for this purpose. 
Such material, however, will not make the surface. The road- 
machine should be used where possible. This will usually make 
grade at one quarter the cost of cartage. 

A good standard width for the straight portion of a country 
road is twenty-one feet inside the ditches. The slope from 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 357 

centre should be about one fifteenth on a maximum longitudinal 
grade of one twentieth, but may be less on a level road. 

If the road-machine, or other agencies employed in making 
grading, have not brought upon the surface a good packing 
gravel, such material must be obtained elsewhere by cartage. 
This costs money, especially if the haul is long. It is, however, 
a necessity on most of our important roads. Where the haul 
exceeds one half mile, gravel should be very cautiously em- 
ployed, and not recklessly used to make grade when a cheaper 
material is available. It should be quite coarse. It is the stone 
in it that stands the wear. A sandy gravel may frequently be 
much improved by sifting out the sand. 

CARE OF ROADS. 

After roads are put in good condition they should be kept so 
by continued small repairs. It seems self-evident, therefore, that 
a portion of the highway money in each town should be set 
aside each year for keeping all the roads in as good condition 
or better than when taken in hand, while the balance went for 
permanent construction. This is a distinction that should be 
sharply defined. Roads are not like bottles of patent medicine 
which are to be stirred before using. On the contrary, the aim 
should be to so expend the money tliat the roads would remain 
permanently in a smooth, hard condition with the minimum of 
disturbance. The care of a road in proper shape seldom 
requires the use of a road-machine, which is a machine for con- 
struction rather than repairs. It loosens up material that has 
taken years of travel to consolidate, and frequently places it in 
such condition as to be easily washed away by heavy rains, to 
say nothing of the inconvenience of travelling over it. It may 
occasionally be used to smooth a road to advantage, especially 
after the frost is out in the spring, but the common use of this 
machine to bring in just enough of sods, sand, etc., to spoil the 
road surface without half reconstructing it, anil continuing this 
process year after year under the name of road repairs, should 
receive the severest condemnation of all well-wishers of onr 
roads. If a piece of road needs reconstruction, take in hand 
only what can be finished properly, and then keep it good by 
continuous attention. In short, care of roads does not tear them 



3S8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

to pieces, but keeps them good by patching, with an occasional 
resurfacing on roads of heavy traffic. It also keeps all rocks 
picked up, bushes cleared, ditches and culverts open, etc. We 
are so used to seeing our roads neglected till they need entire 
reconstruction that too often we have passed the stage where 
we complain of the right thing. We simply settle down to a 
general grumble at everything and everybody. It is needless to 
say that this kind of continuous care is by far the cheapest for a 
town. Ten dollars per mile will keep a fairly good road in ex- 
cellent shape for a year, and if our hills were cut down to 
standard grade it would do much more. To get the best results, 
however, there must be some one in each neigliborhood who is 
interested to look after the little things, and who will beat hand 
to fix them at the proper time and with the least expense. This 
may be brought about by the appointment of sub-agents, with 
restricted but well-defined duties, responsible directly to the 
highway agent who appoints them, and liable to have their com- 
missions revoked at any time for cause. This system will 
almost surely not be adopted by any board of three agents any town 
may elect, because the money to be thus expended will make so 
large a hole in the appropriation that it will not leave enough to 
satisfy the three agents. It is the right principle, however, and 
can be attained by the election of one agent who is not after the 
last cent he can get into his own pocket through the office. 

In the repairs of common roads a wide difference of opinion 
exists as to the utility of water-bars. Without doubt they are 
much less used than ten or fifteen years since, though they still 
have many strong advocates. Their object is to turn the water 
from the centre of the road on a hill. If useful for this pur- 
pose their utility would be increased with their number, and be 
most useful of all when they extended continuously from the top 
to the bottom of every hill. This is the case when the road-bed 
is of proper shape, and is the only permanent form of water- 
bar to be commended. All ordinary forms are to be considered 
as temporary expedients, to be borne with only until the road- 
bed can be properly shaped. Practical experience bears out this 
view of the case. 

Highway agents should make fuller reports to the towns. 
Something beside a detailed statement of payments to Mr. A 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 359 

and Mr. B, is necessary. A summary of what has been accom- 
plished sliould be given, with approximate cost of each improve- 
ment. A concise statement of this sort would prove the best 
advertisement a faithful agent could place before the voters of a 
town, and would prove a great help in securing his reelection. 
The average practical man, however, is so afraid of anything 
like accounts that it will require legislative action before this 
matter can be properly straightened out. 

No faithful agent can do his best work the first year. He 
must get acquainted with the people, the work, and especially 
with the gravel banks of his town. When our towns find the 
right men for highway agents and keep them in office regard- 
less of politics for a series of years, the road question will 
largely take care of itself, for the great majority of people will 
be perfectly willing to vote generous appropriations when they 
see practical results accruing therefrom. 

Mr. E. G. Harrison, of New Jersey, was then introduced 
and spoke as follows : 

ADDRESS BY E. G. HARRISON, OF NEW JERSEY. 

The practical engineer has to deal with conditions ; theoreti- 
cal knowledge of civil engineering is important and one cannot 
have too much of.it. But much of the road engineer's knowl- 
edge must be drawn from practical observation and experience. 
The highest type of road construction for traffic and passengers 
is the double steel railroad on a level. The highest type of a 
good roadway for wagons, carriages, etc., is the one that 
nearest approaches the railroad. In point of fact, the road 
engineer's duty is : 

1. To remove obstacles. 

2. To do this with the best material available. 

3. To meet the various conditions of soil, climate, etc., in 
obtaining the best foundation. 

4. To get the best possible grades, and to do this with the 
economy that will enable him to improve the road, within the 
means of the people who have to pay for it. 

The road engineer, therefore, should have 
I. Theoretical knowledge. 



360 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

2. Good judgment, based upon practical observation and 
experience. 

3. Ability to understand and meet the economical side of the 
matter. 

I said the engineer's duty is to remove obstacles. Let me 
illustrate : There are many kinds of roadways constructed of 
a variety of materials and of various grades. I will speak of 
only four : 

1. The railroad. 

2. The stone road. 

3. The ordinary dirt road. 

4. The mud road. 

In regard to the first : Every effort is put forth to get the best 
grade, foundation, and material, and so done that every ob- 
struction to the wheels of the engine and cars shall be removed. 
The steel rails that the wheels pass over are smooth, hard, and 
level. This is the road of the highest type, and we call it No. 
I. For practical purposes, and I am now speaking of the 
public or common roads, not boulevards, city streets, or park 
drive-ways, stone for road surface and foundation is the best; 
this for our purpose we call No. 3. 

The common dirt road, of either clay or gravel, if kept in 
fair condition we call No. 3. 

The other road is No. 4, which when the frost is coming out 
of the ground, or after long-continued rains, becomes rutted 
and soft with mud. In case one has ten tons of coal to remove, 
say one mile, he can do so on No. i, — a railroad track, with 
one horse, in about half an hour, say one hour, at $2.50 per 
day, or twenty-five cents for the ten tons removed. If he had 
to haul this over a stone road in good condition, he could do it 
with one horse in five loads at two tons per load, and would 
require about a day, costing him $2.50 to remove the ten tons. 

If he had an ordinary clay or gravel road (No. 3), smooth 
and hard, he would carry one ton with one horse, and it 
'vould take twice as long, and consequently twice the cost of 
No. 3, say $5.00. If the road was soft and rutty or after the 
usual way of repairing, he would haul but one-half ton at a 
cost of $10.00. 

If it was when the frost was coming out of the ground, on 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 361 

road No. 4, he could not draw more than one quarter of a ton 
with one horse, he would, most likely, put up with one load, 
and leave the job until the " roads get better," in some cases 
putting him to an extra expense of paying demurrage on a coal- 
car. 

This illustration is taken from facts, and is not a case of 
theory or supposition. In brief it is : 

No. I. Cost of hauling 10 tons on R. R. . . . $0.25 
No. 2. Cost of hauling on stone road . . . 2.50 

No. 3. Cost of hauling if hard and smooth . . 5-00 

No. 3. Cost of hauling if soft and in ruts . . . 10.00 

No. 4. Cost of hauling, cannot fix price, anywhere 

from ...... $10.00 to $20.00 

The conditions may vary, but the cost will run as above 
given. 

The facts are not considered by farmers owning their own 
teams, and many of them doing their own work, with that 
thought and care they should give the matter. The cost does 
not seem to enter into consideration. The manufacturers or 
merchants* keeping accounts soon get at the cost. The 
consequence is that the latter class are always willing to help 
the good roads movement, while the former generally oppose, 
thinking it will bring upon them higher taxes. It seems to me 
it is time wasted to arg^e in favor of good roads ; they are 
admitted facts. 

Can roads be constructed to meet the wants of the farmers 
without creating a tax that would be burdensome.'' This, I take 
it, is the question you want discussed to-day. Roads near 
large cities, where their use is constant, and by teams carrying 
several tons of weight at one load, need to be wider and deeper 
than roads in country districts, vvliere the travel is much 
lighter. The well ballasted heavy steel rails and double rail- 
road is essential on the great through routes, for travel and 
traffic ; but for local purposes a less expensive railroad, with 
single tracks, will answer. It would not be wisdom in any 
community to do without any railroad, because they could not 
have the double track steel railroad. Let us apply this to our 
common roads: construct them according to absolute needs 



362 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

and within our means to pay for them. A narrow stone road- 
bed can, at a small cost, be made wider when the necessity 
arises to do so. I, therefore, as a road engineer, advise the 
construction of countr}- or farmers' roads, of nine feet width 
and of no greater depth than the conditions of tlie earth road- 
bed requires with its liability to be affected by frosts. In 
many cases six inches of depth will answer, particularly if the 
earth-bed is dry and free from water or excessive moisture. 

Three very important elements enter into all kinds of road 
construction, viz. : 

1. Avoid excessive grades. 

2. To keep the road-bed dry. 

3. To use the best of stone for road-bed surface. 

1. All grades should be reduced to five or six per cent., that 
is the fall or rise should not be greater than five or six feet to 
every hundred feet. 

The grade or slope from centre to sides should always be 
greater than the longitudinal guard, so as to avoid weaker run- 
ning with the road-bed ; the water should run direct as possi- 
ble from the centre of the road-bed to tlie side ditches. 

2. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the fact that 
the earth road-bed should be kept free from excessive moisture. 
In springy ground, water should be directed from the road-bed 
by drains. Where the water comes from springs or bogs the 
source should be cut off. As the earth foundation must bear 
not only the weight of the stone construction, but the weight of 
the increased traffic that will be drawn over it as well, it will 
readily be seen that it must be of the utmost solidity and com- 
pactness, hence the necessity of diverting all water from the 
road-bed. The superstructure of stone may be of either Tel- 
ford or Macadam, according to the condition of the ground. 
Telford is preferable when the ground is not naturally dry and 
hard. On dry, sandy soil, a light Macadam road will answer 
every purpose. The Telford road consists of a layer of large 
stone, hand-laid, set on their broadest edges, projecting points 
broken off, and the interstices filled with stone-chips, finally 
wedged together. For the purpose of this sub-foundation any 
dry stone, not in a state of disintegration, will answer. On 
top of this three or four inches of the best stone, broken as 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 363 

uniformly as possible, not exceeding two inches in diameter 
should be placed and well compacted by thorough and repeated 
rolling. On top of this a thin coat of screenings may be spread 
and well rolled so as to give a smooth finish to the road when 
completed. Macadam may be used where the soil is naturally 
of dry earth or sand. It consists of a layer of stone broken 
to a uniform size of about three inches in diameter, and spread 
to a depth of tliree or four inches solidly compacted, or smaller 
broken stone should be spread as in the case of Telford con- 
struction, finished in same manner. Where very hard stone 
is used it may be necessary to use a binding material of loam or 
crushed stone between the courses, but only sufficient to bind 
the material togetiier as the rolling proceeds. 

3. It is found advisable in practice to have the best stone avail- 
able for the top surface ; this has to take all the wear. If a soft 
or imperfect stone is used, it will be found expensive to keep the 
road in repair, as the road surface is liable to become rutted and 
filled with holes. 

In the matter of repairs, it is best to follow the well-known 
adage that " a stitch in time saves nine." If a hole appears in 
the surface of the I'oad, it should be filled up with broken stone. 
If allowed to remain, it will soon get larger, as it will hold 
water, and the wheels passing will soon grind it out. The same 
may be said of ruts. The best way to avoid ruts is the use 
of broad tires and also broad whiflfletrees, so that the horses 
will walk directly in front of the wheels, as a horse has 
too much sense to walk in a rut, but will seek a new place, thus 
causing the travel to spread over the road ; the wheels in such 
a case act as a roller and improve the road instead of wear- 
ing it out. 

In reply to the question " How to improve our common 
roads.?" I would say, it is necessary to keep this fact in view, 
that a road is considered good or bad according to the amount 
of resistance to be overcome. The usual mode of repairing 
generally causes more resistance by scraping up the soft earthy 
matter, decayed leaves, sods and stones, from the side ditches 
and throwing them in the centre of the road. Much of this 
material would do better service as top-soil in some adjoining 
pasture-field. Nothing but the hardest material obtainable 



364 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

should be used in repairing the roads. All loose stones should 
be carefully removed from the road, and when used for repairs 
they should be broken and put together as compactl}' as possible, 
in places where most needed. Remember that too much water 
is a great enemy to good roads. Keep the centre of the road 
well rounded, as hard as possible, so as to cause all surface water 
to flow to the side ditches, which ditches should be kept clean, 
so that the water will be carried to the nearest natural outlet or 
running stream, and in no case allow the water to remain on or 
alongside the road. Rollers are just as essential in the construc- 
tion and maintenance of gravel or dirt roads as they are in the 
case of stone roads. 

As to the cost of construction of stone roads in this section, 
it would be impossible for me to give any definite estimate at 
this time, as I do not know the cost of transportation or the 
facilities for procuring the best material, but I have every 
reason to believe that you have excellent road material close at 
hand. You have far greater advantages for obtaining material 
than we have in New Jersey, and there is no reason whv New 
Hampshire should not have good roads at a comparatively slight 
cost, and take her place among her sister states in an enterprise 
which is one of the evidences of an advanced civilization. 

Mr. C. E. Harrington, of Waltham, Mass., delivered a ster- 
eopticon lecture upon the subject of roads. 

SECOND DAY. 

The second day's proceedings of the good roads convention 
consisted of practical experiments in road making, and the test- 
ing of machinery on the streets of the city. The work was con- 
ducted by road engineers and operators, under the direction of 
Highway Commissioner Clark, and was observed by a large 
crowd of road agents and experts from all parts of the state. 

The banquet, under the auspices of the Commercial club, was 
held at the New Eagle Hotel, in the evening, at eight o'clock. 
There were over 125 guests standing behind their chairs w^hen 
Chairman M. J. Pratt of the entertainment committee of the 
club introduced the toast-master of the evening, Hon. Joseph 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 365 

B. Walker. Those seated at the head table were Governor 
Busiel, Mayor Robinson, Gen. Roy Stone, chief of the office 
of road engineering, United States Department of Agriculture, 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, I. Frank Allen, George A. Perkins of 
Boston, Hon. N. B. Bryant, Hon. E. G. Harrison of New 
Jersey, Col. Solon A. Carter, Hon. John L. Spring, Lebanon, 
Mayor Sturtevant, Franklin, Alayor McDuftee, Keene, Leon- 
ard F. Burbank, Nashua, C. C. Danforth, Col. Thomas Cogs- 
well, Gilmanton, Hon. Moses Humphrey, and Maj. M. J. 
Pratt. 

Stewartson's orchestra was located in the adjoining banquet- 
hall, and furnished delightful music during the evening. After 
the dinner card, which was one of the finest which Landlord 
Pelren had got up for some time, had been enjoyed, the post- 
prandial exercises commenced. 

Upon his appointment as master of the banquet, Mr. Joseph 
B. Walker, of Concord, said : 

I thank you, Mr. President, for this unsought and very dis- 
tinguished honor. I feel as grateful for it, sir, as, — well, sir, 
as grateful, as /can. 

It seems to me, gentlemen, that congratulations are now in 
order, and I desire to congratulate each and every one of you 
upon your exploits during the last two days. 

1. You have all put in two honest days' w.ork upon the road., 
such as are seldom seen in our highway districts. I sincerely 
hope that these will be credited to you in part pa^'ment of your 
highway taxes upon returning to your homes. 

2. So far as my observation has extended, and beyond that I 
will trust my faith, you have also done equally honest work 
this evening at this social board. Upon the successful accom- 
plishment of this high service, I congratulate you. 

W^e are now to give an hour's time to the digestion of some 
of our road making ideas and of our dinner. 

I regret to say that the exigency of the occasion requires your 
symposiarch to restrict the remarks of each of our orators to 
ten minutes. 

I will first call upon His Excellency Governor Busiel, to tell 
us of the state's interests in our highways: 



366 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR BUSIEL. 

Every city or town may treat the good roads question from a 
practical and economical standpoint. An engineer should make 
a plan of all the city or town highways ; they should be classi- 
fied, each road being considered and judged by the amount of 
work required of it. Then the material to be used in the con- 
struction of the road will depend upon the service to which it 
will be subjected. While the main and business streets might 
require the Belgian brick, the side and residential thoroughfares 
may have concrete or Macadam, asphalt, or vitrified brick. 
With either of the above a systematic plan should be adopted, 
and this system must be carried out faithfully. In a few years 
our cities and towns will have arrived at a uniform and bene- 
ficial result. The small amount of money required to keep 
such roads in repair will surprise the city and town govern- 
ments. Undoubtedly, roads built under these suggestions would 
prove not only satisfactory but economical. 

I am in sympathy with the convention. I am confident that 
good results will ensue. In my opinion, it is through such dis- 
cussion as we are enjoying here that reforms must come. Our 
present laws, while not rigorous, are wisely permissive. Every 
town is permitted to control its own roads, and is at liberty to 
make them as good and as permanent as public sentiment de- 
mands. I am not prepared, at the present time, to recommend 
any legislation that will limit or lessen the powers of the towns 
in the management of their highways, nor am I prepared to 
approve the recent legislation in other states of building roads 
at the expense of all the people for the good of a limited num- 
ber. The laws are well enough ; let us learn how to build roads. 
Let us realize that a permanent road that needs little if any 
annual repair is, in the end, the cheapest. Let us learn that it 
is poor economy to annually spread a little money over a long 
distance. These results can be reached only through discussion. 
Let the discussion go on. 

The toastmaster then introduced Hon. J. L. Spring, of Leb- 
anon, remarking that : 

Thus far, the state of New Hampshire has had little to do 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 367 

with its highways, either as to their management or support. 
It was not so with the ancient governments of two thousand 
years or more ago. 

The Persians built a road from Sardis westward, through 
Asia Minor, fifteen hundred miles long, and so constructed it 
that a courier could pass over its entire length in six days. 

You are familiar with the old Roman roads, which ran out 
from the capitol like the spokes of a wheel, in all directions. 
One could travel on those almost indefinitely. Starting from 
Alexandria, on the Mediterranean, he could go westward to 
Gibraltar, and there crossing into Spain, pursue his course north- 
ward through Spain and Gaul to the English channel. Crossing 
this, he could travel on through England to the Scottish High- 
lands. Thence, southward, he could pursue his way through 
eastern Europe to his starting point, having traversed a distance 
of seven thousand miles. 

I will do myself the pleasure of calling upon Hon. J. L. 
Spring, the president of the State Board of Trade, who has had 
large legislative experience, to detail to us some of the duties 
of the state to its highways. 

ADDRESS OF HON. J. L. SPRING. 

Mr. Toastmaster and Gentleme?z : 

After the very clear and able presentation of the matter of 
improved highways to which we have listened this evening, 
there can be no question as to the desirableness of having the 
highways in New Hampshire put into the best practicable con- 
dition, but the burdens to be imposed upon the public by the 
building and maintenance of good roads must be considered 
and compared with advantages to be derived. The more care- 
fully and intelligently thiscomparison is made, the more apparent 
it must appear that the burden is overbalanced bv the advan- 
tages. In every city and town are to be found persons who 
oppose all improvements, such as the lighting and sprinkling 
of streets, the building of sidewalks and sewers, and the put- 
ting in of waterworks, etc. 

But it is found and admitted, that properly considered, the 
cost is far more than compensated by the benefits derived from 
them. We note that those towns and cities which have the 



368 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

most of these improvements are the most prosperous, and that 
they increase in population and wealth far beyond those places 
where such improvements are lacking, even if the tax rate is a 
little higher than in the former. It is said that the " character 
and condition of the highways in any country indicate the 
degree of civilization and advancement of the people of that 
countrv." 

It has seemed to me in connection with the agitation of this 
matter of good roads, that if we here in New Hampshire have 
faith in the future of our state and believe that for centuries to 
come it is to be the home of a prosperous and contented people, 
and that it is not to be merely a region of abandoned farms and 
deserted homesteads, we should show our faith bv our works, 
trusting that we may " be remembered by the good we have 
done." If coming generations remembei' us by our treatment 
of tlie forests, and our unsubstantial mode of building, they 
ought not to be compelled to bear the added legacy of wretched 
roads, built as for a temporary use only. 

We of to-day pride ourselves upon our engineering skill, our 
enterprise, and our intelligent workmanship ; but to an unpre- 
judiced observer the character and condition of our roads would 
go far to negative our claims. The age in which we live is- 
noted for the progress made in bringing men nearer together, 
and into closer personal relations than ever before ; the railway, 
the telegraph, the telephone, and the newspaper have wrought 
wonders in this direction, and the improvement of our high- 
ways would do much to increase and emphasize this progress. 
Our town system, or ratlier, lack of system, in building and 
repairing highways is indefensible in its wastefulness and slip- 
shod methods. Each town seemed to vie with the others in the 
unbusinesslike manner of expending the money appropriated 
for repair of highways, a large percentage of which was worse 
than wasted. Our state recognizing these facts, passed an act 
in 1893 requiring all towns to raise a sum of money for the 
repair of highways, each year, equal to one-fourth of one per 
cent, of its valuation, and abolishing the town highway district 
system which had then existed in this state for more than a cen- 
tury, and substituting in its stead a more reasonable and efficient 
system of management. In this respect the state took a long 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 369 

step toward providing for better roads, and to some extent, dis- 
charged its duty in regard to its highways. But the duty of the 
state does not stop at the reguhition ot the repairs of higliways 
in the several tovv^ns, but it owes a duty to the whole people to 
go forward, and not only regulate the town system, but to re- 
build by modern methods a certain portion of the most impor- 
tant highways leading to and between the principal cities and 
towns of the state, and to do this in the most approved and 
thorough manner. This, of course, will involve a large ex- 
penditure, and should be done by degrees, and most of the 
expense provided by bonds on long time and at a low rate of 
interest, that those who come after us to enjoy these improve- 
ments may contribute their share to the general burden. The 
counties and towns through which these improved roads are 
built should contribute a portion of tlie expense. The surface 
of our state is more uneven than that of any other state east of 
the Rocky mountains, and of course this is an important factor, 
but on the other hand we have an abundance of the best mate- 
rial for road building. I believe that the money paid by 
the state for this purpose, and especially for labor, should 
be paid mainly to our own people. In several of the states 
the roads are kept in repair largely by convict labor, at a 
rate of wages averaging in North Carolina, and some other 
states, at from 20 to 23 cents per day. I do not believe that we 
shall ever employ such labor on our highways, and I doubt the 
economy of doing it if we desired. 

The true policy of the state, as it seems to me, is to employ 
the best talent in locating and surveying these state roads, and 
then with the best of road machinery, such as we have seen 
exhibited yesterday and to-day, and our own intelligent local 
labor, sections of first-class roads can be built each vear without 
being unduly burdensome to the tax-payers. This is being done 
by our neighboring state of Massachusetts, which has expended 
$300,000 eacii year for the past two years, and the work done 
has proved so satisfactory tliat tlie legishiture, now in session 
voted last week to appropriate $600,000 more, for the present 
year. I believe it to be one of the duties of our state in this con- 
nection to make a reasonable appropriation for this purpose, and 
24 



370 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

to provide for an intelligent and prudent expenditure of the 
same. 

Another of the duties of the state in relation to highways is 
to regulate the manner of using them to some extent, especially 
with regard to the use of wider tires and wheels, as reason and 
experience show that it is much more expensive to keep roads 
in repair where narrow tires and wheels are used upon them, 
than where they are wider. This would be no especial hard- 
ship, as it could be provided that all wheels built after a certain 
date should be of a prescribed width. 

It is urged by some that the state should not be called upon 
to build roads, but that the towns should continue to do it as 
heretofore. Of course this is as it should be so far as the large 
majority of town roads are concerned. The state should only 
be asked to build and care for the main thoroughfares which 
mostly accommodate the longer-distance travel at first, and 
then later those principal roads radiating from the cities. When 
the benefits of these state roads are seen and their superiority 
and economy recognized, the towns will improve their methods 
of road building until the roads of the state will come to be re- 
garded as an additional attraction for our summer guests, and 
thus increase the prosperity of our people beyond the cost of 
the proposed system. These facts have been recognized to some 
extent, and the legislature has appropriated some $5,000 or 
$6,000 per year towards the repair of our mountain roads, and 
to say nothing of the pleasant junkets that it has aflbrded the 
leo'islative committees, it has contributed much to the prosper- 
ity of our summer resorts among the mountains. It is fast 
becoming a universal custom for people of all classes and pur- 
suits to take a summer vacation, going to this place or to that 
according to the attractions offered, and I know of nothing more 
attractive to the summer tourist than good roads. And when 
thev are at home again after their vacation there are few things 
that they recall more frequently or with greater pleasure than 
those carriage rides they took amid our mountain scenery, in- 
cludino" those fish stories and the reminiscences of early days 
among the mountains told for solemn truth by the genial driver. 
Our mountain hotels, and country boarding-houses, are meeting 
the demands of the times, and are doing their part toward the 



GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 37 1 

prosperity of the state. Our railroads are fully alive to the im- 
portance of our summer business, and are furnishing all needed 
facilities for its increase. 

The state has begun to realize the importance of the preserva- 
tion of its forests, and I believe that the time is near at hand 
when it will take the necessary steps to regulate the cutting oft 
of the remaining forest and to protect the future growth, and it 
seems to me that the time is near when our state should recog- 
nize its duty to take in hand the matter of improved roads. It 
cannot be done in a day, but it should be begun and enough 
done to show that we are in earnest about it. 

I believe that it will bear the test usually applied to business 
matters generally, and that it will -pay. Also that it will do 
much toward making the future of New Hampshire as grand 
and as creditable as its past. 

Other speakers were His Honor Mayor Robinson, Gen. Roy 
Stone of the Good Roads Department of the United States gov- 
ernment, L. F. Burbank of Nashua, Hon. N. B. Bryant of 
Andover, George A. Perkins and C. Frank Allen of Boston, 
and E. G. Harrison of New Jersey. 

This closed the first Good Roads convention ever held in New 
Hampshire, an occasion in which much interest was mani- 
fested. 



REPORT 

OP THE 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

* 

BOARD OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS 

FOR 

1895 AND 1896. 



N. J. Bachelder, Secretary. 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council : 
In accordance with previous action, the report of the State 
Board of Cattle Commissioners of New Hampshire is here- 
with submitted to your honorable body. 

The work of the Board during the years 1895 and 1896 for 
which period this report is made has mainly been devoted 
to the suppression of bovine tuberculosis, a disease not 
new to New Hampshire, but one receiving increased 
attention during recent years, on account of a better 
knowledge of its nature and a more definite understanding 
of the conditions effecting its development, as well as of 
the danger arising from it. These are facts which have been 
prominently placed before the people in various ways, yet we 
are of the opinion that the importance of preventative meas- 
ures in the suppression of bovine tuberculosis has not been 
given due prominence. In medical practice much importance 
is attached to preventative measures in warding ofif contagious 
and other diseases, and the practice of veterinary science, al- 
though comparatively young in this country, recognizes the 
same general principle. 

Disease in the animal kingdom is not known until its 
effect has been made noticeable by the appearance of the ani- 
mal, and consequently has become more deeply seated. This 
emphasizes the necessity of adopting preventive measures 
and enforcing the most strict sanitary regulations in the man- 
agement and control of the domestic animals and the sooner 
efforts are vigorously directed in this channel, the sooner will 
there be less disease among animals. The diseases which 



376 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

affect the animal king-doni, as well as those which are found 
in the human race, are largely preventable, and even those 
of a contagious character depend to some extent upon the sur- 
rounding conditions to propagate their kind. Tuberculosis is 
a contagious disease of this nature and is a disease that has 
existed in a greater or less degree in nearly all countries of 
the world where there are inhabitants. Bovine tuberculosis, 
which is the form affecting animals, has existed for ages among 
domestic animals of the same countries and will continue to 
exist in some degree as long as animals are reared and fed, 
and as long as consumption is known to the human race and 
the consumptive patient allowed to mingle with the rest of 
the world. This will probably be to the end of time, for no 
law will ever be enforced preventing it, however harmful the 
results may be. The most important action to be taken, both 
in regard to the human and the bovine race, is to establish 
and enforce such sanitary measures as appeal to the good 
judgment of those best informed upon such matters and in 
the case of the latter, break up and destroy the hotbeds of 
disease by disposing of tuberculous animals. The latter pro- 
vision, however, is of secondary importance compared with the 
sanitary restrictions to be enforced. 

It is not our purpose to enter into a lengthy scientific discus- 
sion of the nature and characteristics of bovine tuberculosis, 
for this matter is already quite well known. There are some 
things about this disease that are not yet well understood, 
even by scientific experts, but we should divest our minds of 
the idea that bovine tuberculosis is a mysterious malady, 
almost beyond our comprehension and understand that it is 
simply consumption caused by minute germs from a previous 
case of the disease finding lodgment in the system of 
animals where the conditions are favorable, grow and develop 
slowly or rapidly, according to circumstances, and produce 
the disease. This disease cannot be produced without the 
presence of the germ and probably not one tuberculous germ 
in ten thousand ever develops sufficiently to cause harm. 
They become dried and pass into the atmosphere and are 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 377 

present nearly everywhere until destroyed by their enemies, 
among the most important of which are light and extreme 
heat. The condition of the system in which the germ finds 
lodgment and the environment with which it is surrounded are 
the important considerations in causing or preventing a case of 
tuberculosis. These are the important matters to be considered 
in restricting this disease. 

The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis varies in different 
sections of the same country. It is generally found most prev- 
alent in thickly settled sections and the greatest freedom where 
the animals are r.epi v/ith the least confinement and 
forcing. Statistics regarding its prevalence are meagre. In 
1890 and '91 over 12,000 animals were killed in England dur- 
ing the outbreak of pleuro-pneumonia under the direction 
of the board of agriculture and were subjected to a post-mor- 
tem examination, and it was found that over twelve 
per cent, of those animals that were killed on account 
of another disease were tuberculous. This is probably 
a higher per cent, than could be found anywhere 
in New Hampshire. Were it necessary to go through and 
make a complete examination with the tuberculin test the 
expense would be appalling, to say nothing of the effect upon 
the live stock industry. The advocates of the indiscriminate 
application of the tuberculin test and the destroying of all 
animals that react are growing less every day but it is now 
generally conceded that the test should be applied to herds 
where a physical examination reveals a case of the disease. 
Beyond this we leave without expressing an opinion, the ex- 
tent to which this testing should be carried, to the wisdom of 
the legislature. The consideration of means of prevention is 
paramount to all else in the suppression of this widespread and 
alarming malady. 

PREVENTION. 

Our report is based upon observation and experience in 
the inspection of animals in over 500 barns in New Hamp- 
shire during the past two years. A careful consideration of 
this matter fails to reveal anv single cause to which the devel- 



378 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

opment of the germ can be traced, for the several causes con- 
tributing to it are generally associated where serious infec- 
tion is found. Probably the most productive of any and that 
which is most often present, is the lack of proper ventilation 
in the stable. Good authorities claim that each full-grown 
animal should have 1,000 cubic feet of air-space with a change 
of air two or three times a day. This of course refers to a 
stable without ventilation. Within the last twenty years 
there has been excessive agitation of the necessity of keeping 
dairy animals warm as a means of increasing the milk supply 
and so earnestly was this advocated, without sufficiently 
enforcing the necessity of ventilation or without sufficient 
adoption by the stock owners, that old stables were boarded 
up in front and new stables were built with this end in view. 
Within the same period stimulating grain foods have come 
into the market and sold in some seasons at low prices in 
proportion to the nutriment they contain. In addition to this 
the thrifty dairyman has been told that each movement of a 
muscle by the cow reduced the secretion of milk and in many 
instances she was kept tied in the rigid stanchion from fall 
till spring, forced to her utmost capacity with stimulating 
foods and all the time kept in a close, ill-ventilated stable. 
The owner apparently secured his milk at less expense than 
under the former system, but the germs of tuberculosis, 
perhaps from an unknown source, found congenial soil in the 
system of those animals and it became a tuberculous herd. 
So slowly did the disease develop that its nature was unknown 
to the owner, much less its cause, and occasional drooping 
animals were innocently sold to a neighbor and aided in the 
contamination of his herd if conditions were anyway favor- 
able. Sometimes they were sent to a distant town or state 
to pasture and, after a slight recuperation at pasture feed were 
disposed of to unsuspecting purchasers to carry the disease 
into new sections and into new herds. This in brief is the 
history of the development of the bovine tuberculosis exist- 
ing in the country today and indicates the extreme impor- 
tance of preventive measures which are largely in the 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 379 

hands of the stock owner to enforce or neglect. We shall 
place at the head of the list of causes contributing to the devel- 
opment of bovine tuberculosis, insufficient ventilation of 
stables. 

We find a wide difference of opinion among farmers and 
dairymen in regard to what constitutes proper and effective 
ventilation. An opening near the top of a close stable or 
tie-up will allow the heated air to pass out because it is lighter 
and tends to rise but the foul gases are heavier than 
pure air and settle towards the floor. A system of 
ventilation should take the air from the most contaminated 
part of the stable and carry it to the outside. A ventilating 
flue should be provided for this purpose and the draft will ac- 
complish the object. We are referring now to those stables 
that are closed in tight in the form of box stables and 
commonly called boarded up in front. In addition to 
this the partition in front of the animals should be 
so arranged as to be left partially open, except in 
extremely cold weather and then should be closed with 
good judgment. A stable arranged in this manner with 
a ventilator in the roof of sufficient size to carry ofif the heated 
air can be used with safety, if proper attention is given to 
regulating it. We are not in favor of heating the air in the 
cow stable from the warmth of the animals to such an extent 
as is frequently practiced. We have entered many stables 
where it was extremely oppressive to remain any length of 
time on account of the excessive warmth and foul gases and 
those are the stables that contribute largely to the develop- 
ment of tuberculosis. 

Another accessory cause of vital consequence and one 
which has been frequently discussed and has led to the most 
extravagant and unreasonable statements, is that of feed. It 
has been claimed with much earnestness that ensilage, cot- 
ton-seed meal, and other concentrated feeds that have come 
into general use within the present generation are direct causes 
of this disease. This claim has been made by men of high 
authority in matters of public concern, but fails to be verified 



380 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

by any reliable data. We have given careful investigation 
to this matter and fail to find any connection between any kind 
of wholesome feed and the development of tuberculosis. The 
amount that is fed has something to do in causing it. Since 
the highly concentrated feeds have come into use, there has 
been a tendency to crowd the animals to their utmost limit 
at the expense of constitutional vigor. This has been justified 
in the mind of the feeder from the fact that it requires a cer- 
tain amount of food to sustain the animal system and in the 
case of well bred animals, the larger amount they w'ere able 
to digest and assimilate the more the profit derived from the 
feeding. This is without taking into account the effect upon 
the animal. The result has been that the system was over- 
taxed by the excessive strain put upon it and could ofifer less 
resistance to the tuberculous germs and fell a prey to the dis- 
ease. A dairy animal may be forced by excessive feeding of 
stimulating food to such an extent that while the food itself 
causes no disease it so weakens the system that it has not the 
power to withstand the germ and we have a case of tuber- 
culosis. 

The breeding has something to do in this matter, for as in 
the case of feed, it tends to a condition favorable or antagon- 
istic to the growth and development of the germ. The theory 
was long ago exploded that consumption is hereditary and 
the theory has become equally well established that the ten- 
dency to develop or to overcome the tuberculous germ is 
transmitted in blood lines. This is nothing more or less 
than a delicate constitution in the one instance and a rugged 
constitution in the other, and the same principle applies both 
to the human and the bovine race. The one may fall an easy 
victim to tuberculosis upon the most trivial exposure while 
the other may feed upon tubercle bacilli and never suffer 
harm. In the animal kingdom we find those breeds of cattle 
that have been developed in their dairy products rather than 
in physical qualities to be more susceptible to the germ than 
those developed in the beef type. Animals in which the 
natural constitution of the breed has been sacrificed by in- 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 3OI 

and-in breeding, too young breeding or faulty breeding should 
never be allowed in the dairy herd for the most vigorous 
animals in the dairy breeds are none too rugged to withstand 
the attacks of this destructive germ. 

One of the most potent agents in the destruction of the 
germ is sunlight and more of this health-giving agency should 
be invited into cattle stables. It costs little and has other 
healthy efifects in addition to its power over the tubercle bacil- 
lus. The cattle stables should be arranged on the sunny side 
of the stable and should be well provided with windows. We 
have noted on various occasions the effect of dark, damp 
stables and have almost invariably found the disease in such 
places. We have also noticed the absence of the disease 
under the opposite conditions. We have in mind an instance 
where a tuberculous animal quite advanced with the disease 
was kept in a herd of 25 cattle for two years after the disease 
was noticed and upon applying the tuberculin test to the 
entire herd this badly diseased cow was the only one that 
responded. The reason that none others had contracted the 
disease was the fact that the sanitary conditions of the stable 
were first class and a spot as large as a person's hand could 
not be found in the entire stable where the sun's rays did not 
penetrate. Open up the dark, damp, dingy stables and let 
in Heaven's pure sun light and there will be less tuberculosis. 

Exercise is an important matter in the prevention of this 
disease. Both too little and too much exercise will impair the 
powers of resistance, but the former is by far the most com- 
mon. It is related to the other causes we have mentioned 
in this intense system of forcing and has been practiced for the 
purpose of getting the last quart of milk possible. Cattle that 
stand in the stable from fall till spring have no exercise to ex- 
pand the lungs, the common seat of the disease, and germs 
that might otherwise be destroyed gain a foot-hold on account 
of this inactivity. A vigorous walk of several rods at least 
once a day to the water supply will be healthful and a prom- 
inent and important preventive. Too much exercise some- 
times happens in the case of working oxen subjected to exces- 



382 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

sive and continuous exposure without adequate care. This 
will cause a condition in which the germ will find a congenial 
soil. A horse may be driven excessively and become so 
exhausted as to contract a cold that ends in his death, when 
at another time the same horse under exactly similar condi- 
tions, except exhaustion, would pass through the same experi- 
ence without any serious results. The same principle holds 
true in cattle and excessive strain upon muscular force opens 
the way for tuberculosis. We believe those entrusted with 
the enforcement and execution of laws for the suppression 
of bovine tuberculosis can have no iron clad regulations that 
will apply to every herd. Where the physical inspection 
reveals a case of tuberculosis and the conditions are such as 
to suggest the absence of sanitary precaution for a period of 
time, the application of the tuberculin test is advisable, but 
there seems to be a serious and unnecessary waste in killing and 
burying every animal that reacts to the test, however slightly it 
may be afifected. In the comparative freedom of the herds 
of New Hampshire from the disease in a serious form, we 
believe a campaign of education along sanitary lines will 
accomplish more than a universal use of the tuberculin test. 
There are hundreds of cattle slightly afifected with the germs 
of the disease that will never develop sufficiently to cause harm 
to man or animals, if proper sanitary measures are observed. 
The importance attached to these preventive measures has 
led the Board to issue circulars of information upon the sub- 
ject and to have the matter discussed in farmers' meetings 
and institutes in various sections of the state, believing a cam- 
paign of education for the dissemination of knowledge 
in regard to preventive measures to be the most im- 
portant phase of the subject. The permanent suppression 
of the disease largely depends upon the adoption of proper 
sanitary measures, among the most important of which are 
ventilation, sunlight, judicious feeding, careful breeding and 
a reasonable amount of exercise. 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 383 

QUARANTINE. 

Since 1892 quarantine regulations have existed against 
bringing cattle into New Hampshire from Massachusetts, 
except upon a certificate of soundness by a qualified veterin- 
arian based upon a physical examination. At various times 
since the above named date, other New England states have 
established quarantine regulations against all outside terri- 
tory admitting animals only on the result of the tuberculin 
test. The enforcement of these regulations resulted in the 
introduction into New Hampshire of diseased animals that 
were debarred from other states. 

For protection of the stock interests of New Hampshire 
and the health of the people the following order was issued, 
July 14, 1896: 

STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Board of Cattle Commissioners, 

Concord, July 14, 1S96. 

General Order A^o. J. 

1st. General Order dated January ii, 1892, and General 
Order dated January 19, 1892, are hereby repealed. 

2nd. All persons and companies are hereby prohibited 
from bringing or driving neat cattle into the State of New 
Hampshire without a permit from this Board. 

3rd. All neat cattle brought or driven into the State of 
New Hampshire under a permit from this Board, are hereby 
placed in quarantine upon arrival in the state until identified 
and released. 

4th. Selectmen of towns and cities of New Hampshire 
are hereby authorized to seize and hold in quarantine any 
neat cattle coming into the state without a legal permit, and 
notify this Board at once of such action. 

5th. Permits to bring or drive neat cattle into New Hamp- 
shire will be issued only upon the result of the tuberculin test 



384 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

to be applied and reported under such regulations and forms 
as will be furnished upon application to this Board. 

6th. This order is issued under authority of Chapter 113 
of the Public Statutes of New Hampshire, and all violations 
will be vigorously prosecuted. 

7th. This order shall take effect on the fifteenth day of 

July, 1896. 

IRVING A. WATSON, President, 

N. J. BACHELDER, Secretary, 
Board of Cattle Commissioners. 

On the same date the following letter of information was 
issued: 

STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Board of Cattle Commissioners, 

Concord, July 14, 1896. 
To iv/iom it may Concerfi : 

The quarantine regulations issued by the Board of Cattle 
Commissioners of the State of New Hampshire against all 
cattle outside of the state are made necessary by the action 
already taken in the same line by the authorities of other New 
England states. Evidence has been submitted to this Board 
that animals, failing to pass the test and therefore debarred 
from those states, are being brought into New Hampshire 
and are contributing to our milk supply to the injury of the 
healthfulness and reputation of New Hampshire dairy prod- 
ucts. 

Persons desiring to bring cattle into New Hampshire will 
be furnished upon application with the necessary blanks upon 
which to forward the result of the test, said test to be made 
by any person who is satisfactory to the Cattle Commission- 
ers of the state in which the test is made. Upon arrival in 
this state the cattle will be identified and released as soon as 
practicable by this Board or its representative. 

In making the report of the tuberculin test, when applying 
for a permit, both the original and duplicate reports are to 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 385 

be made out and forwarded to this office without being de- 
tached from the blank permit. 

Board of Cattle Commissioners, 

Concord^ N. H. 

Under this regulation cattle have been admitted upon filing 
evidence of soundness as indicated by the tuberculin test. 
This regulation should be sustained as long as similar regu- 
lations are enforced by the adjoining states. 

INSPECTION. 

The Board has acted upon the principle that in order to 
carry out the intention of the law it was necessary to have the 
authority to adopt such measures as the circumstances re- 
quired in cases where inspection was made. Every request 
made to the Board for inspection has been responded to by 
the following letter and blank application. 

THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Board of Cattle Commissioners, 

Concord, , 189 . 

Dear Sir : 

The Board is now prepared to continue the inspection of 
animals for tuberculosis and the work will be pushed as 
rapidly as possible in the order in which applications are 
received. After due consideration the Board is convinced 
that it must have the authority of the owner of suspected herds 
to make as thorough inspection as possible and, if the con- 
ditions require it, have authority to apply the tuberculin test. 
This Board fails to discover reliable evidence of injury to 
healthy animals from the application of this test, and when 
applied by skillful men is practically reliable. 

If you will fill and return the enclosed blank in regard to 

your herd, which has been reported to us as suspicious, we 

will make the examination as early as possible, considering 

the applications in the order in which they are received. 

Yours truly, 

N. J. BACHELDER, Secretary. 
25 



386 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

APPLICATION FOR CATTLE INSPECTION. 

189.... 

To the Board of Cattle Co?fiJfiiss loners, 
State of Nezv Hampshire, 

Coficord. 

Gentlemen : I hereby make application for an official inspec- 
tion of my herd of cattle, in regard to which I make the follow- 
ing statement : 

My entire herd consists of cattle. 

First noticed symptoms of disease about 

Symptoms noticed are 

These cattle are at my stable located about miles from 

the nearest railroad station. 

If the board considers an investigation advisable and upon a 
physical examination finds sufficient symptoms of tuberculosis in 
the herd, to warrant, in the opinion of the board, the application 
of the tuberculin test to the herd, I hereby authorize its applica- 
tion by the board. I understand the expense of making the in- 
spection to be entirely borne by the board and that, according to 
law, I am to receive one-half the health value of all animals con- 
demned by the test and destroyed in the presence of myself, or 
that of my agent. I also agree to disinfect the stable and take 
other precautionary measures in accordance with the instructions 
of the cattle commissioners. 
(Signed) 



P. O. Address. 



Upon receipt of the application properly filled out and 
signed inspection was ordered if the symptoms reported indi- 
cated to a reasonable degree the presence of tuberculosis. 
While no iron clad rules in regard to the frequency of inspec- 
tions in any given locality have ever been enforced, it has not 



County. 


Herds Ins] 


Belknap 


14 


Carroll 


8 


Cheshire 


33 


Coos 


9 


Grafton 


22 


Hillsborough 


284 


Merrimack 


82 


Rockingham 


57 


Strafford 


7 


Sullivan 


I 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 387 

generally been the practice to incur the expense of inspections 
oftener than once a month in any town. In some instances 
longer delays than this have occurred, but the Board has been 
guided by business judgment with due regard to the danger 
from the disease. The result of the inspection has been as 
follows : 

ed. Animals Destroyed. 

6 
10 

38 
8 

39 
333 
78 
31 
19 

517 562 

The post mortem examination made on each of the 562 
condemned animals destroyed verified the diagnosis in 559 
cases leaving only three in which the disease was not found. 
As no microscopic test was made in either instance it prob- 
ably existed in these three animals. 

Explicit directions have been given in each instance for the 
disinfection of the premises and the measures advisable to 
adopt for the prevention of reappearance of the disease. All 
ill-ventilated and poorly lighted stables have been ordered 
changed in accordance with the most progressive ideas upon 
the subject. 

Eight cases of glanders have been destroyed and attention 
given to all reports of contagious diseases that came under 
the jurisdiction of the Board. 

FINANCIAL. 

The statute provides for the payment of one half the health 
value for diseased cattle destroyed. In the case, of badly 
diseased animals this is an excessive amount and m the case 
of slightly diseased animals, it is insufficient. Inasmuch as 



388 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

herds are tested only on the request of the owner and then 
only when the Commissioners deem the application of the 
test to be warranted by the conditions, the provisions of the 
statutes in regard to the basis of payment for animals des- 
troyed seems on the whole to be just and equitable. The 
object of the law is not the reimbursement of owners of ani- 
mals for the misfortune of having the disease in the herd, but 
to provide for reimbursing the owner for the actual loss sus- 
tained in having diseased animals taken from the herd and 
destroyed for the protection of healthy animals and can only 
be construed to mean their value in a diseased condition. 
We believe this object to be accomplished in the provisions 
of the law when the average conditions are taken into 
account. Following is the financial statement for 1895 and 
1896: 

1895. 

211 condemned cattle destroyed (one half health 

value) $ 3,654.50 

4 condemned horses destroyed (diseased value). 16.00 

Services of veterinarians 979.00 

Expenses of veterinarians 30583 

Burying cattle destroyed 21 i.oo 

Disinfectants, tuberculin, instruments, travelling 

expenses and incidentals 262.78 

Clerk hire 500.00 

Total $ 5,929.11 

1896. 

351 condemned cattle destroyed (one half health 

value) $ 6,705.00 

4 condemned horses destroyed (diseased value). 16.00 

Services of veterinarians 1,722.50 

Expenses of veterinarians 382.29 

Burying cattle destroyed •■*35i.oo 

Disinfectants, tuberculin, instruments, legal ad- 
vice, travelling expenses and incidentals 317-01 
Clerk hire 500.00 

Total $9,993.80 



REPORT OF CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 389 

CONCLUSION. 

In closing this report the commissioners repeat the state- 
ment with emphasis that the permanent suppression of bovine 
tuberculosis depends in a great degree upon the action taken 
by the stock-owners in adopting proper sanitary measures. 
We believe no method of procedure to secure this is more 
practical, economical or effectual than the method pursued 
in New Hampshire. The advocacy of preventive measures, 
the physical examination of suspected animals, the applica- 
tion of the tuberculin tests, if circumstances warrant, and 
careful instruction in each instance where disease is found 
in the disinfection of the stable and in such changes of struc- 
ture as are necessary, will not fail to accomplish good results. 
It is along these lines that diseased herds may be changed to 
healthy herds and assistance rendered the stock owner in the 
most practical and economical manner. The disease can 
never be exterminated, but the danger from it may be reduced 
by the adoption of such measures as are advocated in this 

report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IRVING A. WATSON, President. 
N. J. BACHELDER, Secretary. 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 



BY HON. JOHN D. I.YMAN, EXETER, N. H. 



I intend in this paper to further, but briefly, illustrate and 
enforce a few fundamental principles of forestry of which I 
have before treated. I am encouraged to do this by the num- 
ber of groves which I see have been attended to in various and 
widely-separated sections of the state since this effort in behalf 
of foiestry was commenced ; and by the invitations I receive to 
lecture upon the subject ; and letters requesting copies of my 
paper upon forestry, published in the last report of the Board 
of Agriculture (my three hundred extra copies are exhausted) ; 
and of letters inquiring for information upon certain points. 
These letters come not only from this and other New Eng- 
land states, but from the central and western. 

B. E. Fernow, chief of the division of forestry under our 
government, says that " the total annual product of wood 
material of all sorts consumed in the United States may be 
valued, in round numbers, at one billion ($1,000,000,000) dol- 
lars, or, roughly speaking, twenty-five billion (25,000,000,000) 
cubic feet of wood, the annual increase of five hundred million 
acres of forest in fair condition. This value exceeds ten times 
the value of our gold and silver output and three times the 
annual product of all our mineral and coal mines put together. 
It is three times the value of bur wheat crop, exceeds the gross 
income of all the railroads and transportation companies, and 
would more than wipe out the remaining public debt of the 
United vStates." (See Bulletin No. 5.) One of the most 
marked distinctions between the enlightened and the savage 
peoples is, that the latter depend almost entirely upon the spon- 
taneous, wild production of nature for their food and clothing, 
while the former assist nature, and by this means increases the 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 39I 

food and clothing materials thousands of folds. Instead of 
having herds and flocks of domestic animals, our Indians 
depended upon the wild animals for their meats, and chiefly 
upon acorns, nuts, and roots, with fish, for their other foods, 
and upon skins, grasses, and bark, instead of cotton, wool, silk, 
and linen, for their clothing. Although the present territory 
of the United States had three kinds of native apples, I am not 
aware that any Indian ever conceived the idea of having an 
orchard or of improving the fruit. Although plums, currants, 
strawberries, and other delicious fruits, grew wild in small 
quantities in the few open places, yet we are not aware that 
our Indians ever conceived the idea that they could increase 
the quantity or quality of these fruits by assisting nature. Thev 
plucked or slew what grew wild, and submitting to their fate, 
starved when nature's limited supply was exhausted. It 
took a great many acres of land to support one Indian and all 
New Hampshire supported but a few thousand. 

Now, while we assist nature, and by so doing produce farm 
crops and domestic herds and flocks that would have as- 
tonished the most enlightened nations of the world a few 
years ago by their abundance and quality, yet we, strange to 
say, savage-like, depend upon unassisted nature to produce our 
wood and timber. We utterly discard the theory, in general, 
of the savages in regard to depending upon unassisted nature to 
grow our needed supplies of food and clothing materials, but 
when we come to the needed supplies of timber, we, like the 
Indians as to other crops, depend upon unassisted nature. 
Just as though man cannot grow a timber tree as well as he 
can grow an ear of corn ! Just as though he must let ninety- 
and-nine worthless trees occupy his land to each valuable one ! 
Just as though he must let worthless weed-trees like the little 
red cherry, grey birch, alder, and the like, cover his grounds 
instead of the white pine, the oaks, the chestnut, the ash, and 
other valuable trees ! Just as though he must let his old fields 
and pastures be partially covered by the worthless, scattering, 
iimby white pines instead of planting the seed and growing 
this, the most majestic of our trees, in its perfection and great 
value ! Just as though man has not the wit and wisdom to 



392 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

mould and shape the tree, when it is growing, as easily as the 
potter moulds the clay ! Just as though he cannot dictate to 
his lands whether they shall grow the worthless or the valua- 
ble trees, just the same as he can dictate to them whether they 
shall grow weeds or grain ! 

To illustrate, if you have forty young white pines growing at 
equal distances from each other on an acre of land, you will 
grow forty wide-spreading limby and nearly worthless trees. 
If you have ten thousand young pines of the same age on an 
acre and let them all remain, you wait nearly a century to get 
trees of the proper size for fence poles. Careful measurements 
and counting of annual rings, by Austin Carey, Esq., show 
that the spruces, six inches in diameter, four feet from the 
ground, in our old forests average about one hundred years 
of age. If you judiciously thin the acre of thick pines from 
time to time, vou will by the time they are from fifty to 
seventy-five years of age have the trees average from three 
hundred feet to five, six, or even seven hundred feet of inch- 
boards. And if you carefully prune oft' the limbs as fast as 
they die, and in some instances a little faster, your butt logs 
will be entirely free from knots, except very small ones very 
near the heart. If you do not prune young trees even the butt 
logs vs'ill generally be pretty full of black knots, which all know 
greatly diminish the price and the value of lumber for many 
purposes. I find white pine boards in our village, selling 
from eight dollars for a thousand feet of inch-boards to sixty 
dollars per thousand feet. There is no reason why you cannot at 
an expense of about one and a half cents to a tree, prune young 
trees which you select to let stand for saw-logs, so that the 
butt-logs will make perfectly clear stuff to within two inches 
or less of the heart. I have known dead pine limbs, not much 
larger than a pipe stem, to remain on a tree some fifty years, 
causing a black knot in all the boards on that side of the tree, 
to near the heart. 

White pine limbs reach to the heart of the tree, as they start 
at top of the tree from buds, and as long as the limbs are 
alive they make red and fast knots, but when the limbs die 
the body of the tree grows yearly out over the dead, black 





FIG. I. THIS IS A BLACK SPRUCE AND SHOWS THE FORM OF 

THE PINES, SPRUCES AND HEMLOCK WHEN 

GROWN IN THE OPEN. 










FIG. 2. UNTHINNED WHITE PINES SOWN BY OMAR PEASE 
ABOUT 1870. 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 393 

limbs the thickness of the annual growth of the tree, and the 
knots are black and frequently loose from near the point where 
the limbs die. 

This very important fact should be kept in mind, viz., that 
thick young forests will grow more cords of wood, whether 
the wood be in lumber or in fuel trees, by being properly 
thinned than they will by letting them go unthinned. The 
more you cut out in thinning, up to a certain point, the larger 
and more profitable will be your timber crop and the sooner 
fit to cut. The same is true of a wood crop. 

This has been demonstrated by repeated experiments. All 
farmers know that thev may have their corn, potatoes, grain, 
or grass so thickly seeded that the crop will be small. It is 
the same with the timber crop. Either too many or too few 
stalks of corn or number of trees to the acre diminishes the 
quantity of the crop. But there is this very important differ- 
ence to be observed in the growing of a crop of corn and a crop 
of timber. In growing corn and other farm crops we start the 
crops with about the number of plants we expect to mature, 
while to grow a crop of good timber we should start with a 
great many more trees to the acre than we intend to grow to 
timber size. 

This picture (see Fig. i) shows the form of the pine, spruce 
or hemlock when grown in open land. 

The second picture (see Fig. 2) is of pines, which have 
grown from seed sown on poor plains, and they stand so 
close together that they are growing very slowly. They need 
to be thinned, and those selected to be grown into large trees 
should have their dry limbs removed. These trees have not 
green limbs enough instead of a surplus to be removed. The 
man who sowed the seed from which these pines, represented 
in the second picture, grew, died in 1883, and it is believed 
that he sowed their seed about 1870, and yet these pines, 
with the exception of those on the outside, average far less 
than the size of common fence stakes. 

The pines shown in the third picture (see Fig. 3) are be- 
lieved to be younger than those shown in the second picture ; 
but their far larger size and greater thriftiness are readily 



394 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

noticed. They stand on poor, high, dry land, but they have 
been thinned and pruned two or more times, and are conse- 
quently growing fast, and their butt logs, when sawed, will not 
be found full of black knots. Can any one look at the last two 
pictures and not be convinced of the advantages of thinning to 
increase the rate of growth, and of pruning to improve the 
quality? 

The fourth picture (see Fig. 4) is of pines which did not 
stand so far apart as to be worthless, like the bushlike tree 
represented in the first picture, nor yet close enough together 
to make good timber. Some half a dozen years ago the axe- 
men cut oft' the low limbs as far up as they could reach, which 
did little good save to make them look a little better. They 
stand on good land for pines, have grown rapidly, and will 
make rough, coarse, cheap lumber. Had these trees come up 
thick, and been properly thinned and pruned, the lumber 
would have been much more valuable. 

The fifth picture (see Fig. 5) poorly represents pines about 
thirty years from the seed. They have been thinned and 
pruned. They are about forty-five feet in height, and their 
live limbs cover half or a little more of the length of their 
bodies. They are thrifty and handsome, and are growing high- 
priced timber. At sixty years of age I judge there will be fifty 
thousand feet of boards to the acre, and the butt logs of excel- 
lent quality. 

The sixth picture (see Fig. 6) is of pines on the same aban- 
doned farm, and standing near those represented in the fourth 
picture, and like them, are about fifty years of age. They 
came up very thick, and were entirely neglected till about 
twenty-four years ago, since which time they have been 
thinned and pruned several times. They average a little over 
thirteen inches in diameter four feet from the ground, and are 
from sixty-five to eighty feet in height. The cutting and saw- 
ing of sample trees convinces me that there is stout fifty thous- 
and feet of timber to the acre. The quality is good, but the 
butt logs will not be clear of knots to so near the heart as the 
trees represented in the third and fifth of these pictures, be- 
cause these trees were not pruned when as small as those were. 




FIG. 4. NATURAL UNPRUNED PINES WHICH DID NOT COME 
UP THICK ENOUGH. 




FIG. 5. PINES ABOUT vSIX INCHES IN DIAMETER WHICH 
HAVE BEEN THINNED AND PRUNED. 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 395 

THINNING. 

Thin often so as to let the trees selected for standards ever 
have room to grow quite rapidly. Too much sunshine and 
v^ind must not be let in upon and among the trees at any one 
time by excessive thinning. Be careful to take off but few live 
limbs at any one pruning. Except for the expense I would cut 
off the live limbs at some distance from the body of the pine, 
and the next year prune these stubs off close to the tree. This 
prevents all danger of a little collection of turpentine or "' pitch " 
at the point where the limb is severed from the tree. It is very 
important to have your young trees so thick that you will have 
no large low limbs. In this case the limbs will generally die as 
rapidly as it will be best to prune. I would not object to a 
rule which should read like this, viz. : Have your young trees 
stand so close together that the lower limbs will die as fast as 
the trees will need pruning, so as to have to prune off only 
dead limbs. 

I am aware that some people believe that pruning trees pro- 
motes rot, and some millmen have objected to buying trees 
which had been pruned. My father when I was a boy pruned 
half or more of the live limbs at one time, from a pasture pine, 
which had been " slivered" in several places. The tree grew 
well and its body for some twenty or more feet up to the limbs, 
became some two feet in diameter and very handsome. A 
few years since its top showed signs of decreasing vitality, and 
upon cutting the tree it was found very rotten with the red rot. 
That prince of New Hampshire foresters, Joseph Barnard, 
Esq., reports a case where very considerable rot was rejoorted 
to be found among trees which had been pruned. A news- 
paper writer some years since, stated that carpenters some- 
times caused timber to rot by sawing it with saws with which 
they had sawed rotten timber ; the germ or the microbe causing 
the decay being conveyed by the saw to the sound timber. Can 
this ever be the case in pruning? A member of the noted 
lumber company at Lisbon, told me that they found the lumber 
from trees which had been pruned sound. Many of my pruned 
trees have been cut and all found sound, and as I stated in the 



396 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

last report, I had two pines from which a hundred or more limbs 
had been pruned, cut and sawed into boards, and there was not 
a particle of rot in them. I have known instances where live 
limbs have been torn from trees, leaving wounds of greater 
or less length in the body of the tree, and for rot to begin in 
those wounds. A live branch some six inches in diameter was 
cut from a thrifty white pine, and that knot slowly rotted with 
a white rot which extended some two feet down into the tree. 
A fundamental rule in pruning, should be to remove all the 
live limbs, which are to be removed, when they are small, and 
never remove many live limbs from a tree at any one time. I 
have never known a tree injured by a common sense pruning. 
All have known fruit, shade and timber trees greatly damaged 
by a pruning which reminds one of butchery, and which in a 
lover of the beautiful God-shaped trees required a large amount 
of Christianity to prevent expressions unbecoming a gentleman, 
much more a Christian. Observation and sense are the funda- 
mental qualifications for a forester or a farmer, and if to these 
be added health and industry, fires, or some such occurrences 
as droughts or floods, can alone prevent success, and these are 
not very liable to occur. 

THE GROWING OF TIMBER ON WASTE LANDS. 

The United States census of 1880 states that there were, at 
that time, one hundred and sixteen thousand acres of turned 
out old fields and pastures in this state, producing neither farm 
nor forest crop. The amount of such idle land is believed to be 
increasing. This land was originally covered with trees. 
There is no doubt whatever but the most of it is now in good 
condition to grow crops of white pine, and some of it other 
timber trees, at a great profit. A hundred thousand acres of 
this waste land sown to white pine seed and properly cared for, 
would, in from forty to seventy-five years, be worth from one 
hundred to four or five hundred dollars per acre, or somewhere 
from ten to thirty millions of dollars, at present low prices. I 
give a few facts to prove this statement : 




> 




hT 




^ 




u 




w 




fe 




« 




w 




CL, 


c« 


s 


K 


f-H 


< 


_ 


W 


w 


r" 


o 


, 


•< 




Sh 


JH 


o 


VJ 




< 


-J} 


h4 


« 




<J 


W 


p 


w 


>• 


H 


o 


O 


^ 


'^ 


o 


a 


m 


w 


< 


z 




2; 







'^ 


s 


l-H 


fH 


c 




<; 


Q 


« 


Z 


w 


•< 


> 




■< 


Q 




W 


c/5 


Z 


w 


P 


z 


« 


►-I 


11. 







PINKS GROWN FROM SEKD SOWN BY OMAR PEASE UPON 
SAND BARRENS AND THINNED ONLY IN 1896. 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 397 

THE EXPERIMENT OF AUGUSTUS PRATT, MEMBER OF THE 
MASSACHUSETTS BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Pratt, with eight days' work, planted thirteen acres 
of poor land with white pine seed. The land was largely 
covered with blueberry bushes and small weeds. Forty years 
after the planting, he cut from forty to forty-five cords of box- 
board logs to the acre from that land, and sold the logs, deliv- 
ered at mill, for six dollars a cord. The wood brought quite 
a little sum. A cord of boxboard logs is said to average about 
one thousand feet of five-eighths of an inch thick boxboards. 
A great many thousand acres of better land than this lie idle 
in New Hampshire. Why not put it to growing timber.'' 
What a neglect of opportunity to enrich both the owners and 
the state ! Mr. Pratt is a member of the Massachusetts board 
of agriculture. 

OMAR PEASE. 

The Shakers of Enfield, Connecticut, possess hundreds of 
acres of poor sand plains, in some few places too poor to sod 
over. Omar Pease, the head of one of the families, conceived 
the idea of covering these plains with white pine. He collected 
the seed during the first days of September, and plowed the 
land and sowed it to rye, and harrowed in the rye. Then he 
sowed broadcast two quarts of white pine seed to the acre, and 
rolled the ground. This course he pursued for several years as 
he was able to procure the pine seed. The number of acres he 
seeded is unknown, as it has never been measured. Judging 
from looks and what I was told, I estimate he seeded nearly two 
hundred acres. I was surprised that on these dry sand plains 
he succeeded every year, but such appears to be the fact. 
Pease died in 18S3, and his successor was unwise enough to 
plow up some forty acres of the youngest pines, then about a 
foot in height, for the purpose of growing rye. The rye failed 
to produce a paying crop and the ground has since lain waste. 
Whether Pease harvested any rye from that sown with his pine 
seed, I could not learn. Pease was, undoubtedly, an observing 
man, and had noticed that a hot sunshine directly upon the 



398 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

young pine, the first or second year from the seed, was 
liable to kill it, and hence sowed the r3'e to shade the pine 
plants. The little weeds and blueberry bushes did the shading 
for Augustus Pratt. Although I give a picture of one place 
where the late sown of the Pease pines are so thick as to 
grow very little, yet most of them are thrifty and gain in height, 
on an average, about eighteen inches a year. Many acres are 
covered with tall beautiful trees, averaging seven or more inches 
in diameter, and from forty to fifty feet in height. To John 
W. Copley, manager for the Third family, I am indebted 
for much attention and information. He and the head of the 
Enfield Shakers readily agreed with me as to the great advan- 
tage of thinning, and, although they had never seemed to have 
thought of thinning before, they set about it at once, and on 
my second visit I found that they were thinning their trees 
and were greatly pleased with the operation. They were get- 
ting much wood and fencing. 

They felt sure that with locusts fi'om their plantation of that 
tree, for stakes, and with wire for pins instead of withes, they 
could, with the pine poles cut out in thinning, make a fence that 
would stand forty years without repairing. If any of the poles 
were a little too sappy, they would slightly hew them on two 
sides. If all the owners of cheap and waste lands in our state 
could just look upon the barren plains of the Shakers, and then 
go into the beautiful pine plantation on just such land adjoining, 
they would no more doubt the practicability of covering our 
cheap and waste lands with timber plantations of great value 
than they would doubt their ability to grow a crop of corn or 
grass on good land. 

I have before written of the success of Mr. Jewell of Win- 
chester, this state, who, in 1849, gathered twelve bushels of 
white pine cones and sowed them broadcast on the grass sod of 
two and a half acres of worn-out pasture land. In 1S91 I found 
this a most beautiful plantation. As I remember them, the trees 
then averaged about sixty-six feet in height and eleven inches 
in diameter four feet from the ground. The cones and the little 
grass saved the young plants from the sunstroke. The seasons 
may have been favorable. 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 399 

In several European countries and in southern Asia, trees are 
grown as a crop, and of the kind and size desired. Just think 
of having every tree a valuable one and all of one kind and all 
fit to cut and every butt log perfectly clear, except knots not 
much larger than a pipestem, and these confined to within one 
and a half or two inches of the heart! Lumbermen have re- 
cently informed me that boards averaging from twelve to fifteen 
inches in diameter, from such butt logs, would in these days of 
cheap lumber sell for thirty dollars per thousand feet. 

Sow the seed or take proper care of your close-set little pines,. 
and it will not be many years before there will be some thirty 
thousand feet of such butt logs to the acre, worth say twenty 
dollars per thousand on the stump, or six hundred dollars be- 
side all the other logs. Do not say that it cannot be done. 
It is entirely practical. Ask Vanderbilt, ask Bismarck, ask 
the Duke of Athol, ask Gladstone, ask any of the real estate 
owning nobility of England, ask any forester in Europe, 
ask the forest schools of the old world — all, all of these 
will assure you that it is one of the easiest things in the world 
to grow timber as a crop, and will be just as positive 
about it as you are that thirty bushels or more of corn can be 
grown on an acre of New Hampshire land. What a 
contrast in lumbering such plantations, compared with break- 
ing an acre of deep snow in the mountains of northern New 
York to get three thousand feet of small, knotty spruce ! Three 
thousand feet per acre is considered the average yield of timber 
per acre in the Adirondack region, by Superintendent Fox, and 
it brings one dollar and a half per thousand feet on the stump. 
Just think of the luxury of cutting a hundred thousand feet of 
first-class white pine, with every butt log clear, and the second 
logs nearly so, from an acre of our cheap lands instead of break- 
ing miles upon miles of roads over many acres of land to get 
that amount of far poorer lumber ! Yet it is entirely practical to 
grow a hundred thousand feet of excellent white pine timber on 
an acre of land. Comparatively a few years since I knew a 
leading farmer to plow up a few improved strawberry plants 
which his son had set out in the garden. The idea that one 
should think of cultivating strawberries! They grow wild. 



400 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Just as absurd do many to-day deem the growing of timber as 
a crop as did that man of growing strawberries. Timber grows 
wild, they think, and so must grow ! But cuUivated strawber- 
ries so supply the market now that probably multitudes have 
no idea that they ever grew wild. This will be the case to a 
great extent with timber. It will be grown and harvested as a 
crop, and land will be seeded to timber trees as it is now seeded 
to grass or planted to corn. 

There appear to be about three million acres of forest land 
in this state, and the annual cut of timber is believed to be about 
one hundred feet of boards per acre on an average, and the gen- 
eral belief is that at this rate of cutting, our timber supply will 
soon be exhausted. But when these three million acres shall be 
covered with properly cared for timber trees there may be from 
five to seven times this amount cut yearly and the supply be as 
lasting as the sunshine and rainfall. 

With all the time since the flood to operate in, unassisted 
nature in our White Mountain region shows a crop of about 
five thousand feet of spruce on the average to the acre. As I 
have before stated, Mr. Carey finds by cutting trees and count- 
ing grains, it takes unassisted nature about one hundred years 
to start a spruce in the old forests, and grow it to six inches in 
diameter at four feet from the ground. We think no observant 
woodsman will doubt but that starting spruces in cleared land, 
pretty close together, and properly thinning them from time to 
time as thev begin to crowd one another, one could grow these 
trees at least eighteen inches in diameter in the time that unas- 
sisted nature is growing them six inches in diameter, and a log 
eighteen inches in diameter, it will be remembered, is nine times 
as large as one six inches in diameter. Of course, the eighteen 
inch tree would have much more than nine times as much lum- 
ber in it, because it is so much taller. When the spruce whose 
yearly rings are shown in one of the illustrations in this paper 
was given space to grow in by having the forest thinned, it 
grew in diameter at the rate of four inches in eleven years, and 
at this rate of growth a spruce one hundred years old would be 
three feet in diameter. At this rate the butt-log would be 
thirty-six times as large as the six inch log. If the trees were 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 4OI 

properly pruned from time to time, the clear butt-logs of fair 
size on the stump in the Adirondack region would be worth 
from ten to twenty-two dollars a thousand feet while the aver- 
age price of spruce, as has been stated, is only one and one 
half dollars. Counting the grains of a great many spruce 
trees in the Adirondack region, from the heart of the trees 
towards the outside, the number of grains or yearly rings to 
the inch next the heart, was found to vary from fifteen to forty- 
six. But when the trees got to be a foot in diameter, with 
their tops above the surrounding trees, they had only from five 
to twent^'-six grains to the inch. Nature in this clearly demon- 
strates the necessity of giving room to the tops of trees. 

The next picture actually represents the exact rate a spruce, 
coming up in an old forest, did grow. You see it was many 
years old before it was three inches in diameter. Then its 
top got above some of the surrounding trees, and it grew faster 
till it became again crowded, and grew very slowly. Then 
these woods were thinned out, and this tree's top gained in 
size with its increased space to grow in, and the tree soon grew 
very fast for a spruce. This tree demonstrated, as much as 
any one tree can demonstrate a general principle, that thinning 
of thick, growing trees is of great importance. 

Reckoning money at four per cent., compound interest, and 
saying nothing of taxes, a plantation growing a crop of timber 
in ninety years is worth when the trees start from the seed, thirty- 
two times as much as a plantation upon which an equally val- 
uable crop is grown in one hundred and eighty years. A good 
crop of white pine for merchantable inch boards can be grown 
in .si5rty years. For box boards in forty years. Starting with 
the trees thick and properly thinning and pruning, suppose it 
took seventy-two years to grow fifty thousand feet to the acre. 
Then you should have about twenty-five thousand feet of clear 
butt-logs, and the timber on the lot at present prices, would be 
worth about five hundred dollars per acre. Reckoning your 
money to have doubled three times, that is, for each dollar in- 
vested to have become eight dollars, and dividing tiie five hun- 
dred dollars by eight, and it makes the acre of land as soon as 
the pine seed is in it, worth sixty-two and a half dollars. The 
26 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 4O3 

thinnings, in many localities, for wood, fencing, shingles, 
shocks, and timber, would be worth quite a sum. I think it 
safe to say that land upon which such a plantation can be grown 
can be bought in this state for one dollar per acre. But some 
one says this looks well on paper. I agree that it does, and it 
can be made to look better on the land. Even allow one half 
for the difference between theory and practice, and it looks well 
then. A friend of mine has lately taken two thousand dollars 
for the boards and shooks cut upon four acres of uncared for 
sapling white pine judged to be seventy-five years of age. 
The net income was almost three hundred and fifty dollars per 
acre. 

No one who has studied the growth of timber trees, and 
sawed them into lumber, will doubt that the value of this lot of 
timber could have been very much increased by assisting nature 
in the growth of the trees. The butt-logs could have been 
grown clear lumber, and the time taken to grow the trees of the 
size they were when cut, greatly decreased. As money at four 
per cent, doubles in eighteen years, every eighteen years saved 
in the time of growing the timber diminishes its cost by one 
half. Very generally, by assisting nature you can have your 
trees much larger at sixty years of age, than unassisted nature 
would have them at seventy-eight years of age, and besides the 
very important item of taxes, they will have cost you only one 
half as much. To make known the slowness of the growth of 
trees in the old forests, I copy a page of a table from the excel- 
lent report of Hon. William F. Fox, superintendent of the state 
forests of New York, to whom I am under obligation for many 
favors. The same table shows that the few spruces which were 
thirty inches in diameter averaged three hundred and five annual 
rings and those thirteen inches in diameter one hundred and 
seventy-two and seven tenths. As the rings were counted in 
the stumps, which were from thirty inches to three or four feet 
in height, the trees were quite a number of years older than the 
number of rings indicates. A noticeable fact is that the trees 
thirty inches in diameter, which contain about eight times as 
much lumber as those thirteen inches in diameter, are only one 
and a half times as old. This teaches us to keep trees growing 
rapidly. 



404 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



A TABLE SHOWING THE GROWTH OF BLACK SPRUCE IN 
THE OLD FORESTS OF NORTHERN NEW YORK. 



SPECIMEN 
NUMBER. 



Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 



Number of 
rings on 
stump. 



Lenjith of Diameter Number 

sliaft, in at top, j of rings 

feet. , in inches, j at top. 



Total 
height of 

tree 
in feet. 



163. 
164. 
165. 
166. 
167. 
168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 

173- 
174. 

175- 
176. 

177- 
178. 
179. 
180. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
i8s. 
186. 
187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 
191. 
192. 

193- 
194. 
19s. 
196. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
20c. 
201. 
202. 
203. 
204. 
205. 
206. 
207, 
208. 
209. 
210. 
211. 



20 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
iS 
18 
18 
18 
17 
17 
17 

T7 

17 
17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
15 
15 
15 
15 
14 
14 
14 
14 



203 
207 
289 
230 

193 
208 
283 
194 
209 
209 
238 
189 

2l8 

201 
231 

273 
194 

201 

194 
204 

207 
20 1 

184 

200 
201 

199 

183 

200 
179 
182 
200 
156 
200 
192 
172 

171 
200 
178 
201 
167 
178 
203 
174 
183 
275 
182 
156 
157 



54 
54 
54 
46 

54 
54 
62 

54 
54 
48 

54 
54 
48 

54 
54 
58 
54 
54 
56 
54 
54 
58 
54 
48 
54 
54 
54 
46 

54 
44 
46 

54 
46 

48 
50 
44 
50 
54 
54 
50 
44 
46 
42 
48 

50 
27 
48 
44 
44 



10 

8 



8 

14 
12 

9 
II 

6 
10 

9 

ID 



6 
5 
9 
8 

7 
9 

10 
8 
6 

10 
8 

7 

10 
6 
5 
9 
8 
II 
9 

ID 

9 
6 

5 
II 
II 

7 
7 



99 
124 
124 
130 
105 

99 
136 
100 
100 
100 

96 
121 
129 

99 

76 

141 

100 
99 

lOI 

78 
121 
103 

78 
100 

89 

89 

lOI 

90 

100 

92 

78 
89 

100 



102 

78 

79 
121 

79 
99 

ICO 

97 

87 

78 

100 

155 
108 

89 
99 



A PAPER ON FORESTRY. 



405 



SPECIMEN 
NUMBER. 


Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 


Number of 
rings on 
stump. 


Length of 

shaft, in 

feet. 


Diameter 

at top, 
in inches. 


Number 
of rings 
at top. 


Total 
height of 

tree, 
in feet. 


212 


14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


200 
145 

161 

176 
180 
157 
150 
200 

138 
162 
172 
192 
200 


54 
40 

SO 
48 

42 
48 
36 
42 
28 
44 
40 

34 

27 

38 
44 


9 
II 
12 

4 
6 

7 

8 

10 

4 
6 
8 
7 
9 


78 
88 
98 

103 
99 
35 
50 
60 
76 

102 
59 
87 

103 
96 

137 


64 
60 


21^ 


214 


70 
67 
59 
59 
61 


211; 


216 


217 


218 


2IQ 


57 


220 


221 


222 


58 

60 


221 


224 


61 


22 s 

226 


70 
72 





As people quite often inquire about the difference between 
white and black spruce, I insert pictures of twigs from both, 
with cone and seed. The black spruce is the larger and more 
common tree in this state. Witli lumbermen a spruce is a 
spruce, regardless of whether the botanist would call it black or 
white. All four of the plates of the spruces used in this 
paper, were kindly loaned me by Hon. William F. Fox, 
superintendent state forests, New York. 



White Spruce. 



Fig. J, Cone and leaves, natural size. 
Fig. 2, A seed. 




Black Spruce. 



Fig 1, Cone and/ leaves natural size. 
Fiff. 2, A seed. 




Exeter, N. H., February, 1897. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

1896. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 



Nahum J. Bachelder, Master East Andover. 

Ellery E. Rugg, Overseer Keene. 

Hezekiah Scammon, Lecturer Exeter. 

Howard B. Holman, Steward East Tilton. 

Herbert O. Hadley, Assistant Steward . . . Temple. 

C. Howard Fisher, Chaplain East Tilton. 

Jonathan M. Taylor, Treasurer .... Sanbornton. 

Emri C. Hutchinson, Secretary Milford. 

Adam Dickey, Gate Keeper Manchester. 

Mrs. Mary A. Bachelder, Ceres .... East Andover. 

Mrs. Alice A. Doav, Pomona Plaistow. 

Miss Jeannie McMillan, Flora .... North Conway. 

Mrs. Ella F. Rugg, Lady Asst. Steward . . . Keene. 

executive committee. 

Nahum J. Bachelder, ex offlcio, Chairman . . Concord. 

John M. Carr Wilmot Flat. 

James E. Shepard, Secretary Elkins. 

Joseph D. Roberts RoUinsford. 

Emri C. Hutchinson, ex-officio Milford. 

POMONA GRANGES. 

Hillsborough County 1, Milford, Herbert O. Hadley, Master; Mrs. 
Mary A. Gove, Lecturer; Wilfred M. Davis, Secretary. 

Eastern N. H. 2, Strafford, D. S. Woodman, Master; J. C. Bartlett, 
Lecturer; Leslie W. Gate, Secretary. 

Merrimack County 3, Concord, J. M. Connor, Master; Henry H. 
Metcalf, Lecturer; Joseph E. Shepard, Secretary. 

Belknap County 4, Laconia, J. L. Davis, Master; Mrs. Kate A. Gil- 
man, Lecturer; F. D. Gilman, Secretary. 

Northern, N. H. 5, Littleton, Charles E. King, Master; Mrs. Flora 
J. Miles, Lecturer; Seth W. Miner, Secretary. 

Cheshire County 6, Keene, Perley E. Fox, Master; Mrs. Ella F. 
Rugg, Lecturer; Mrs. Ella J. Farwell, Secretary. 

Mascoma Valley 7, Lebanon, H. L. Webster, Master; Charles Mc- 
Daniel, Lecturer; David Noyes, Secretary. 



412 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Carroll County 8, Center Osslpee, Edward S. Pollard, Master; Miss 
Jeannie McMillan, Lecturer; Winfield S. Chase, Secretary. 

Sullivan County 9, Newport, Simon A. Tenney, Master; Mrs. Susie 
B. Hurd, Lecturer; John S. Smart, Secretary. 

West Rockingham 10, Hampstead, Elwin C. Mills, Master; Jay M. 
Goodrich, Lecturer; Lincoln F. Hooke, Secretary. 

East Rockingham 11, Exeter, Hezekiah Scammon, Master; Miss Ida 
L. Hayes, Lecturer; Charles Flanders, Secretary. 

Suncook Valley 12, Pembroke, Warren C. Saltmash, Master; James 
H. Tripp, Lecturer; Eugene Lane, Secretary. 

Grafton County 13, Rumney, J. B. Foster, Master; Mrs. Delia S. 
Jeffers, Lecturer; Miss Georgia A. Holden, Secretary. 

Upper Coos 14, Colebrook, Sidney B. Whittemore, Master; Mrs. J. 
W. Akers, Lecturer: S. I. Bailey, Secretary. 

SUBORDINATE GRANGES. 

Gilman 1, Exeter, C. Chas. Hayes, Master; Mrs. Addie M. Young, 
Lecturer; Miss Ida L. Hayes, Secretary. 

Merrimack River 4, Canterbury, Mrs. Lizzie C. Kimball, Master; 
Mrs. Lizzie T. Emery, Lecturer; Mrs. Katherine G. Randall, Sec- 
retary. 

Lovell5, Washington, Sumner N. Ball, Master; Mrs. Clara M. Hurd, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Ida M. Brockway, Secretary. 

Granite 7, Milford, George W. Colburn, Master; Miss Anna L. Col- 
burn, Lecturer; Fred A. Farwell, Secretary. 

Sullivan 8, Newport, Frank F. Gilman, Master: Miss Georgia A. 
Huntoon, Lecturer; Geo. W. Hurd, Secretary. 

Claremont 9, Claremont, Herbert B. Converse, Master; Miss Florence 
M. Blanchard, Lecturer; Miss Carrie E. Bailey, Secretary. 

Souhegan 10, Amherst, Harry Boutelle, Master; Mrs. Viola R. 
Dodge, Lecturer; Charles E. Wilkins, Secretary. 

Hudson 11, Hudson, Kimball Webster, Master; Henry O. Smith, 
Lecturer; Miss Gertie A. Merrill, Seci-etary. 

Hollis 12, Hollis, S. Fred Wood, Master; S. M. Spaulding, Lecturer; 
W. L. Marshall, Secretary. 

Nashua 13, Nashua, William J. Putnam, Master; Mrs. Helen J. Col- 
ley, Lecturer; Miss Josie A. Huntington, Secretary. 

Pinnacle 18, Lyndeborough, John H. Goodrich, Master; Mrs. Susie 
W. Senter, Lecturer; Charles L. Perham, Secretary. 

Cold River 19, Ac worth, Elmer E. Newton, Master; L. A. Young, 
Lecturer; A. E. Clark, Secretary. 

Advance 20, Wilton, James E. Gray, Master; Mrs. George M. Batch- 
elder, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary S. Flint, Secretary. 

Prospect 21, Mont Vernon, Daniel H. Richardson, Master; Miss 
Eunice A. Fox, Lecturer; Mrs. Frank Perham, Secretary. 



. NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 413 

Greenfield 23, Greenfield, Frank E. llussell, Master; John T. Rob- 
ertson, Lecturer; Mrs. Geo. D. Gould, Secretary. 

Cornish 25, Cornish, Frank H, Weld, Master; Hermon E. Dole, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Ella I. Richardson, Secretary. 

North Star 27, Stewartstown, Frank Blodgett, Master; J. C. Poore, 
Lecturer; O. J. Poor, Secretary. 

Thornton 81, Merrimack, Osgood F. Uphara, Master; George W. 
Moulton, Lecturer; John G. Read, Secretary. 

Oak Hill 32, Francestown, E. W". Farnum, Master; Mrs. Annie S. 
Clark, Lecturer; Mrs. Rosa F. Prescott, Secretary. 

John Hancock 33, Hancock, Will O. Stearns, Master; Mrs. Lizzie 
H. Stone, Lecturer; Milan E. Davis, Secretary. 

Miller 34, Temple, Henry W. Hay ward, Master; Mrs. Mae L. Hay- 
ward, Lecturer; D. C. Bragdon, Secretary. 

Peterborough 35, Peterborough, William A. Knight, Master; Ezra 
M. Smith, Lecturer; Miss Etta M. Smith, Secretary. 

Watatic 36, New Ipswich, A. A. Woodward, Master; Mrs. Alice 
Willard, Lecturer; F. W. Prichard, Secretary. 

Nutfield 37, Derry, Charles H. Day, Master; Mrs. Mary A. Sanders, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Lizzie F. Hill, Secretary. 

Bear Hill 39, Henniker, Edward O. Ingalls, Master; Curtis B. Childs, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Charlotte A. Wilkins, Seci-etary. 

Uncanoonuc 40, Goffstown, J. Henry Stiles, Master; George Pattee, 
Lecturer; C. A. Davis, Secretary. 

Wolf Hill 41, Deering, Fred A. Crosby, Master; Mrs. Calista J. Wil- 
kins, Lecturer; Mrs. Lizzie G. Locke. Secretary. 

Stark 42, Dunbarton, George H. Ryder, Master; Miss Edith G. Cald- 
well, Lecturer; Mrs. Ellen L. Lord, Secretary. 

Londonderry 44, Londonderry, R. L. Pettingill, Master; Miss Grace 
H. Gibson, Lecturer; D. G. Annis, Secretary. 

Narragansett 46, Bedford, William H. Ryder, Master; Mrs. Sarah M. 
Hull, Lecturer; Dana K. Brown, Secretary. 

Warren Pond 47, Alstead, James Linsley, Master; Mrs. James Davis, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Fred Trow, Secretary. 

Lancaster 48, Lancaster, G. A. Marshall, Master; Mrs. Ella J. Hart- 
ford, Lecturer; W. R. Stockwell, Secretary. 

Monroe 49, Monroe, Seth W. Miner, Master; Mrs. John Hall, Lec- 
turer; O. H. Schoff, Secretary. 

White Mountain 50, Littleton, Daniel B. Crane, Master; George E. 
Walker, Lecturer; Mrs. John W. Farr, Secretary. 

Winnipesaukee 51, Meredith, E. F. Wiggin, Master; W. H. Neal, 
Lecturer; F. H. Smith, Secretary. 

Mount Belknap 52, Gilford, Charles O. Copp, Master; George W. 
Morrill, Lecturer; Harvey A. Jewett, Secretary. 

Joe English 53, New Boston, Cyrus Goodwin, Master; Mrs. Cora L. 
Dodge, Lecturer; Miss Laura Blood, Secretary. 



414 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. . 

Wyoming 54, South Weare, H. R. Nichols, Master; Miss Lillias J. 
Melvin, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary H. Morse, Secretary. 

Ammonoosuc 55, Swiftwater, John A. Noyes, Master; Mrs. Susie 
Nutter, Lecturer; Miss Bertha M. Gale, Secretary. 

Union .56, Hopkinton, Edmund G. Danforth, Master; Henry P. Dun- 
bar, Lecturer; Henry C. Day, Secretary, 

Bradford 58, Bradford, Charles O. Brown, Master; Mrs. Emma F. 
French, Lecturer; Jonathan Merrill, Secretary. 

Grafton Star 60, Hanover, J. M. Fuller, Master; W. A. Taylor, Lec- 
turer; D. S. Bridgman, Secretary. 

Morning Star 62, Lyme, Wesley H. Clark, Master; Charles D. Pushee, 
Lecturer; George S. Mayo, Secretary. 

Valley 63, Hillsborough, Mrs. Laura J. Huntley, Master; Isaac Copp, 
Lecturer; A. M. Burnham, Secretary. 

Crown Point 65, Strafford Corner, Frank E. Scruton, Master; Mrs. 
C. W. Weeks, Lecturer; Otis Meader, Secretary. 

Mascoma 68, West Canaan, Frank H. Webster, Master; George A. 
Norris, Lecturer; Mrs. Ruth K. Jones, Secretary. 

Eureka 69, Grafton, Oliver B. Mills, Master; Mrs. Mary H. Mills, 
Lecturer; B. Franklin Williams, Secretary. 

Mont Calm 70, Enfield, Val M. Clough, Master; George F. Petten- 
gill. Lecturer; Charles McDaniel, Secretary. 

Blazing Star 71, Danbury, Frank W. Flanders, Master; Mrs. Addie 
Danforth, Lecturer; Mrs. Jennie Ford, Secretary. 

Indian River 72, Canaan, C. O. Barney, Master; Mrs. Ola M. Wilson, 
Lecturer; A. W. Hutchinson, Secretary. 

Golden 73, Lisbon, George F. Savage, Master; Mrs. Alzina Woolson, 
Lecturer; William M. Kelsea, Secretary. 

Deerfleld 74, Deerfield Centre, Edmund T. Chase, Master; Mrs. G. 
H. Towle, Lecturer; G. H. Towle, Secretary. 

Mount Hope 77, Landaft", J. E. Hall, Master; J. B. Aldrich, Lec- 
turer; George D. McKean, Secretary. 

Olive Branch 79, Hebron, Samuel Wells, Master; Miss Alice M. 
Wells, Lecturer; A. E. Moore, Secretary. 

Bow LakeSO, Strafford, Gershorn Harvelle, Master; Daniel S. Wood- 
man, Lecturer; Arthur W. Tuttle, Secretary. 

Cocheco 81, Dover, Mrs. Lucinda P. Wentworth, Master; Mrs. Car- 
rie E. Varney, Lecturer; Miss Ella M. Willand, Secretary. 

Spafford 83, West Chesterfield, Sem. L. Stowell, Master; Mrs. Helen 
A. Colburn, Lecturer; Hermon G. Smith, Secretary. 

Rochester 86, Rochester, Charles H. Tripp, Master; Mrs. Maria 
Otis, Lecturer; Harry F. Hall, Secretary. 

Kearsarge 87, Wilmot, Edwin D. Downs, Master; Mrs. Frances J. 
Messer, Lecturer; Fred E. Longley, Secretary. 

Highland Lake 88, East Andover, H. C. Weymouth, Master; F. H. 
Flanders, Lecturer: Mrs. Lottie E. Durgin, Secretary. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 4I5 

Wai-ner 90, Warner, Henry C. Davis, Master; Mrs. Mary E. Wads- 
worth, Lecturer; Miss Mary E. Sawyer, Secretary. 

Sutton 91, Sutton, Francis B. Jolinson, Master; Mrs. Hattie A. 
Powers, Lecturer; Mrs. Carrie E. .Johnson, Secretary. 

Campton 93, Campton, Merrill C. Southmayd, Master; Mark Spokes- 
field, Lecturer; Mrs. Laura S. Pulsifer, Secretary. 

Ezekiel Webster 94, Boscawen, Herbert L. Brown, Master; Mrs. 
Elvira P. Carter, Lecturer; Mrs. Clara M. Ayers, Secretary. 

New London 95, New London, Willie M. Knowlton, Master; Mrs. 
Anna Gay, Lectui-er; Miss Abbie J. Roby, Secretai-y. 

Forest 96, Stoddard, Edward C. Taylor, Master; Miss Alice L. Cut- 
ter, Lecturer; Mrs. Ella M. Reed, Secretary. 

Catamount 97, Pittsfield, John T. Harvey, Master; Mrs. Ida A. 
Cram, Lecturer; Natt A. Cram, Secretary. 

Antrim 98, Antrim, Will C. Hills, Master; Mrs. Nell Hills, Lecturer; 
Miss Lindia Hutchinson, Secretary. 

Harmony 99, Sanbornton, Albert M. Osgood, Master; Mrs. Myrtie 
A. Hill, Lecturer; Frank V. Chesley, Secretary. 

Daniel Webster 100, Webster, George S. Scribner, Master; Arthur 
C. Call, Lecturer; Mrs. Lizzie S. Call, Secretary. 

Crystal Lake 101, Gilmanton Iron Works, Henry E. Page, Master; 
Mrs. Aura E. Price, Lecturer; Luther E. Page, Secretary. 

McClary 102, Epsom, John H. Dolbeer, Master; Mrs. Mary I. 
Brown, Lecturer; Mrs. Annie M. Fowler, Secretary. 

Monadnock 103, Dublin, Wilfred M. Fiske, Master; Mrs. Jane E. 
Powers, Lecturer; Mrs. Hannah M. Fiske, Secretary. 

Bartlett 104, Salisbury, Stephen B. Sweatt, Master; George P. Tit- 
comb, Lecturer; Charles A. Green, Secretary. 

Silver Lake 105, Harrisville, Elmer I. Starkey, Master; Bernard F. 
Bemis, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary E. Parker, Secretary. 

Fruitdale 106, Mason, Albert O. Childs, Master; Mrs. Flora E. Inger- 
son, Lecturer; Mrs. Ella M. Wilson, Secretary. 

Pemigewasset 107, Hill, Luther L. Mason, Master; Mrs. Ella 
Favor, Lecturer; Joseph W. Favor, Secretary. 

Franklin 108, Franklin Falls, Benjamin S. Colby, Master; Miss Alice 
Shaw, Lecturer; Miss Alice M. Colby, Secretary. 

Rumford 109, East Concord, William A. Cowley, Mastter; Miss Mary 
E. Farnum, Lecturer; Miss Effie M. Curtis, Secretary. 

Friendship 110, Northfield, Lucien F. Batchelder, Master; Miss 
Georgia A. Bullock, Lecturer; Mrs. Josephine H. Dearborn, Sec- 
retary. 

Pembroke 111, Pembroke, John G. Tallant, Master; A. T. Robinson, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Sarah D. Blanchard, Secretary. 

Sunapee Lake 112, South Newbury, Nathan B. Bly, Master; Mrs. 
Ella E. Folsora, Lecturer; Willis E. Muzzey, Secretary. 

Capitol 113, Concord, Hubbard W. Aldrich, Master; Miss Ella Grif- 
fin, Lecturer; Mrs. Rose W. Flanders, Seci-etary. 



4i6 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 



Golden Rod 114, Swanzey, Mrs. Ella H. G. Taft, Master; Miss Win- 
niefred Gay, Lecturer; C. H. Rockwood, Secretary. 

Granite Lake 11.5, Nelson, T. W. Barker, Master; Mrs. Susie A. 
McClure, Lecturer; C. B. McClure, Secretary. 

Mount Washinofton 116, Whitelield, Fred W. Williams, Master; Mrs. 
Frank Sweet, Lecturer; Eugene A. Ward, Secretary. 

Lawrence 117, Belmont, J. L. Gate, Master; Mrs. Sarah E. Piper, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Hattie A. Lamprey, Secretary. 

Marlboro 118, Marlborough, Charles L. Clark, Master; Mrs. Addie 
R. Lawrence, Lecturer; Mrs. Clara A. Knight, Secretary. 

Barnstead 119, Barnstead, Charles E. Thyng, Master; Isaac E. Har- 
riman. Lecturer; Arthur T. Pendergast, Secretary. 

Laconia 120, Laconia, Albert W. Head, Master; Mrs. Eva Z. Sar- 
gent, Lecturer; Miss Eleanor B. Robinson, Secretary, 

Loudon Surprise 121, Loudon, Alvah L. Brown, Master; Rinaldo B. 
Foster, Lecturer; Miss Annie L. Whittemore, Secretary. 

Scammell 122, Durham, Jabez H. Stevens, Master; Charles H. 
Pettee, Lecturer; Miss Carrie E. Buzzell, Secretary. 

New Hampton 123, New Hampton, J. Clifton Tilton, Master; Samuel 
A. Howard, Jr., Lecturer; Miss Sadie V. Burleigh, Secretary. 

Star King 124, Jefferson, John A. Rogers, Master; N. M. Davenport, 
Lecturer; Harry M. Davis, Secretary. 

Walpole 125, Walpole, Ira W. Ramsay, Master; Mrs. Nora L. Smal- 
ley. Lecturer; Chas. Parker, Jr., Secretary. 

Lebanon 126, Lebanon, J. W. Kinne, Master; Mrs. Martha A. Slay- 
ton, Lecturer; Mis. Ednah C. Kinne, Secretary. 

Massabesic 127, Auburn, Edgar L. Preston, Master; Mrs. Caroline 
F. Emery, Lecturer; Alfred D. Emery, Secretary. 

Lake Shore 128, Wolfeborough, Thaniel B. Horn, Master; Mrs. 
Annett A. Wiggin, Lecturer; Martin A. Libby, Secretary. 

Ashuelot 129, Gilsura, George E. Newman, Master; Mrs. Etta Col- 
lins, Lecturer; Mrs. Carrie M. Kidder, Secretary. 

Ossipee Mountain 130. Tuftonborough, Leonard C. Canney, Master; 
Cliarles A. Wiggin, Lecturer; Mrs. Ella F. Beane, Secretary. 

Cheshire 131, Keene, Eugene A. Whipi>le, Master; Calvin W. Far- 
well, Lecturer; D. Minot Spaulding, Secretary. 

Chichester 132, Chichester, Albert Thompson, Master; Mary A. 
Towle, Lecturer; Harry S. Kelley, Secretary. 

Wantastaquit 133, Hinsdale, Willis D. Stearns, Master; Casper Roe- 
der. Lecturer; George P. Slate, Secretary. 

Marshall P. Wilder 134, East Rindge, J. Stanley Perry, Master; Alon- 
zo W. Gibson, Lecturer; Mrs. Elvira J. Hale, Secretary. 

Jaffrey 135, Jaffrey, Arthur E. Poole, Master; Mrs. Emma E. Spof- 
ford. Lecturer; Mrs. Sophia H. Chamberlain, Secretary, 

Excelsior 136, Marlow, Willie A. Dodge, Master; Mrs. Lucy M. 
Davis, Lecturer; Mrs. Perley E. Fox, Secretary, 



NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 417 

Riverside 137, Dalton, Wilber L. Jolinson, Master; Mrs. Eliza 
Ricker, Lecturer; Henry C. Britton, Secretary. 

Great Meadow 138, Westmoreland, Jas. A. Crai<?, Master; Mrs. Hat- 
tie M. Bennett, Lecturer; Clinton C. Hall, Secretary. 

Arlington 139, Winchester, David C. Stearns, Master; Mrs. Rosa V. 
Stetson, Lecturer; Miss Jennie S. Wood, Secretary. 

Freedom 140, Freedom, R. G. Foster, Master; S. O. Huckins, Lec- 
turer; Mrs. Laura Tyler, Secretary. 

Amoskeag 141, Manchester, G. Waldo Browne, Master; Mrs. Kate 
Belle Walton, Lecturer; Miss Alice M. Bullard, Secretary. 

Tnftonborough 142, Tuftonborough, James A. Bennett, Master; 
George F. Toung, Lecturer; Miss Lucy M. R. Neal, Secretary. 

Atkinson 143, Atkinson, Herbert N. Sawyer, Master; George A. 
Page, Lecturer; Wilbur F. Wilson, Secretary. 

Sunapee Mountain 144, Goshen, Charles A. Newton, Master; Mrs. 
Kate Egan, Lecturer; Mrs. Georgia Gocha, Secretary. 

Pistareen 145, Chesterfield Factory, M. E. Chandler, Master; Frank 
C. Hamilton, Lectui-er; Mrs. Lora Wheeler, Secretary, 

Pequawket 146, Conway, Isaac Henry Davis, Master; Miss Myra H. 
Allard, Lecturer; Miss Lydia S. Pendexter, Secretary. 

Richmond 147, Richmond, Daniel B. Aldrich, Master; Mrs. L. Olive 
Amidon, Lecturer: Mrs. Lucy .1. Freeman, Secretary. 

Hooksett 148, Hooksett, George A. Robie, Master; Mrs. M. J. Wil- 
cox, Lecturer; Warren C. Saltmarsh, Seci'etary. 

Gi'anite State 149, Newton, Fred W. Battles, Master; Mrs. Francis 
Nickett, Lecturer; Mrs. Rosa R. Gurney, Secretary. 

Junior 150, Goffstown Centre, William H. Poore, Master; Mrs. 
Sarah J. Copp, Lecturer; G. E. Whitney, Secretary. 

Meriden 151, Meriden, Sidney Sanborn, Master; Ora C. Davis, Lec- 
turer; Miss Mary L. Chellis, Secretary. 

Blackwater 152, Andover, Almond H. Smith, Master; Dexter Crosby, 
Lecturer; Everand C. Perkins, Secretary. 

Honor Bright 153, East Sullivan, George H. Davis, Master; Mrs. Rua 

A. Fifield, Lecturer; Arthur H. Ru'j,g, Secretary. 

Fitzwilliam 154, Fitzwilliam, Calvin B. Perry, Master; Mrs. Sarah II. 
Wilson, Lecturer; D. F. AVliite, Secretary. 

Merry Meeting 155, Alton, John G. Gerrish, Master; Mrs. Ida B. Cur- 
rier, Lecturer; Walter A. Lang, Secretary. 

Surry 156, Surry, Daniel Wilder, Master; Mrs. Lucy A. Britton, Lec- 
turer; Arthur M. Carpenter, Secretary. 

Trojan 157, Troy, Hiram W. Eastman, Master; Miss Nettie I. Whit- 
comb, Lecturer; H. P. Thompson, Secretary. 

Mount Israel 158, Sandwich, John S. Quimby, Master; E. Q. Mars- 
ton, Lecturer; N. F. Gilman, Secretary. 

Lincoln 159, West Swanzey, Clarence J. Fames, Master; Miss Lula 

B. Richardson, Lecturer; Mrs. Carrie E. Young, Secretary. 

27 



4l8 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Carroll 160, Ossipee, Eli C. Wentworth, Master; Mrs. J. E. Hodg- 
don, Lecturer; J. E. Hodgdon, Secretary. 

Jeremiah Smith 161, Lee, Albert L. Comings, Master; Mrs. Samuel 
Lane, Lecturer; Mrs. Lizzie Stearns, Secretary. 

Newfound Lake 162, Bristol, A. N. McMurphy, Master; Mrs. Jennie 
McMurphy, Lecturer; E. C. Merrill, Secretary. 

Hampstead 163, Hampstead, Amasa W. Hunt, Master; Forest E. 
Merrill, Lecturer; Albion D. Emerson, Secretary. 

Crescent Lake 164, North Barnstead, Albion N. Foss, Master; Mrs. 
Emma R. Locke, Lecturer; B. Frank Dow, Secretary. 

Chocorua 165, Tamworth, Orrin S. Kimball, Master; Mrs. Alice M. 
Tilton, Lecturer; Miss Mary J. Oilman, Secretary. 

Patuccoway 166, Nottingham, E. F. Gerrish, Master; Allen Brown, 
Lecturer; Miss Maria E. Kelsey, Secretary. 

Candia 167, Candia, Jesse W. Sergeant, Master; Mrs. Bessie J. Rich- 
ardson, Lecturer; Mi's. Victoria M. Rowe, Secretary. 

Salem 168, Salem, Mrs. Susan A. Cluff, Master; Alfred F. Eaton, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Lizzie J. McLaughlin, Secretary. 

Chester 169; Chester, George S. West, Master; Arthur H. Wilcomb, 
Lecturer; Miss E. S. Campbell, Secretary. 

Winnicutt 170, Stratham, James C. Piper, Master; R. M. Scamraon, 
Lecturer; Mrs. George A. AViggin, Secretary. 

Hampton Falls 171, Hampton Falls, George F. Merrill, Master; 
Henry E. Tilton, Lecturer; Frank S. Greene, Secretary. 

Keeneboro 172, Brentwood, William H. Glidden, Master; Arthur 
W. Dudley, Lecturer; Charles Flanders, Secretary. 

Kensington 173, Kensington, Oscar W. Brown, Master; Mrs. Sarah 
M. Batchelder, Lecturer; Thomas H. Blake, Secretary. 

Hillside 174, Eaton, Fred A. Chellis, Master; Mrs. Susie Snow, Lec- 
turer; Frank M. Hatch, Secretary. 

Ossipee Lake 175, Centre Ossipee, Charles Sceggell, Master; Her- 
bert W. Hobbs, Lecturer; Winfield S. Cbase, Secretary. 

Piscataqua 176, Newington, James Drew, Master; Miss Faith E. Sta- 
ples, Lecturer; Mrs. Sarah F. deRochemont, Secretary. 

Kingston 177. Kingston, Mrs. Nellie F. Ingalls, Master; Miss Sabrina 
E. Crane, Lecturer; J. W. Prescott, Secretary. 

Lovell Union 178, Wakefield, Dyer H. Sanborn, Master; Mrs. Alva 
Gai'land, Lecturer; J. J. Sanborn, Sanbornville, Secretary. 

South Newmarket 179, South Newmarket, Mrs. Edna A. Neal, Mas- 
ter; Mrs. Emily J. Barber, Lecturer; Herbert W. Smith, Secretary. 

Fremont ISO, Fremont, William H. Mould, Master; Mrs. Sarah E. 
Wilbur, Lecturer; Alden F. Sanborn, Secretary. 

Sandown 181, Sandown, John G. Goodwin, Master; Charles H. 
Brown, Lecturer; Miss Hattie M. Goodwin, Secretary. 

Windham 182, Windham, George F. Armstrong, Master; Mrs. Eva 
L. Clark, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary F. Anderson, Secretary. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 419 

Rockingham 183, Epping, Fred L. Gove, Master; Frank B. Flanders, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Lillian H. Buswell, Secretary. 

Penacook Park 184, West Concord, Joseph H. Jackman, Master; 
A. W. Hobbs, Lecturer; A. C. Bachelder, Secretary. 

Centennial 185, Harrington, G. P. Smallcon, Master; L. H. Young, 
Lecturer; Miss Yinnie Smallcon, Secretary. 

Plaistow 186, Plaistow, Moses B. Dow, Master; Joseph S. Hills, Lec- 
turer; Mrs. Alice A. Dow, Secretary. 

Danville 187, Danville, W. Folsom Heath, Master; Mrs. Mary L. 
Purington, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary C. Reed, Secretary. 

Rumney 188, Runmey, C. C. Smart, Master; Mrs. Winnifred W. 
Baker, Lecturer; G. P. Cook, Secretary. 

Bow 189, Bow, Alexander McKee, Master; Miss Ethel G. Watson, 
Lecturer; Miss Grace B. Morgan, Secretary. 

Sugar River 190, North Charlestown, E. J. Megrath, Master; Mrs. A. 
L. Lane, Lecturer; Miss Carrie Gay, Secretary. 

Sunset 191, Madison, I. A. Farrest, Master; Miss Ella M. Knox, Lec- 
turer; Mrs. F. F. Knowles, Secretary. 

M. L. Ware 192, West Rindge, Oren F. Sawtelle, Master; Mrs. Sarah 
A. Stearns, Lecturer; Miss Nellie I. Jewell, Secretary. 

Lewis W. Nute 193, Milton, Leroy F. Corson, Master; Myron P. 
Dickey, Lecturer ; Bard B. Plummer, Secretary. 

Hiram R. Roberts 194, RoUinsford, Charles A. Goodwin, Master; 
Mrs. Eunice H. Clarke, Lecturer; Charles E. Hayes, Secretary. 

Greenland 195, Greenland, Edward A. Libby, Master; W. M. Haines, 
Lecturer; Mrs. Mary L. Berry, Secretary. 

Silver Mountain 196, Lempster, H. F. Olmstead, Master; Miss Addie 
C. Currier, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary M. Mitchell, Secretary. 

Moultonborough 197, Moultonborough, Isaac A. Moulton, Master; 
Mrs. Carrie M. Moulton, Lecturer; Mrs. Flora B. Haley, Secretai-y. 

Winnesquam 198, East Tilton, Willis J. Caverly, Master; Mrs. Alice 
F. Durgin, Lecturer; Mrs. Myrtie J. Holman, Secretary. 

Wentworth 199, Wentworth, Cyrus Downing, Master; Mrs. Lutie B, 
Rollins, Lecturer; Miss Elma C. Foster, Secretary. 

Warren 200, Warren, Henry Cotton, Master; Esteler Batchelder, 
Lecturer; Mrs. L. R. Morrison, Secretary. 

Cherry Mountain 201, Carroll, J. F. Leavitt, Master; Mrs. Flora J. 
Miles, Lecturer; Mrs. Minnetta F. Brown, Secretary. 

Green Mountain 202, Effingham, Stephen A. Stokes, Master; Mrs. 
Ida L. Davis, Lecturer; Sherman U. Cutting, Secretary. 

Bethlehem 203, Bethlehem, John W. Hoyt, Master; Mrs. Nellie 
Maclntire, Lecturer; C. W. Maclntire, Secretary. 

Charlestown 204, Charlestown, Ralph H. Bailey, Master; Miss E. A. 
Webber, Lecturer; Mrs. H. E. Corbin, Secretary. 

Henry Wilson 205, Farmington, John F. Cloutman, Master; George 
A. Davis, Lecturer; Mrs. Annie P. Dame, Secretary. 



420 NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURE. 

Garnet Hill 206, Centre Harbor, J. A. McDonald, Master; D. W. 
Coe, Lecturer; Mrs. Mattie D. Neal, Secretary. 

Bennington 20T, Bennington, Morris W. Cheney, Master; Mrs. 
Martha E. Knight, Lecturer; Mrs. Annie L. Woodbridge, Secretary. 

Lafayette 208, Franconia, Ivory H. Glover, Master; Mrs. Bessie 
Goodnow, Lecturer; Mrs. Clarence Gould, Secretary. 

Northwood 209, North vrood Nari'ows, F. L. Small, Master; Mrs. H. 
K. Emery, Lecturer; Mrs. J. W. Clarke, Secretary. 

Pink Granite 210, North Haverhill, Charles Newcomb, Master; Mrs. 
Cora Keith, Lecturer; P. W. Allen, Secretary. 

Brookline 211, Brookline, Clarence R. Russell, Master; Mrs. Clara 
E. Russell, Lecturer; David S. Fessenden, Secretary. 

Haverhill 212, Haverhill, George M. Watson, Master; Miss Ida M. 
Buck, Lecturer; Mrs. N. Delia Carbee, Secretary. 

Raymond 213, Raymond, James W. Healey, Master; Mrs. Agnes S. 
Rowell, Lecturer; Miss Annie L. Healey, Secretary. 

Moosilauke 214, East Haverhill, Charles J. Pike, Master; Miss 
Lillian Cauly, Lecturer; M. E. Jeffers, Secretary. 

Mountain Laurel 215, North wood, Chas. O. Foye, Master; Mrs. Isa- 
bel Underbill, Lecturer; Mrs. Arabella H. Thompson, Secretary. 

Contoocook 216, Contoocook, Ernest W. Convern, Master; Mrs. A. 
M. J. Howe, Lecturer; Mrs. Annie E. Hardon, Secretary. 

Mohawk 217, Colebrook, Sidney B. Whittemore, Master; Mrs. Eme- 
line C. Whittemore, Lecturer; Ranson Harriman, Secretary. 

Mt. Gardner 218, Woods ville, J. W. Blair, Master; John G. Mars- 
ton, Lecturer; S. M. Chamberlin, Secretary. 

Piermont 219, Piermont, George H. Reneau, Master; Mr.s. Cora 
Blodgett, Lecturer; Miss Addie L. Curtis, Secretary. 

Mascot 220, Gorham, Mrs. John Peabody, Master; Mrs. Laura Lary, 
Lecturer; Miss Grace Peabody, Secretary. 

Lake 221, Sunapee, George E. Gardner, Master; Mrs. L. A. B. 
Dodge, Lecturer; Mrs. Mary E. George, Secretary. 

Sugar Hill 222, Sugar Hill, Leonard Bowles, Master; Mrs. Lizzie 
Bowles, Lecturer; Mrs. Ardelle Bowles, Secretary. 

Colebrook 223, Colebrook, Osgood F. Covell, Master; Eben E. 
Noyes, Lecturer; Roswell W. Danforth, Secretary. 

Columbia 224, Columbia, E. George Rogers, Master; Mrs. Arabell 
Rogers, Lecturer; Wm. H. Annis, Secretary. 

Dover 225, Dover, Tristram A. Young, Master; Mrs. Amanda S. 
Young, Lecturer: Miss Grace M. Clements, Secretary. 

Frontier 226, West Stewartstown, George W. Allen, Master; John 
H. Brown, Lecturer; R. E. Wilder, Secretary. 

Eden 227, West Milan, B. T. Roberts, Master; Miss Ella M. Cole, 
Lecturer; Miss May Nay, Secretary. 

Androscoggin 228, Milan, N. B. Wheeler, Master; T. P. Dustin, 
Lecturer; Mrs. N. B. Wheeler, Secretary. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE GRANGE. 42 1 

Pilot 229, Stark, W. T. Pike, Master; Mrs. S. Ft. Veazie, Lecturer; 
Mrs. Frances L, Cole, Secretary. 

Unity 230, Unity, Francis L. Quimby, Master; Mrs. Ina M. Cross- 
man, Lecturer; Levi S. Bailey, Secretary. 

Umbagog 251, Errol, Wm. A. Bragg, Master; Mrs. J. W. Akers, 
Lecturer; Mrs. H. F. West, Secretary. 

Blue Mountain 232, Grantliam, Imla S. Brown, Master; Mrs. Mary 
Burns, Lecturer; Miss Nettie F. Tyrrel, Secretary. 

Rye 233, Rye, John O. Drake, Master; Mrs. Mary C. Philbrick, 
Lecturer; Miss Etta Y. Remick, Secretary. 

Blow-Me-Down 234, Plainfield, D. C. Westgate, Master; F, J. Chad- 
bourne, Lecturer; Mrs. C. F. Levvin, Secretary. 

Aurora 2.3.5, Pittsburg, David Blanchard, Master; Lois Bracket, 
Lecturer; Sylvester Lyford, Secretary. 

Mount Cube 236, Orfordville, Walter S. Horton, Master; Miss Flor- 
ence A. Russell, Lecturer; Mrs. Ernest W. Cushman, Secretary. 

Lyman 237, Lyman, Wilmer Langway, Master; Mrs. J. W. Sher- 
man, Lecturer; David H. Miner, Secretary. 

Stratford 238, Stratford, Hiram H. Wright, Master; Mrs. M. R. P. 
Hatch, Lecturer; Fred C. Waters, Secretary. 

Plymouth 2::i9, Plymouth, Edgar Merrill, Master; Mrs. Ira Mitchell, 
Lecturer; S. A. Smith, Secretary. 

Lamprey River 240, Newmarket, Joseph Pinkham, Master. 

Naumkeag 241, Litchfield, Isaac N. Center, Master. 

Mount Prospect 242, Lancaster, Charles E. King, Master. 

Winthrop 243, Shelburne, James Simpson, Master. 

Pelham 244, Pelham, George U. Currier, Master. 

Jewel 245; Columbia, William E. Cone, Master. 

Mount Duston 246, Wentworth's Location, Lewis Leavitt, Master. 

Clarksville 247, Clarksville, Willis H. Harriman, Master. 

The Weirs 248, The Weirs, David B. Story, Master. 

Park 249, Cornish, John S. Andrews, Master. 



A MILK RECORD. 



Cost of milk per quart at the dairy of the N. H. Asylum 
Concord, N. H. 

Number of Milch Cows in Herd 42. 

Linseed meal, f pound per cow once a day for 7 

days, for 42 cows at 95 cents per cwt. $2.09 

Gluten meal, f pound per cow once a day for 7 days, 

for 42 cows at 90 cents per cwt. 1.98 

Bran, i^ pounds per cow twice a day for 7 days, for 42 

cows at 65 cents per cwt. 6.68 

Middlings, 2^ pounds per cow twice a day for 7 days, 

for 42 cows at 85 cents per cwt. 11.24 

Oat hay, 7 pounds per cow once a day for 7 days, for 

42 cows at $12 per ton 12.34! 

Ensilage, 15 pounds per cow twice a day for 7 days, 

for 42 cows at $4 per ton 17.64 

Turnips, 3 Jl quarts per cow once a day for 7 days, for 

42 cows at 20 cents per bu. 6.97^ 

Labor of barn man and three milkers per week ending 

November 7, 1896 24.56 



Total cost per week for 42 cows $83.51 

Number of pounds of milk for week ending November 7, 1896, 
6,485 at 2-1I5 pounds per quart 3,i37§f quarts. 

Average cost of milk per quart for entire herd for week ending 
November 7, 1896, 2f cents. 



INDEX, 



A Paper on Forestry 390 

Thinning 395 

The Growing of Timber on Waste Lands 396 

The Experiment of Augustus Pratt 397 

Omar Pease 397 

Bovine Tuberculosis 212 

The Stock-owner's Duty in its Suppression 212 

Chemicals 172 

A Word for Yard Manure 175 

Personal Use of Chemicals 176 

The Purchase of Chemicals 184 

Methods of Application 187 

Dairy Industry of New England 195 

Educational Advantages of the Grange 113 

Farm of the First Minister (Part II) 3 

The Fourth Proprietor 5 

Plowing 7 

The Cow Pasture 11 

Freshets 14 

Drainage 17 

Rubbling 20 

Production of Hay 22 

Forests 29 

Undeveloped Resources 35 

Conclusions from an Experience of Forty Years 37 

Appendix A 42 

Appendix B 46 

Appendix C 48 

Appendix D 52 

Appendix E 54 

Appendix F 59 

Fodder for Dairy Cows 308 

Summer P'odders 318 

Fruit Growing 63 

Progress in Fruit Growing 63 



424 INDEX. 

Fruit Growing : 

The Progressive Culturist 64 

Characteristics of Good Fruit 64 

New Varieties 65 

Hybridization 65 

How to Market 66 

Practical Points 66 

Pruning 67 

The Apple 67 

Selection of Varieties 67 

Culture of the Pear 68 

Varieties 68 

The Peach 69 

Location 69 

Planting , 70 

Mulching 70 

Pruning the Peach 70 

Peach Yellows 71 

Spraying 71 

Insecticides 72 

Kerosene Emulsion 72 

Future of Dairy Farming in the East 293 

General Report Ill 

Fertilizer Inspection Ill 

Fertilizer Analysis IV 

Farmers' Institutes XII 

Public Meetings XII 

Agricultural Societies XIII 

Abandoned Farms and Summer Homes XIII 

The Oleomargarine Law XIV 

Highways XIV 

In Conclusion XV 

Good Roads 90 

Good Roads Convention 345 

Address by Mayor Robinson 345 

The Secretary 348 

Alonzo Towle, M. D 350 

Prof. C. H. Pattee 354 

E. G. Harrison 359 

Governor Busiel 266 

Hon. J. L. Spring 367 

Granite State Dairymen's Association (1S95) 242 

Secretary's Report 243 

• President's Address 243 

Granite State Dairymen's Association (1896) 290 

Secretary's Report 290 

Premium List 291 



INDEX. 425 

Horticultural Society 325 

Premium List (1895) 327 

Meeting at Meredith ^^^ 

Premium List (1896) 335 

How to Build up a Profitable Dairy 303 

Market Gardening 190 

Practical Education 1 46 

Report of Cattle Commissioners 375 

Prevention 377 

Quarantine 383 

Financial 387 

Conclusion 389 

State Grange 411 

Strawberry Culture 200 

Summer and Winter Feeding of Dairy Cows 247 

The Ethics of Books 1 38 

The Grange 1 00 

The Horse for To-morrow 74 

Typhoid Fever 

Its Poison, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment, From The 

Householder's Standpoint of Responsibility 223 

War Against the Gypsy Moth 1 23 




< 



REPORT 

(biennial) 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



NEW HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE 



AGRICULTURE AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



NEW HAMPSHIRE LEGISLATURE 



NOVEMBER 1, 1896 



CONCORD 

EDWARD N. PEARSON, PUBLIC PRINTER 

i8g6 



Printed by 

Republican Press Association. 

Concord, N. H. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



Hon. FREDERICK SMYTH, Manchester, President. 

His Excellency GEORGE A. RAMSDELL, Nashua, ex- 
officio. 

Phes. CHARLES S. MURKLAND, Duiham, ex-officio. 

Hon. GEORGE A. WASON, New Boston. 

CHARLES W. STONE, A. M., East Andover. 

LUC I EN THOMPSON, Esq., Dmluun, Secretary. 

Hon JOHN G. TALLANT, Pembroke. 

FREDERICK P. COMINS, B. S., Lee. 

GEORGE B. WILLIAMS. Walpole. 

Hon. warren BROWN, Hampton Falls. 

Hon. frank JONES, Portsmouth. 

Hon. JOHN W. SANBORN, Sanbornville. 

JEREMIAH W. SANBORN, M. S., Gilmauton. 



ABRAHAM F. EMERSON, Manchester, Acting Treasurer. 



REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES. 



Durham, N. H., November 1, 1896. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives : 

The Board of Trustees of the New Hampshire College of Ag- 
riculture aud the Mechanic Arts presents herewith the biennial 
report, covering the period from July 1, 1894, to June 30, 1896, 
and comprising what would be the twenty-third and twenty- 
fourth annual reports. 

It would be easy to say that this period of two years has 
been marked by continued prosperity, as it has. But there 
are different aspects in which the life of a college may be re- 
garded, and the simple general statement is somewhat too 
indefinite. It is with pleasure that we suggest some of these 
different aspects, in order that the actual condition of the col- 
lege may more plainly appear. 

Financially, although the executive inaction prevented us 
from receiving the appropriation so willingly gr.-^nted to us by 
the legislature, the college is able to report a small balance on 
hand at the end of each year. This means, of course, that we 
have not done many things we would have liked to do. For 
example, we have not been able to build a new dormitory for 
the young women in the college. The lack has been temporarily 
supplied by setting apart for that purpose the house formerly 
occupied by Benjamin Thompson, and more recently occupied 
by the president of the college. 

That we have been able to carry on the work of the two years 
with so little help from the state, is due to the generosity of the 
general government. It does "not seem to be generally under- 
stood that the greater part of the income of the college comes 



VI COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

from this source. Nearly all the money expended for instruction 
— that is, for salaries of instructors, for books and materials — 
is received from the treasury of the United States. For the past 
year, the income from that source was twenty-one thousand dol- 
lars ($21,000). The income from the state during that time was 
$10,300. Including the amount (S15,000) appropriated for the 
Experiment Station, and expended exclusively for experimental 
purposes, the income from the United States was $36,000 ; that 
from the state, on the other hand, was partly made up of inter- 
est due the college for money belonging to the college but held 
by the state, — the proceeds of the original grant of land, from, 
the government^ for the purpose of establishing the college. This 
interest, to the amount of 84,800, is at the rate of six percent., 
the amount of the principal held by the state, as the gift of the 
government, being $80,000. It is true that this rate is unusu- 
ally high. But it is to be remembered that the state enjo3'ed 
the use of this fund, at the same rate of interest, during the 
years when six per cent, was a rate as low as it now seems high. 
Deducting this interest, $4,800, from the amount above indi- 
cated as received from the state, and the balance of $5,500 re- 
mains. This amount is made up of the standing appropriation 
of $3,000, together with the $2,500 specially appropriated by the 
last legislature for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of 
an act passed by that legislature establishing a Department of 
Horticulture and a two years' course in agriculture. 

While recognizing the friendly regard in which the college is 
held by the people of the state, a regard testified to in many 
ways, and not least definitely by the generous acts of previous 
legislatures, we would urge upon your honorable bodies that the 
college has practically no resources except those furnished by 
congress or the legislature. We have no invested fund except 
that of the Conant estate, and the income fi-om this fund is set 
apart for scholarships to students in one department of the col- 
lege — the agricultural. We have no income from tuition fees, 
except such as we receive in a roundabout way through scholar- 
ships paid out of the Conant fund. Not one student pays the 
tuition fee of $60 without first receiving it in the form of a 
scholarship. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS Vll 

A special fee of six dollars ($6.00) is received from each 
student. Nominally, it is a " library tax." As the Conant 
scholarships pay the recipients one hundred dollars ($100), or 
thirty-four dollars (S34) more than the total charge for tuition 
and library fee, the income from the students is not inconsider- 
able. At least it would be inconsiderable to an institution not 
compelled to stretch its income to the utmost. 

Nothing could more graphically depict the mission of this col- 
lege in its present condition. It has been said that the general 
history of college development may be put in a few phrases. A 
college is established by some generous endowment, its declared 
purpose being to furnish education for those who cannot afford to 
pay the whole price for themselves. The college thrives, its 
students increase in number, it grows larger in every way and 
the expense to its students increases in constant ratio, until it is 
no longer possible for those students to attend it for whom the 
institution was originally endowed. Established and successful, 
the college outgrows its endowment and increases its charge for 
tuition. The number of students applying for admission makes 
this possible. More and more those who can pay the greater 
price are appealed to. These students bring with them the habit 
of spending money freely, and the spirit of it is contagious. While 
it is always possible for the good student, Avell endowed in bod}^, 
brain and soul, to go through the best and the largest colleges, 
it becomes harder and harder for him, while for those less sym- 
metrically furnished the difficulty becomes prohibitive. A new 
college is endowed, called forth by the necessity of providing, 
as at first, an institution for those who cannot afford to pay the 
price. Then history repeats itself. But not always in time to 
meet the exigencies of the inevitable case. Partly for this rea- 
son, because the established colleges were practically closed 
to "the industrial classes " ; partly because these colleges were 
not providing an education sufficiently charged with the element of 
utility, congress, in the so-called " Morrill Act," set aside certain 
parcels of land, inpro rata allotment, for the purpose of establish- 
ing "State Colleges," where the student without financial resources 
might receive an education which should fit him for his special 
work in life. It was assumed then, that the several states would 



Vlll COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

willingly second this act and adequately provide that support 
looked for in this original endowment. And, it may be said 
by the way, it was this act which gave New Hampshire the lands 
to the value of eighty thousand dollars (S80,000) referred to 
above. In fact, the several states not making provision enough 
for these colleges, another appropriation was necessary, and the 
act of 1890 further provided an endowment in cash for the col- 
leges established under the act of 1862, limiting expenditure of 
the money thus appropriated to actual requirements of instruc- 
tion in various branches specified in the act. Those branches 
are, "the English language (this excludes not only the classics 
but also the modern languages other than English), the Mechanic 
Arts, Agriculture, the physical sciences, the natural sciences, 
and Mathematics." For these studies this college is, therefore, 
well endowed ; and it is correspondingly well equipped. 

But there are other expenses incurred by the institution main- 
tained by the state which accepts this bount}^ of the govern- 
ment. Buildings must be erected, preserved, and repaired. 
Branches of study not provided for by the " Morrill Bill" must 
be included in the curriculum. Especially is this true in an 
institution which, like this, attempts to provide for 3"0ung 
women as well as for young men. Buildings must be heated, 
and, where the Mechanic Arts are taught, power must be sup- 
plied. Light and water are expensive necessities. And every 
man of affairs knows that he who does not make large provision 
for " incidentals" is courting failure. The aggregate of trifling 
expenditures, in any business, is enormous. For all these, the 
state must provide, or surrender its claim to the generous sums 
granted by the general government. The state of New Hamp- 
shire has accepted, in good faith, the offered bounty of the 
general government. In good faith, it ought not to appropriate 
less than is appropriated b}' the government of all the states 
for its benefit. Not simply the welfare of this institutiou, but 
the essential honor of the state is at stake. And for the 
honor of the state there is no financial equivalent. A gener- 
ous provision for this college is tacitly promised in the accept- 
ance of the bounty of the Government of the United States. 

Thus far, no reference has been made to the bequest of 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS IX 

Benjamiu Thompson. The estate thus bequeathed to the state 
of New Hampshire for the benefit and use of this college, was 
to the amount of three hundred and sixty-three thousand, eight 
hundred and twenty-three dollars and thirty-two cents, ($363,- 
823.32), together with certain securities " of no present value." 
By the provision of the will, this property was to be the property 
of the state, interest at four per cent, annually being set aside 
for twenty years for the purpose of accumulating an endowment 
for the college, this endowment to be available at the expiration 
of the twenty years. Certain other provisions, with details as 
to the administration of the estate, may be found in the report 
of the state- treasurer for the year 1892. In the successive 
reports of said treasurer, the expenditures demanded by the 
necessity of setting aside this interest at four per cent, annu- 
ally may be found. But it is to be remembered that this estate 
is constantly producing revenue for the state. If this revenue 
were computed annually, as in equity it ought to be, it would be 
seen that the state of New Hampshire, instead of sacrificing 
aught to the welfare of the institution which is its peculiar 
charge, is actually receiving, in dollars and cents, more than it 
is paying out in its provision for the college. 

In this same connection there is another fact to be noted. In the 
act accepting the bequest of Benjamin Thompson, dated March 
5, 1891, section 13 reads as follows : — "In case the state shall 
desire to establish said school or college at any time before the 
expiration of twenty years from the time of the decease of the 
said Thompson, it shall, before using either of the fujids afore- 
said, raise and set apart such sums of money as will make said 
funds equal in amount to what said funds would become if accum- 
ulated daring twenty years." There follows the provision that the 
state, in anticipating this accumulation, should be relieved from 
the obligation of annually providing for it under the terms of 
the will. In fact, the accumulation of the annual appropriation 
of three thousand dollars ($3,000) called for by the w^ill of 
Benjamin Thompson has been anticipated, and the amount 
expended in the erection of college buildings. It is the misfor- 
tune of the college that it is compelled to carry on its work just 
as it would if the other provision had been anticipated, and the 



X COLLEGE OF AGRICULTUEE 

twenty years' accuinalation upon the original bequest thus made 
available. 

The following financial statement fairly indicates the condi- 
ion of affairs as between the treasury of the state and that of 
the college. Certain explanatory statements may be premised : 

1. The state is required to set aside annually an amount 
equal to four per cent, upon the principal. 

2. Four per cent, of $363,823.32, is $14,552.93. 

3. This amount, when received in cash and turned into the 
treasury of the state, is as if it were put at interest, inasmuch 
as the state has the use of it. 

4. So considered, it would provide for the required annual 
interest to be set aside by the state. 

5. All income in excess of this amount ($14,552.93), should 
be computed at the same rate of interest, and the amount cred- 
ited to the college. 

6. In short, a computation of the excess income over this 
four per cent, of the principal, at the rate indicated, will indi- 
cate the amount to be thus credited to the college. Here fol- 
lows the statement thus computed : 

BENJAMIN THOMPSON TRUST FUND. 

Interest Account. 

1892. Excess income over interest charge ^(p. 220) $8,859.52 

1893. Excess income over interest charge (p. 307) 3,457.92 
1893. Interest on $8,337.56, principal 

transferred in cash to state treas- 
ury . . . • . . (p. 220) 333.50 

1893. Interest for one j'ear on excess 

income as above, ($8,859.52) . 354.38 

1894. Excess income over interest charge (p. 405) 719.59 
1894. Interest for one year on principal 

transferred in cash to state treas- 
ury ($9,537.56) . . . (p. 307) 381.48 
1894. Interest for one year on excess in- 
come and on interest to January, 
1893, ($13,005.32) . . . 520.21 

' Page references are to reports of the State Treasurer. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XI 



1895. Excess income over interest charge 
1895. Interest for one year on principal 
transferred to state treasury be- 
fore January, 1894, (12,077.56) 

1895. Interest for one year on excess in- 

come and on interest to January, 

1894, ($14,626.60) . 

1896. Interest on principal transferred to 

state treasury before Januar}'^, 

1895, ($14,077.56) 

1896. Interest on excess income and on 
interest to January, 1895, ($16,- 
436.15) 

1896. Excess interest charge over income 
Total gain for six years 



(p. 13) 



$742.83 



481.66 



585.06 



563.10 



657.45 



$17,656.70 
858.71 

$16,797.99 



Principal Accoimt. 

1892. Gain in sale of farm implements . 

1893. Sale of wood lot . 

1893. Interest for one year on $9.81 above 

1894. Interest for one year on $892.65 

above .... 

1895. Interest for one year on $928.36 

above .... 

Total gain .... 

1895. Loss on Chicago bonds 

Net gain .... 

1896. Interest on $805.49 above . 

Net gain for six years . 
Gain on interest, six years . 
Gain on principal, six years 

Total gain, six years . 



(p. 307) 



$9.81 

882.46 

.38 

35.71 

37.13 



$965 


49 


160.00 


$805 


49 


32 


22 



$837.71 

16,797.99 

837.71 

;i7,635.70 



xn COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

This represents, on the basis given above, the amount the 
state has received in excess of the amount it has set aside in 
accordance with the terms of the will of Benjamin Thompson. 

This may be considered as, so far, providing for the Benja- 
min Thompson State Trust Fund as follows : 

Accumulation of said fund, six years . . $20,574.89 

Total gain, as above ..... 17,635.70 



Net required outlay for six years . . . $2,939.19 

If any of the securities of the Benjamin Thompson estate 
have been sold between January 30, 1894, and January 30, 
1895, interest upon the income thus derived, at four per cent., 
should be deducted from this total outlay. 

It is our misfortune that in other ways the college is made 
to suffer under misrepresentation. When the college was 
ordered by the legislature to move to Durham, there was cer- 
tain property jointly held by this college and by Dartmouth : 
specifically, the building known as " Culver Hall." This build- 
ing was appraised and valued at thirty thousand dollars 
($30,000). It was agreed that Dartmouth College should pay 
fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) to this college and in con- 
sideration thereof receive the building in full fee. By an act 
of legislature, Dartmouth College was relieved from payment of 
this sum, the burden of payment being assumed by the state. 
This college received fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), to 
which it was entitled by its half ownership in " Culver Hall." 
Dartmouth College received the half interest in the building, 
for which it was to pay fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) 
without any expenditure. In other words, an appropriation of 
this amount was made for the benefit of Dartmouth College. 
Upon the record, however, the appropriation was to be paid to 
this college, as the record does not indicate that the payment 
was for value received by the state and transferred to Dart- 
mouth College. It should be clearly understood that the appro- 
priation of fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) recorded as a 
gift to this college, was, in fact, an appropriation not for this 
institution but for the other. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS X1H 

Passing from the financial point of view, tliis college has had 
a noteworthy growth in the number of its students. Four years 
ago there were twelve students, before the first class entered 
after the removal to Durham. The present enrolment shows a 
total of ninety-seven resident pupils. Beside these are the 
non-resident and short-course students to the number of forty- 
seven. That after so few years of separate existence we have 
nearly one third of all the New Hampshire students attending 
college in New Hampshire, is not only an indication of its 
immediate success ; it is also an indication of its promise for the 
future. We may not hope for a great increase in the number of 
our students. But we are assured that the mission of the college 
is already made evident, and that the future will justify every 
favorable consideration at the hands of your honorable bodies. 

From the standpoint of character the students of this college 
challenge comparison. Perhaps it is in the nature of the case. 
Students without money to spare are likely to be students with 
a genuine and earnest purpose. At least, we have so found 
them. To other colleges we may yield one advantage or an- 
other. But as to the moral influence of the student body upon 
the individual student, this college has no concession to make to 
any institution in the laud. This inestimable advantage we 
do not propose to sacrifice to any possible gain in numerical 
strength. And we believe the people of New Hampshire will 
accredit this position. 

In point of scholarship, it is our purpose to steadily maintain 
the policy of progress. That this policy has been thus far 
maintained, the accompanying details will indicate. We cannot 
fairly accept the appropriations made by the general govern- 
ment, except by keeping this institution upon the collegiate 
level. We cannot otherwise meet the demands of our students 
and their parents. Whatever outside courses we may provide, 
our regular courses must be of the grade indicated. Of this 
there can be no doubt. We have therefore sought, and shall 
continually seek, to make the degree of this college, the college 
of the state of New Hampshire, equal in educational value to 
the similar degree conferred by an}^ other college in the land. 
And to this end we ask your hearty cooperation. 



XIV COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

By the original constitution of this institution, girls were 
admitted upon equal terms with boys. To this policy of co-edu- 
cation, the state is committed by eighteen years of practice. 
But this policy has its demands upon the public consideration. 
There must be provision for an education equal in educa- 
tional value to that given by any of the other colleges admit- 
ting young women. For this the state should provide. That 
the state is willing to make such provision the act of the legis- 
lature of 1894, suppressed by executive inaction, is sufficient 
evidence. 

In the report to the last legislature the necessity of providing 
for the physical development of our students was indicated. It 
is, therefore, not necessary to repeat what was stated with suffi- 
cient fulness iu that report. It may, however, be suggested 
that although we are under compulsion to include "Military 
Tactics and Drill " in our courses, we have no place where this 
study may be pursued under cover. It is eminently desirable 
that we have a drill hall, in a building set apart for that pur- 
pose, which building might, without great extra expense, be 
adapted to the requirements of that physical culture which 
forms so large a part of the modern collegiate life. 

During the two years some changes have been made. Novem- 
ber 3, 1894, the large barn of the college farm was burned. The 
loss was total. Insurance, to the amount of $9,800, was 
promptly paid. As soon as it was profitable to carry on outdoor 
work a new barn was begun, upon a somewhat different plan. 
That barn has now been in use for a year. Immediately after 
the fire, the old and dilapidated barn, west of the railroad, was 
hastily put into condition for temporary use, and the stock of 
the farm housed therein. This barn is still in use, as will 
appear. 

The crowded quarters, and the fact that some of the cattle 
were not considered fairly representative animals, made it seem 
expedient to sell nearly half of our cows. In order that pos- 
sible buyers might not suffer by purchasing diseased cattle ; and 
in order that the state should not even indirectly be the means of 
spreading contagion, the tuberculin test was applied to the herd, 
and with disastrous results. Tuberculosis was discovered, and 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS XV 

the infected animals were killed. Before moving into the new 
barn tlie herd was tested again and again, and it may safely be 
assumed that there is not now one tuberculous animal in the herd. 
No new animal is permitted to enter the herd until it has passed 
the tuberculin test. It is our polic\^ to purchase no dairy animal 
which has not been so tested. In extraordinary cases, where it 
seems desirable to buy an untested cow, she is kept in quaran- 
tine, in the old barn, until thoroughly tested. But all this has 
involved a large outlay of money. We have invested approxi- 
mately a thousand dollars in new stock, and have now an excel- 
lent herd, comprising good, representative animals of the Jersey, 
Guernsey, and Ayrshire breeds, with some Durhams and grade 
Holsteins. It is probable that the latter animals will be disposed 
of gradually, and the herd limited to the three breeds above 
indicated. 

The legislative act establishing a Department of Horticulture 
and appropriating S2,500 annually for two years, has made it 
possible for us to build a small greenhouse. When tlie new barn 
was built it was not placed upon the old foundation, that place 
being then reserved for the greenhouse. At present, an addition 
to the small greenhouse is in progress, and it is expected to be 
ready for use this winter. In this connection, a room will be set 
apart, probably in the older structure, for the use of the ento- 
mologist of the P^xperiment Station. 

The work of the various departments of the college has been 
carried on with increased etiiciency. The difficulties, some of 
which were outlined in the preceding report, are great, and for 
the present inevitable. The members of the faculty of the col- 
lege are to be congratulated on the fact that their work has been 
so successful, notwithstanding the obstacles the}' have had to 
encounter. Several changes have been made in the faculty, as 
will appear from the catalogue. While frequent change is an 
evil in college work, it is the policy of this board not to let the 
high character of the work demanded of this college suffer 
through such changes as are necessary. That this policy has 
been followed faithfully is evident from the present constitution 
of the board of instruction in the college. 

Following this report will be found the various financial state- 



XVI COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

ments properly belonging herewith. Also, the two annual reports 
of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station estab- 
lished as a department of the college. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

FREDERICK SMYTH, 
President of the Board of Trustees. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS XVH 



TREASURER'S GOVERNMENT REPORT 

Name of Institution, New Hampshire College of Agriculture 
AND THE Mechanic Arts. 

Post-office, Durham ; State, New Hampshire. 

Report of treasurer of said iustitutiou, to the Secretary of 
Agriculture aucl the Secretary of the Interior, of amount 
received under act of congress of August 30, 1890, in aid of 
colleges of agriculture and the mechanic ai'ts, and of the dis- 
bursements thereof, to and including June 30, 1895. 

Receipts. Disbursements. 

Balance on hand July 1, 1894 . $259.74 

Received from the United States 

government .... 20,000.00 



$20,259.74 

Disbursed for instruction and facilities : 

In agriculture, as per schedule A . . . . $1,876,70 

In mechanic arts, as per schedule B . . , 6,314.97 

In English language, as per schedule C . . 2,758.38 

In mathematical science, as per schedule D . . 1,805.49 

In natural and physical sciences, as per schedule E 5,362.10 

In economic science, as per schedule F . . 1,859.56 

Balance remaining unexpended .... 282.54 



$20,259.74 

I hereby certify that the above account is correct and true, 
and, together with the schedules hereunto attached, truly rep- 
resents the details of expenditures for the period and by the 
institution named, and that said expenditures were only to 
instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English lan- 
guage, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, nat- 
2 



XVlll COLLEGE OP AGRICULTURE 

ural, aud economic science, with special reference to their appli- 
cation in the industries of life, and to the facilities for snch 
instruction, according to my best knowledge and belief. 

(Signed) 

A. F. Emerson, 

Acting Treasxirer. 



Schedule A. — Disbursements for instruction in Agriculture^ 
and for facilities for such instruction^ during the year ended 
June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salary of (1) Professor of Agriculture . S227.oO 

For the salaries of 2) Professor of Agricultural 

Chemistry, $823.10; (3) Lecturers, $724.19 . 1,547.29 

II. For facilities as follows : 

For apparatus . . . . . . . 95.16 

For stock and material . . . . . 6.75 



Total $1,876.70 

Schedule B. — Disbursements for instruction in Mechanic Arts^ 
and for facilities for such instruction, duriyig the year ended 
June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, $1,833.31 ; (2) Instructor in 
Machine Work, $916.65; (3) Instructor in 
Wood Work, $916.65 ; (4) Instructor in Draw- 
ing, $692.00 $4,358.61 

II. For facilities as follows : 

1. For apparatus ...... 305.19 

2. For machinery ...... 702.15 

3. For text-books and reference books . . . 194.20 

4. For stock and material ..... 754.82 

Total $6,314.97 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS XIX 

Schedule C. — Disbursements for instruction in English Lan- 
guage^ and for facilities for such instruction, during the year 
ended June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Instructor in English Lan- 
guage, S2,199.99; (2) Instructor in Rhetoric, 
$550.00 82,749.99 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For text-books and reference books . . . 8.39 



Total $2,758.38 

Schedule D. — Disbursements for instructio'ii in Mathematical 
Science, and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salary of Professor of Mathematics . . $1,775.66 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus . . . . . . . 24.95 

For text-books and reference books . . . 4.88 



Total $1,805.49 

Schedule E. — Disbursements for instruction in Physiccd 

Science, and for facilities for such instrxiction , duririg the 
year ended June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Instructor in Physics, 

$1,375.00; (2) Professor of Chemistry, $916.66 $2,291.66 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

Apparatus 230.43 

For text-books and reference books . . . 83.00 

For stock and material ..... 82.07 

Total $2,687.16 



XX COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

Schedule E (2). — Disbursements for instruction in Natural 
Science^ and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Professor of Entomology and 
Zoology, $1,983.31 ; (2) Instructor in Botany, 
$150.00 $2,133.31 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus , . . . . . . 369.89 

For text-books and reference books . . . 33.46 

For stock and material . . . . . . 138.28 



Total $2,674.94 

Schedule F. — Disbursements for instructioyi in Economic 
Science, and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1895. 

I. For instruction, viz, : 

For salary of Professor of Economic Science and 

History $1,833.31 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For text-books and reference books . . . 26.25 



Total $1,859.56 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

Financial Transactions from June 30, 1894, to June 30, 1895. 

Gross Receipts. 
Received from A. F. Emerson (acting treasurer), $56,147.00 

Gross Payments. 
Construction account .... $7,365.62 



Experiment station 
Instruction . 
Stock and material 
Miscellaneous payments 



. 15,000.00 

. 16,917.33 

. 3,068.47 

. 13,795.58 



$56,147.00 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XXI 



We have examined this report, and find it correctly cast and 
properly vouched for. 

(Signed) Albert Demerritt, 

John G. Tallant, 
Chas. S. Murkland. 

Detailed Statement. 

Receipts. 
Received from A, F. Emerson (acting treasurer), $56,147.00 

Payments. 
Experiment station (See page 90) . . $15,000.00 



Instruction : 




Mechanic arts 


. $4,358.61 


Chemistry 


. 1,739.76 


Natural science . 


. 2,133.31 


Mathematics 


. 1,775.66 


History and economic science 


. 1.833.31 


Physics .... 


. 1,375.00 


Modern Languages 


550.00 


English . . . . 


. 2,199.99 


Agriculture .... 


951.69 


Total 




Mechanic arts apparatus 


. $305.19 


" machinery 


702.15 


" books 


194.20 


" stock 


754.82 


Total .... 




Chemical science apparatus . 


$96.68 


" stock . 


78.68 


' ' books 


75.00 


Total .... 





.6,917.33 



1,956.36 



250.36 



XXll 



COLLEGE or AGEICULTUKE 



Natural science apparatus 


. $369.89 




" stock . 


138.28 




" books . 


33.46 




Total 




$541.63 


Physics apparatus 


$133.75 




," stock .... 


3.39 




" books .... 


8.00 




Total 




145.14 


Mathematics apparatus 


$24.95 




" books 


4.88 




Total 




29.83 


History and economic science books 


$26.25 


26.25 


Agriculture apparatus . 


$95.16 




" stock 


6.75 




Total .... 




101.91 


English books .... 


$8.39 


8.39 


Drawing apparatus 


8.60 


8.60 


Construction Account : 






Creamery building 


$448.51 




Athletic field .... 


548.80 




Permanent improvements, grounds, etc. 


538.73 




Building new barn 


5,829.58 





Total 



$7,365.62 



Power and Service Department : 




Labor ..... 


. $1,407.47 


Apparatus ..... 


735.14 


Repairs ..... 


99.90 


Stock and supplies 


. 1,323.60 


Total 





!,566.11 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XX 111 



Curator's Department : 






Labor ..... 


$564.50 




Stock 


163.83 




Repairs ..... 


5.96 




Total 




$734.29 


Conaiit scliolarships 




2,499.33 


Senatorial scholarships 




2,880.00 


Insurance ..... 




590.15 


Library ..... 




213.88 


Trustees' expenses 




1,280.33 


Chapel expenses . , . . 




51.68 


Commencement exercises 




70.00 


Erskine Mason memorial fund 




6.00 


Printing and stationery 




312.12 


Clerical work .... 




582.52 


Freight and express 




415.25 


Traveling expenses 




363.40 


Incidental expenses 




230.52 



Cash in treasury July 1, 1895, $5,873.21. 



), 147.00 



TREASURER'S REPORT 

To the President and Trustees of the New Hampshire Col- 
lege of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts : — Your treasurer 
respectfully submits his twenty-ninth annual report, for the 
year ended July 1, 1895. He charges himself as follows : 



Balance in treasury July 1, 1894, 
Income from Conant fund 
Interest on New Hampshire bonds 
Annual state appropriation (first half) 
Annual government appropriation 
Special government appropriation . 
College furm .... 



$2,548.01 
4,778.50 
4,800.00 
1,500.00 
15,000.00 
20,000.00 
1,473.68 



XXIV 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



Rents ..... 

Other proceeds .... 
Insurance (Acc't. of loss by fire) 
Charles S. Murklaud, president 
Income, Erskine Mason memorial fund 



S431.G7 

562.86 

9,800.00 

1,112.99 

12.50 



He credits himself as follows 



$62,020.21 



1894. 








July 11. Order C. S. Murl 


kland, Pres't., $367.88 








476.09 








1,404.87 








312.82 


Aug. 11. ' 






1,811.30 








' 339.63 








' 670.80 


20. 






1,514.55 


20. 






1,967.15 


20. 






' 815.01 


27. 






' 1,210.71 


Sept. 12. 






2,036.09 


12. 






941.78 


12. 






1,103.97 


Oct. 8. 






823.47 


8. ' 






2,216.69 


8. 






1,225.28 


25. 






659.41 


25. 






1,657.97 


Nov. 16. ' 






439.00 


16. 






1,302.29 


16. ' 






2,169.53 


24. 






879.30 


Dee. 6. ' 






570.17 


6. 






2,067.79 


20. 






612.69 


20. 






1,267.69 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XXV 



1895. 



Jan. 8. Order C. S. Mnrkland,Pres't., $723.42 


8. 




2,104.37 


8. 




818.90 


Feb. 5. 




1,124.40 


7. ' 




' 434.56 


7, ' 




2,345.10 


7. 




608.05 


20. 




679.70 


Mar. 6. ' 




669.69 


6. 




2,445.37 


6. 




328.72 


25. 




934.93 


April 9. 




337.00 


9. 




2,462.02 


9. 




' 973.28 


May 7. ' 




' 1,479.31 


7. ' 




1,495.07 


21. 




634.22 


June 7. ' 




' 824.96 


7. ' 




2,452.19 


7. 




1.407.81 


alance in Firt 


tNat'lbank, July 1, IS 


95, $5,873.21 



$62,020.21 
(Signed) A. F. Emerson, 

Acting Treasurer. 

We have examined the foregoing accounts, and find the same 
correct and properly vouched, leaving in the hands of the treas- 
urer, on July 1, 1895, the sum of $5,873.21. 

(Signed) Albert Demerritt, 

John G. Tallant, 
Chas. S. Murkland, 

Auditors. 



XXVI COLLEGE OF AGlilCULTUEE 

TREASURER'S GOVERNMENT REPORT 

Name of Institution, The New Hampshire College of Agri 

CULTURE AND THE MeCHAKIC ArTS. 

Post-office, Durham ; State, New Hampshire. 

Report of treasurer of said iustitution, to the Secretary of 
Agriculture aud the Secretary of the Interior, of amount 
received under act of congress of August 30, 1890, in aid of 
colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts, and of the dis- 
bursements thereof, to and including June 30, 1896. 

Receipts. Disbursements. 

Balance on hand July 1, 1895 . . $282.54 
Received from the United States gov- 
ernment 21,000.00 



$21,282.54 
Disbursed for instruction and facilities : 

In agriculture, as per schedule A . . . $821.65 

In mechanic arts, as per schedule B. . . 5,517.35 

In English language, as per schedule C . . 2,696.72 

In mathematical science, as per schedule D . 2,632.17 

In natural and physical sciences, as per schedule E 6,840.65 

In economic science, as per schedule F . . 2,499.94 

Balance remaining unexpended . . . 274.06 



$21,282.54 

I hereby certify that the above account is correct and true, 
and, together with the schedules hereunto attached, truly rep- 
resents the details of expenditures for the period and by the 
institution named, and that said expenditures were only to 
instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English lan- 
guage, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, nat- 
ural, and economic science, with special reference to their appli- 
cation in the industries of life, and to the facilities for such 
instruction, according to my best knowledge and belief. 
(Signed) 

A. F. Emerson, 

Acting Treasurer. 



AND THE MECHANIC AIITS XXVU 

Schedule A. — Disbursements for instruction in Agriculture, 
and for facilities for such instruction, during the year ended 
June 30, 1896. 

I. For iustruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Professor of Agriculture, 
$250.50; (2) Professor of Agricultural Chem- 
istr}', $403.65; (3) Instructors in Agriculture, 
$112.50 $766.65 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus 55.00 

Total $821.65 

Schedule B. — Disbursements for instruction in Mechanic Arts, 
and for facilities for such instruction, during the year ended 
June 30, 1896. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of (1) Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, $2,499.94; (2) Instructor in 
Machine Work, $1,249.98; (3) Instructor in 
Wood Work, $842.95; (4) Instructors in 
Drawing, $679.90 $5,272.77 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

Apparatus . . . . . . . • 28.64 

For text-books and reference books . . . 35.04 

For stock and material . . . . . 180.90 



$5,517.35 

Schedule C. — Disbursements for instruction in English and 
Modern. Languages, and for facilities for such instruction, 
during the year ended June 30, 1896. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 
For the salaries of (1) Instructor in English Lan- 
guage, $1,666.64; (2) Instructor in Modern 
Language and Rhetoric, $1,000.00 . . $2,666.64 

For facilities, as follows : 
For text-books and reference books . , . 30.08 

Total $2,696.72 



XXVIU COLLEGE OF AGIIICULTURE 

Schedule D. — Disbursements for instruction in Mathematical 
Science, and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1896. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salary of tlie Piofessor of Matliematics . $2,374.97 
For the salary of Instructor in Mathematics . . 252.00 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus . . . . . . . 5.20 



Total $2,632.17 

Schedule E. — Disbursements for instruction in Physical Sci- 
ence, and for facilities for such instruction, during the year 
elided June 30, 1896. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For the salaries of 1) Instructors in Physics, 
$1,486.87; (2) Professor of Chemistry, $2,- 
499.95; (3) Instructor in Chemistry, $92.37 $4,079.19 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus . . . . . . . 187.48 

For text-books and reference books . . . 34.22 

For stock and material ..... 23.25 



Total $4,324.14 

Schedule E (2). — Disburseinents for instrtiction in Natural 

Science, and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1896. 

I. For instruction, viz. : 

For salary of Professor of Entomology and Zoology $2,149.99 

For salaries of Instructors in Botany . . . 322.00 

II. For facilities, as follows : 

For apparatus . . . . . . . 6.98 

For text-books and reference books . . . 25.35 

For stock and material . . . . . 12.19 

Total $2,516.51 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XXIX 



Schedule F. — Disbursements for instruction in Economic 
Science, and for facilities for such instruction, during the 
year ended June 30, 1896. 



I. For iustruction, viz. : 
For Professor of Economic Science and History 



!,499.94: 



TREASURER'S REPORT 

To the President and Trustees of the New Hanipsliire Col- 
lege of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts : — Your treasurer 
respectfully submits his thirtieth annual report, for the year 
ended July 1, 1896. 

He charges himself as follows : 

Balance in treasury, July 1, 1895 . . $5,873,21 

Income from Conaut fund . . . 2,779.36 

Annual state appropriation . . . 3,000.00 

Special state appropriation . . . 2,500.00 

Interest on New Hampshire bonds . 4,800.00 

Annual government appropriation . 15,000.00 

Special government appropriation . 21,000.00 

Rents ...... 171.75 

Charles S. Murkland, president . . 1,757.55 

Erskine Mason memorial fund . . 4.00 

Concord & Montreal Railroad stock . 2,712.00 

Conant fund, uninvested . . . 1,000.00 

He credits himself as follows : 

1895. 

July 9. Order C. S. Murkland, Pres't., $2,332.05 

9. " " " 703.76 

Aug. 7. " " " 1,031.74 

13. " '* " 2,192.08 

22. " " " 1,338.79 

Sept. 21. - " " " 2,007.44 

25. " " " 1,377.49 

25. " " " 2,000.00 



),597.87 



XXX 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



Oct. 


3. 


Order 


C. >' 


5. Murkland, 


P 


res't., 


$289.00 




3. 














1,729.30 




9. 














2,703.35 




14. 














2,403.51 




30. 














682.84 


Nov. 


1. 
1. 

8. 

8. 














870.13 
1,231.05 

3,512.88 
232.82 


Dec. 


5. 

5. 
18. 
21. 














741.63 
2,509.45 

483.36 
2,107.76 


1896. 
















Jan. 


4. 














2,820.21 


Feb. 


8. 

8. 














1,258.54 
2,733.45 


Mar. 


2. 

14. 














1,433.45 
2,936.52 


Api'il 


1. 














1,118.10 


May 


29. 














5,920.64 


June 


10. 














1,715.15 


1895. 
















Sept. 


19. 


Concord & Montreal R. 


R. 


stock 


2,600.00 


Balai] 


ce iu 


First Nat'l ban 


c, July 


1, 


1896, 


5,581.38 




$60,597.87 










(Signed) 




A. F 


. Emerson, 


















Acting Treasurer. 



We have examined the foregoing accounts, and find the same 
correct and properly vouched, leaving in the hands of the treas- 
urer, on July 1, 1896, the sum of $5,581.38. 

(Signed) John G. Tallant, 

Chas. S. Murkland, 

Auditors. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS XXXI 

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

Financial Transactions from Jane 30, 1895, to June 30, 1896. 

Gross Receipts. 

Received from A. F. Emerson (acting treasurer) $55,010.49 

Gross Payments. 

Instruction $20,384.15 

Experiment Station (see page 91) . 16,181.67 

Stock and material .... 3,825.17 
Miscellaneous payments . . . 14,625.50 

— $55,016.49 

We have examined this report, and find it correctly cast and 
properly vouched for. 

(Signed) 

John G. Tallant, 
Chas. S. Murkland. 



Detailed Statement. 

Receipts. 

Received from A. F. Emerson (acting treasurer) $55,016.49 

Payments. 

.$16,181.67 



Experiment Station (see page 91) 




Horticultural Department (special 




state appropriation) : 




Construction ..... 


$619.33 


Instruction ..... 


783.31 


Labor ...... 


911.41 


Seeds, plants, and sundries . 


175.00 


Tools 


10.95 



2,500.00 



XXXll 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTUItE 



Instruction 



Mechanic arts .... 


. $4,592.87 




Chemistry ..... 
Natural science .... 


2,995.97 
. 2,471.99 




Mathematics .... 


. 2,626.97 




History and economic science 
Physics ..... 
Modern languages 


. 2,499.94 

. 1,486.87 

500.00 




Agriculture .... 


363.00 




English and rhetoric . 


. 2,166.64 




Drawing ..... 


679.90 


$20,384.15 






Mechanic arts apparatus 


$25.49 




" books 


35.04 




" machinery 


3.15 




" stock 


166.25 


229.93 


Chemical science apparatus 


$113.15 


" stock 


23.25 




" books 


29.19 


165.59 


Natural science apparatus 


$6.98 


" stock . 


12.19 




" books . 


25.35 


44.52 
5.20 


Mathematics apparatus 


$5.20 


Physics apparatus 

'' stock .... 


$73.24 
1,09 




" books .... 


5.03 


79.36 
30.08 


English and rhetoric, books . 


$30.08 


Agriculture apparatus . 


$25.00 




" stock . , 


30.00 


55.00 
1,237.50 


Construction of new barn 


. $1,237.50 


Drawing, stock .... 


$14.65 


14.65 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



XXXlll 



Purchase of Concord & Montreal Rail- 
road stock . . . . . 

Power and Service Department : 
Labor ...... 

Apparatus ...... 

Repairs ...... 

Stock and supplies . . . . 



$2,600.00 $2,600.00 

$2,426.84 

1.37 

61.26 

2,386.93 

4,876.40 



Curator's labor $693.92 

" stock 85.83 

" repairs . . . . 1.55 

Conant scholarships 
Stale " 

Insurance . 
Trustees' expenses 
Chapel expenses 
Clerical work 
Commencement exercises 
Printing, stationery, and postage 
Library .... 
Freight and express 
Traveling expenses 
Incidental expenses 

Total . . . . 

Cash in treasury July 1, 1896, $5,581.38 
3 



781.30 

717.00 
225.00 
757.15 
1,120.33 
386.10 
450.00 
138.94 
476.55 
258.46 
759.98 
316.33 
225.30 

$55,016.49 



CATALOGUE 



FOUNDATION AND ENDOWMENT 



At the session of the legislature of New Hampshire in iS66, 
an act was passed establishing the " New Hampshire College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts " on the basis of the con- 
gressional land grant, and authorizing its location in Hanover 
and connection with Dartmouth College. 

In accordance with this act, the institution was organized un- 
der a board of trustees, appointed partly by the governor and 
council and partly by the corporation of Dartmouth College. 

The act of congress, by virtue of which it was established, 
provides that its " leading objects shall be, without excluding 
other scientific and classical studies, and including military tac- 
tics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts ... in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the 
several pursuits and professions in life." 

An act of congress, approved August 30, 1890, provides an 
additional appropriation, which for the current year is twenty- 
two thousand dollars, and which is to be increased until it be- 
comes twenty-five thousand dollars a year. This money is to be 
applied "to instruction in Agriculture, the Mechanic Arts, the 
English Language, and the various branches of Mathematical, 
Physical, Natural, and Economic Science, with special refer- 
ence to their applications in tlie industries of life, and to the 
facilities for such instruction." 

At the session of the legislature of New Hampshire in 1S91, 
acts were passed severing the connection with Dartmouth Col- 
lege and removing the New Hampshire College from Hanover 
to Durham ; accepting the Benjamin Thompson estate, which 
was then of the value of about four hundred thousand dollars. 



» COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

and which, accumulating at four per cent, compound interest, 
will be available as an endowment in 1910 ; and providing one 
hundred thousand dollars to be used with certain other sums in 
the erection of buildings. 

At the session of the legislature of New Hampshire in 1893, 
an act was passed appropriating thirty-five thousand dollars for 
completing and furnishing the buildings. These buildings have 
been finished, furnished, and supplied with apparatus. The 
New Hampshire College has completed the third year of work 
in its new location. 

The college is carrying out the provisions of the acts of con- 
gress, by giving a practical and scientific education, which is of 
use in all the professions and industrial pursuits, by means of 
the following courses of study : 

I. Courses in Agriculture : 

A. Four Years' Course. 

B. Two Years' Course. 

C. Ten Weeks' Winter Course. 

D. Four Weeks' Dairy Course. 

E. Non-resident Course. 

3. Courses in the Mechanic Arts : 

A. Mechanical Engineering Course. 

B. Electrical Engineering Course. 

C. Technical Chemistr}- Course. 

3. General Course. 

4. Summer School of Biology. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



FACULTY 



CHARLES S. MURKLAND, A. M., Ph. D., President, 
and Professoi' of English Latiguage and Literature. 

CHARLES H. PETTEE, A. M., C. E., Dean and Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Civil Engineering. 

CLARENCE W. SCOTT, A. M., Professor of History 
and Political Ecofiomy. 

FRED W. MORSE, B. S., Professor of Organic Chemistry. 

CHARLES L. PARSONS, B. S., Professor of General 
and Analytical Chemistry. 

CLARENCE M. WEED, D. Sc, Professor of Zoology and 
Entomology. 

ALBERT KINGSBURY, M. E., Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering. 

FRANK WILLIAM RANE, B. Ac, M. S., Professor of 
Agriculture and Horticulture. 

HOLLIS F. CLARK, 3nd Lieut. 23RD U. S. Infantry, 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

HERBERT H. LAMSON, M. D., Instructor in Botany. 

ARTHUR F. NESBIT, A. M., B. S., Instructor in Physics 
and Electrical Engineering. 

CHARLES H. KINNE, Ph. D., Instructor in Modern 
Lajiguages. 

JOSEPH H. HAWES, Instntctor in Drawing and Math- 
ematics. 

ERNEST B. MacCREADY, B. S., Instructor in Chem- 
istry. 

JOHN N. BROWN, Foreman of Machine Work. 
EDWARD E. RUSSELL, Engineer and Curator of 
Buildijiors. 



10 COLLEGE OF AGKrCULTURE 

RUEL S. ALDEN, B. S., Farm Superintendent. 

LEIGH HUNT, B. S., Assistant Horticulturist^ Experi- 
ment Statiofz. 

CHARLES D. HOWARD, B. S., Assistant Chemist, Ex- 
periment Station. 

GEORGE H. FURBISH, Foreman of Wood Work. 

CLEMENT S. MORRIS, Purchasing Agent. 

Mrs. M. E. WIGGIN, Matron of Thompson House. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 



11 



STUDENTS 



a— Agricultural Course; c — Course in Technical Chemistry; e-e— Electrical 
Engineering Course; g— General Course; ??i-e— Mechanical Engineering Course. 
Sophomores and Juniors in the Engineering Courses are designated by e only. 
Freshmen are not classified in courses. 



Name. 
Bartlett, Carrie Augusta g 
Bai'tlett, Mary Blaisdell g 
Buck, Walter French e 
Colburn, Arthur Willard a 
Comings, Cai-rie Lydia y 
Comings, Mary Elizabeth g 
Dennett, Irving Lyford in e * 
Forristall, Elwin Henry a 
Hancock, Edward H. m e * 
Hayes, Leslie David m e 
Hunt, John Norton m e 
Jenkins, EUery Dunbar a 
Mason, Woodruff c 
Shaw, Eoscoe Hart c * 
Vickery, Charles William c 
Wheeler, Delbert Amos a 
Whittemore, Everett Sidney 



SENIORS 

Residence. 
Lee. 
Epping. 
Manchester. 
Bracut, Mass. 
Durham. 
Durham. 
Barnstead. 
Colebrook. 
Newton. 
Durham. 
Peterborough. 
Lee. 

Durham. 
Milton. 
Dover. 

So.Ashburnham, 
a Colebrook. 



Room. 

Thompson House. 

Thompson House. 

DeMerritt Hall. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Mrs. Davis's. 

Mrs. Davis's. 

Mr. Charles Hoitt's. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Hoitt House. 

Mr. Hayes's. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Mr. E. E. Jenkins's. 

Prof. Kingsbury's. 

Mrs. Davis's. 

Mr. A. Meserve's. 

Mass. Hoitt House. 

Q. T. Y. Hall. 



JUNIORS 



Bunker, Mabel Eliza g * 
Butterfield, Kichard Cole a 
Buzzell, Helen g * 
Caverno, Bernice Elizabeth * 
Chase, Frank Kufus a * 
Corbett, Burton Albert a 
Durgin, Alfred Caverly e 
Foord, James Alfred a 
Fullerton, John William e 
Given, Arthur c 



Durham. 

Westmoreland. 

Lee. 

Durham. 

Epping, 

Colebrook. 

Lee. 

Walpole. 

Somersworth. 

Durham. 



Mr. J. J. Bunker's. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Lee. 

Mr. Caverno' s. 

Thompson Hall. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Lee. 

Xesmith Hall. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Mr. A. Meserve's. 



Partial course. 



12 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



Name. 
Haley, John Myron a * 
Hayes, Mabel Lucy g 
Hirokawa, Tomokichi e 
Mathes, Harry Clinton a * 
Moore, Herbert Fisher e 
Morgan, Gerry Austin e 
Richardson, Harry Putnam a 
Sanborn, Fred Dexter e 
Shaw, Elijah Ray a * 
Smith, Fred Webster a 
Straw, Edson Albert e 
Tolles, Benjamin D. e 



Residence 
Dover. 
Bur ham. 
Imabari, Japan 
Newmarket. 
Penacook. 
Goffstown. 
Milford. 
Ashland. 
Nashua. 
Franklin Falls. 
Pittsfield. 
Somersworlh. 



Room. 

123 Portland St., Dover. 

Mr. Hayes's. 

Prof. Pettee's. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Q. T. Y. Hall. 

DeMerritt Hall. 

DeMerritt Hall. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Hoitt House. 

Mr. Charles Hoitt's. 

Mr. Caverno's. 

Q. T. Y. Hall. 



SOPHOMORES 



Andrews, Herbert Prescott e* 
Baker, Frank Loren e 
Baker, Henry Clark e 
Barnard, Harry Everett a 
Clement, Harrison Edward e 
Cobb, Walter Knight e« 
Colby, Irving Atwell e 
Demeritt, Edith Augusta g* 
Demeritt, George Stickney e* 
Foss, Edna Ethel r/ 
Gordon, Arthur Gilbert e 
Hayden, Willis Daniel Farley e 
Hayes, Clarence Morrill e 
Hayes, Fred Frost e* 
Hunt, William Elmer c 
Jenkins, Evelyn g 
Kenney, Lewis Hobart e 
Ladd, Samuel Tilton e 
Norcross, Arthur Zebulon a 
Philbrick, John e 
Putney, Harry Nelson e 
Simpson, Etta Lillian g 
Wilson, John Ernest e 



Uollis. 


Thompson Hall. 


So. Yarmouth, Mass. 


Pres. Murkland's. 


So. Yarmouth, Mass. 


Mr. Furbish' s. 


Nashua. 


Burnham House. 


Nashua. 


Burnham House. 


Westmoreland. 


Q. T. Y. Hall. 


Exeter. 


Mr. Hayes's. 


Durham. 


Mr. Demeritt' s. 


Dover. 


Mr. A. Meserve's. 


Durham. 


Mr. Foss's. 


Reed's 1 'ervy. 


Mr. A. Meserve's. 


Hollis. 


DeMerritt Hall. 


Milton. 


Q. T. Y. Hall. 


Portsmouth. 


Mr. A. Meserve's. 


Nashua. 


Burnham House. 


Lee. 


Lee. 


Poivnal, Me. 


Q. T. Y. Hall, 


Eppiyig. M 


V. Charles Hoitt's. 


Eindge. 


Burnham House. 


Seabrook. 


DeMerritt Hall. 


Franklin. 


Hoitt House. 


Durham. 


Mr. Simpson's, 


Hollis. 


DeMerritt Hall, 



Bracy, William Hayes 
Burnham, Fanny 
Chandlei', Frank Hebor 
Doe, Helen 



FRESHMEN. 

Somersivorth. 
Durham. 
New Boston. 
Salmon Falls. 



Prof. Rane's. 

Mr. J. W. Burnham' s. 

DeMerritt Hall. 

Salmon Falls. 



Partial course. 



AND THE MECHANIC AETS 



13 



Name. 

Foye, Blanche Mary 
Horton, Frederic Libbey 
Langelier, Joseph Alphonse 
Leavitt, Mabel Augusta 
Mark, Grace Agnes 
Mathes, Charles Eliot Page 
Penneo, George Jay 
Pettee, Alvena 
Plummer, Bard Burge, Jr. 
Kane, John Connelly 
Robertson, Marie Livingston 
Runlett, Harold Morrison 
Shipley, Walter Xoali 
Stillings, Charles Edwin 
True, Clarence Merrill 
Twombly, Winfield Hancock 
Willard, Charles Franklin 
Wright, Robert Morrill 



Residence. 

Durham. 

Dover. 

Nashua. 

West Stockbridfj 

Gilsum. 

Durham. 

Hampstead. 

Durham. 

Milton. 

Whitmore Lake, 

Galeton, Perm. 

Durham. 

Nashua. 

Somersioorth. 

Amesburij, Mass 

Madbury. 

Marlboro, Mass. 

Hill. 



Room. 

Prof. Weed's. 

Mr. A. Meserve's. 

DeMerritt Hall. 

e, Mass. Prof. Wood's. 

Thompson House. 

Mr. Mark Mathes's. 

Mrs. Davis's. 

Prof. Pettee' s. 

Mrs. Davis's. 

Midi. Prof. Pane's. 

Prof. Parsons' s. 

Mr. Runlett' s. 

Bnrnham House. 

Mr. Hayes's. 

Q. T. Y. Hall. 

Hoitt House. 

Q. T. V. Hall. 

Q. T. Y. Hall. 



GRADUATE STUDENTS 



Residence. 



Grossman, Ralph Wallace, A. B. Medway, Mass. 
Trow, Charles Arthur, B. S. Mont Vernon. 



Subjects. 

Biology. 
Assaying. 



SPECIAL STUDENTS 



Smith, Jennie S. 
Went worth, Charles 



Newmarket. 
Durham. 



Biology. 
Political Science. 



TWO YEARS' COURSE IN AGRICULTURE 



SECOND YEAR 

Name. 
Stratton, Lyman Charles 



Buzzell, Maurice Tuttle 
Caldwell, Frank Irving 
Harris, Yincent Colby 
Jefts, Eugene Roberts 
Martin, Charles Wesley 
Weeks, William Robinson 
Wheeler, George Henry 



Residence. 


Room. 


HolHs. 


Burnham House. 


FIRST YEAR. 




Lee. 


Mr. Buzzell's. 


Lee. 


Mr. W. S. Caldwell's. 


Etna. 


Burnham House. 


Marloic. 


Hoitt House, 


Durham. 


Mr. Hunt's. 


Greenland, 


Mrs. Weeks' s, 


Temple. 


Prof. Scott's, 



14 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



SUMMER SCHOOL OF BIOLOGY 



Name. 
Benient, Mabel L. 
Coleman, Dorothy 
Dean, Harold M. . 
Ham, Judson B. . 
Ham, Mrs. Judson B. 
Plummer, Lucia C. 
Richards, Mary Etta 
Swain, J. Mamie . 
Wiggin, Elizabeth 



Residence. 
Somerville, Massachusetts. 
Newington, Nev) Hampshire. 
Webster, Massachusetts. 
. Johnson, Vermont. 
. Johnson, Vermont. 
Milton, New Hampshire. 
Wilmot, New Hampshire. 
New Hampton, New Hampshire. 
Durham, New Hampshire. 



NON-RESIDENT COURSE IN AGRICULTURE 



Adams, Charles L East Providence, Bhode Island. 

Ballinger, Ellis G. ...'... East View, Virginia. 

Bridges, W. A Foxcroft, Maine. 

Chamberlin, S. M. Woodsville, New Hampshire. 

Costen, S. J. Cheapside, Virginia. 

Cunningham, T. J Hampton, Virginia. 

Doe, Catherine Salmon Falls, New Hampshire. 

Dunham, G. Burton Boston, Massachusetts. 

Fay, David E South Beerfield, Massachusetts. 

Fernald, William L Eliot, Maine. 

Gardner, James P., Jr. Brooklyn, New York. 

Gilpatric, Winifred W. . . . Bridgewater, New Hampshire. 

Glover, B. M. Exeter, New Hampshire. 

Guthrie, Samuel J St. Louis, Missouri. 

Hill, D. H South Lee, Neio Hampshire. 

Jamieson, William St. Louis, Missouri. 

Killough, Harry Richmond, Kansas. 

Kelly, J. J Brandonville, West Virginia. 

Munroe, Albert F East Providence, Rhode Island. 

Nichols, Andrew, Jr Bridgewater, New Hampshire. 

Osborne, Alfred North Weare, New Hampshire. 

Prindle, Harry Edward New York, New York. 

Purinton, A. A Nashua, Neio Hampshire. 

Robb, George Yonganoxie, Kansas. 

Sanford, S Portsmouth, Rhode Island. 

Scott, Walter C Rockville Center, New York. 

Stoneroad, V. D Leonardstoxon, Maryland. 

Turner, Ambrose Nelson .... Salem, Neio Hampshire. 

Upham, Warren J Weston, Massachusetts. 



AND THE MECHANIC AKTS 



15 



SUMMARY 



Fkeshmen 


22 


Sophomores 


23 


Juniors 


22 


Seniors 


17 


Graduate Students 


2 


Special, Students 


2 


Two Years' Course in Agriculture 


8 


Summer School Students .... 


9 


Non-Resident Students .... 


20 



134 



16 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



ADMISSION 



Candidates for the first year must present testimonials of 
good moral character, and must pass an examination in the 
following subjects : 

a. Arithmetic, includiug the metric system. 

b. Algebra, to quadratics. 

c. Plane Geometry. 

d. Physical Geography. ^ 

e. American History. 
/. English. 

It is recommended that the preparation also include Myers's 
General History or an equivalent. 

In English, the examination will consist in the criticism of 
specimens of incorrect English, together with a short essay, 
correct in spelling, punctuation, division into paragraphs, gram- 
mar and expression, on a subject to be announced at the time 
of the examination. In 1897, the subject will be taken from one 
of the following books : Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, 
and As You Like It ; Scott's Marraion ; Longfellow's Evange- 
line ; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America ; Macau- 
lay's Life of Samuel Johnson ; DeFoe's History of the Plague 
in London ; Irving's Tales of a Traveler ; Hawthorne's Twice- 
Told Tales ; George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

In 1898, Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, and Julius Caesar ; 
Goldsmith's Deserted Village ; Scott's Marmion ; Longfellow's 
Courtship of Miles Standish ; Burke's Speech on Conciliation 
with America ; Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson ; DeFoe's 
History of the Plague in London ; Hawthorne's Twice-Told 
Tales ; Thackeray's Newcomes ; George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

In 1899, Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, and Twelfth 
Night ; Goldsmith's Deserted Village ; Scott's Ladv of the 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 17 

Lake ; Longfellow's Courtship of Miles Staudish ; The Sir 
Roger de Coverley Papers ; Burke's Speech on Conciliation witii 
America : Macaulay's Essay on Lord Clive ; Scott's Old Mor- 
tality ; Hawthorne's House of Seven Gables ; Thackeray's 
Newcomes. 

Students are advised to prepare themselves thoroughly in all 
the required subjects, and especially in English, since no college 
can be expected to admit students who cannot write their own 
language with neatness, clearness, and an approach to accuracy. 

They are further recommended not to limit their preparation 
to these requirements. The excellent academies and high 
schools of New Hampshire put within their reach a preliminary 
training which will add greatly to the value of a college course. 

Candidates for advanced standing are also examined in the 
studies that have been pursued by the class which they propose 
to enter. 

A certificate from any academy or high school will be accepted 
in place of an examination, upon any subject required for 
admission to the first year. Every certificate must state the 
amount of work done by the student, his proficiency, and the 
text-books used ; and in case it is not evident that the student 
is thoroughly prepared, an examination will be required. 

Certificate forms will be furnished on application. 

The times for examination are the Monday afternoon and 
Tuesday before Commencement, and the Tuesday and Wednes- 
day before the beginning of the first term. Candidates will first 
present themselves with their credentials on the first day of the 
examination. See Calendar. 
2 



18 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



DESCRIPTION OF STUDIES 



For the Courses of Study see page 31 et seq. 
AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. 

1. Chemistry of Plant Growth. Thirty exercises. 

The composition of plants at different stages of growth, and the con- 
ditions necessary for their development. This subject must be pre- 
ceded by Chemistry courses 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

2. Pomology and Viticulture. (Fruit growiug.) 

Twenty exercises. 

References: Downiug's Fruit and Fruit Trees of America; Thomas's 
American Fruit Culturist; Warden's Pomology; Barry's Fruit Gar- 
den; Fuller's Small Fruit Culturist, etc. 

3. Food and Nutrition. Twenty exercises. 

These subjects include the composition of foods, and the animal 
body; the assimilation of the former by the latter, and the principles 
underlj'ing a rational diet. This subject should be preceded by 
Course 1. 

4. Stock Feeding. Ten exercises. 

This course is taken simultaneously with Course 3, by the students 
in agriculture. It deals with the practical application of the princi- 
ples of nutrition to the feeding of domestic animals, and consists of 
ten lectures, and forty hours' practical work. 

.5. Arboriculture and Forestry. Ten exercises. 

The use of trees for shelter, shade, and ornament; and their propa- 
gation. Values of trees for timber; how to improve existing wood- 
lands; influence of forests upon soils, crops, and climate; establish- 
ment and management of plantations of forest trees, etc. 

6. Floriculture and Landscape Gardening. Twenty exercises. 

Lectures and recitations. References: Henderson's Practical Flori- 
culture; Long's Ornamental Gardening; Downing' s Landscape Garden- 
ing; and various special works and special pamphlets. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 19 

7. Soils and Fertilizers. Thirty exercises. 

The course deals with the relations of soils and fertilizers to each 
other and to plants. 

8. Olericulture aud Seed Growing. (Vegetable Gardening.) 

Twenty exercises. 

Lectures and recitations. References: Henderson's Gardening for 
Profit; Brill's Seed Growing; and various special works. 

9. Comparative Anatomy of Domestic Animals. 

Thirty exercises. 
Lectures and recitations. 

10. Dairying. Tiventy exercises. 

This course consists of practical and theoretical instruction in 
methods of modern dairying, including the general management of 
the dairy, the methods of milk analysis, the bacteriology of the dairy, 
the use of separators, the making of butter, and preparation of milk 
for the city market. 

11. Domestic Animals. (Breeds and Breeding.) 

Twenty exercises. 

Lectures and recitations. References: Mile's "Stock Breeding," 
and Curtis' s " Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Swine," etc. 

12. Dairy Chemistry. Fifteen exercises. 

This course consists of lectures and recitations upon the chemistry 
of milk, butter, and cheese. 

13. Agricultural Seminary. 

a. Thirty exercises, b. Ten exercises, c. Thirty exercises. 

Discussion of current agricultural literature and experiment station 
bulletins. 

14. Practical work. 

During the last two years of the course, ten hours per week is re- 
quired in practical work, either on the farm or in the garden and 
nursery during the fall and spring; and in the barn, greenhouse, 
carpenter shop or machine shop during the winter. The object of this 
work is to familiarize the student with the application of a theoretical 
training. During the last, or senior year, most of this time can be taken 
up for thesis work, in which some original investigation is carried on, 
the results being presented for the graduating thesis, which may be 
published, if of sufficient interest. 



20 COLLEGE OF AGllICULTURE 



BOTANY 



1. Introductory Botan}'. Fifty exercises. 

A general introduction to the study of plants by means of laboratory 
work and lectures, beginning with the lower forms. 

2. Structural Botany. Thirty exercises. 

Lectures and laboratory work on the minute structure and physi- 
ology of plants, with special reference to the higher forms. 
Open only to those who have taken Course 1. 

3. Plant Diseases. Thirty exercises. 

A study by means of lectures and laboratory work of some of the 
more important fungous diseases of cultivated plants, and the means of 
preventing their injuries. 

Open only to students icho have completed Botany 1 and 2. 



CHEMISTRY 

1. Inorganic Chemistry. Forty -five exercises. 

Lectures and recitations on general theoretical chemistry, illustrated 
by experiments, charts, specimens, lantern views, etc. Solutions of 
chemical problems will be required. 

2. Inorganic Chemistry. Thirty exercises. 

Course 2 is a continuation of Course 1, but the time will be spent 
mainly on the metallic elements, their metallurgy, salts, etc. 
Open only to students loho have completed Course I. 

3. Organic Chemistry. Twenty exercises. 

Course 3 will consist of lectures and recitations on the chemistry of 
the carbon compounds, together with the study of their properties by 
means of specimens. 

Open only to students v:ho have completed Course 1. 

4. Organic Chemistry. • Twenty exercises. 
Course 4 is a continuation of Course 3, and must be preceded by it. 

5. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 

Course 5 consists of laboratory practice, with occasional lectures. 
The student is expected to become proficient in the separation and 
detection of the common acids and bases, and to keej) a full set of 



AND THE MECHANIf* ATtTS 21 

notes. He will have i^ractice in the writing of reactions, and will (ill 
out numerous slips containing questions bearing upon his work. 
Open only to students who have completed Courses 1 and 2. 

6. Qualitative Aual3'sis completed and Quantitative Analysis 
begun. Course extends through two terms. 

The work in quantitative analysis will be, in the main, elementary 
and preparatory for advanced work. 

Open to those who have completed Course 5. 

7. Applied or Industrial Chemistry. 

a. Twenty exercises, b. Twenty exercises. 

Course 7 consists of lectures on chemical manufactures, such as iron, 
steel, sugar, salt, sodium carbonate, fertilizers, suljihuric acid, glass, 
matches, paints, dyes, soaps, illuminating gas, petroleum, etc. The 
lectures will be illustrated by lantern views; and trips to the leading 
New England cities, to exaTuine important chemical manufactures, 
will be taken as far as practicable. 

Open only to those who have completed Courses i, 2, S, and 4- 

8. Advanced Quantitative Analysis. 

Course 8 extends through the year, and is intended to fit the student 
for work in the laboratories of agricultural experiment stations, ferti- 
lizer works, iron-works, sugar refineries, etc. ; and for the duties of the 
public analyst. The course will be made to fit the end which each has 
in view, and will be largely an individual one. For those students in 
the Chemical Division of the Agricultural Course the analyses made 
will tend in the main toward agricultural products, fertilizers, mucks, 
marls, manures, dairy products, waters, food-stuffs, sugars, etc. For 
the student wishing to enter metallurgical works, the analyses will be 
in the main upon iron, steel, and other metals, ores, limestone, slags, 
alloys, fuels, etc. As a preparation to the study of medicine, work 
will be done on poisons, foods, drugs, urine, etc. Other lines will be 
arranged to meet the wants of the individual student. Each student 
will be given some practice in all of the bi-anches of agricultural, 
metallurgical, medical, sanitary, and industrial chemistry, in order to 
lay a foundation for any future work which may be required of him. 
A short course in gas analysis will also be provided. A portion of the 
time of the last two terms is given to work bearing upon the prepara- 
tion of a gi-aduating thesis. 

Open to students who have completed Course 6. 

9. Organic Chemistry. Thirty exercises. 

Course 9, for students in the Chemical Division of the Agricultural 
Course, and in the Technical Chemistrj- Course, consists of laboratorv 



22 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

practice by the students in preparing and purifying products relating 
to their respective lines of work. 

Ojyen to those who have completed Courses 3 and 4- 

10. Chemical Journals, Methods, etc. Thirty-Jive exercises. 

The work consists of the study of current chemical literature, which 
is mainly in the German language, with recitations once a week 
throughout the year. Each student will be expected to prepare 
abstracts, reports, criticisms, etc., upon assigned articles. 

Open to students taking Course 8. 

11. Chemical Philosophy. Lectures and Recitations. 

a. Tiventy exercises. b. Tioenty exercises. 

The work consists of advanced study of chemical theory. Practical 
experiments will be ijerformed, with the aid of the student, in the de- 
termination of vapor density, molecular weights, specific heat, etc. ; 
and the study of isomorphism, diffusion of gases, solutions, molecular 
and atomic volume, etc., will take up much of the time. 

Course 11 comes in alternate years with Course 7, and is open to stu- 
dents loho have completed Courses 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

DRAWING 

Two and one-half hours' work is reckoned as one exercise. 

1. Freehand Drawing. 

a. Thirty exercises. b. Tioenty exercises. 

The course includes outline drawing from models and from groups 
of common objects, light and shade drawing from models and from 
casts of historic ornament; the principles of perspective; elementary 
design; machine sketching and the use of instruments. 

2. Advanced Freehand drawing. Tioenty exercises. 

This course includes drawing from the cast and from still life with 
charcoal and stump; pencil sketching; the use of water color; design. 

3. Descriptive Geometry and Drawing. 

a. Fifty exercises. b. Thirty exercises. 

Recitations and drawing exercises in the solution of problems in 
plane and solid geometry by means of orthographic projections. 
Course 3 is open only to those loJio have taken Mathematics 2. 

4. Mechanical Drawing. 

a. Tioenty exercises. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS Z3 

Recitations on shades and shadows and perspective, with exercises 
in perspective drawing and line shading. 

b. Thirty exercises. 

Exercises in making dimension drawings for the use of workmen; 
tracing and bkie-printing. 

5. AdvaDced Freehand Drawing and History of Art. 

a. Thi I ty exercises, b. Twenty exercises, c. Twenty exercises. 

This course continues throughout the year and includes the drawing 
of antique figures from casts, anatomical details, advanced perspective, 
pencil sketching, water color and recitations. 

ENGINEERING 

1. Surveying. Fifty exercises. 

Recitations, field work, and plotting, including compass, transit, 
plane-table, and level work. 

2. Mechanism. Seventy-Jive exercises. 

Recitations, and exercises in drawing outlines of elementary com- 
binations of parts of machines, with special reference to the relative 
motion of the i)arts, their forms and modes of connection. 

Course S is open only to those who hare taken Drawing 3. 

3. Mechanics of Engineering. 

a. Fifty exercises. b. Fifty exercises. 

Course .3 a and the first half of Course 3 b are devoted to recitations 
in Statics and Dynamics, the latter half of Course 3 b to Mechanics of 
Materials. 

Course 3 is open only to those who have taken Course f and Mathemat- 
ics 6. 

4. Materials of Construction. Sixty exercises. 

Recitations on the production, properties, uses, and preservation of 
engineering materials. 

Course 4 is open only to those who hare taken Course 3 h and Chem- 
istry 2. 

5. Thermodynamics. 

a. Forty -Jive exercises. h. Thirty exercises. 

Course 5 is open only to those who hare taken Course 3 a and Physics 1. 

6. Heat Motors and Refrigerating Machinery. 

Thirty exercises. 
Course 6 is open only to those who June taken Course 5. 



24 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

7. Construction and Theoiy of Dynamos and Electro-motors. 

Forty-five exercises. 
Lectures and quizzes. 

Course 7 is open only to those who have taken Physics 4 to 6 and Mathe- 
matics 5 and 6. 

8. Work in Mechanical Laboratory. 
a. and b. Tests of Materials. 

a. Thirty exercises. h. Thirty exercises, 

c. Tests of Boilers and Engines. Twenty exercises. 

Courses 8 a and 8 h are open only to those who have taken Course 3 h. 
Course 8 c is open only to those loho have taken Course 5. 

9. Machine design. Forty exercises. 
Course 9 is open only to those who hare taken Courses 3 and i. 

10. A23plications of Electricity. 

a. Forty exercises. b. Thirty exercises. 

Lectures and recitations. 

Course 10 is open only to those who have taken Physics 1, 2, and 3. 

11. Roads, Streets, and Pavements. Twenty exercises. 

Recitations and lectures on construction and maintenance of paved, 
macadamized, and gravel roads, with discussion of laws relating there- 
to. 

ENGLISH 

1. Rhetoric. 

a. Thirty exercises, h. Twenty exercises, c. Twenty exercises. 

2. Three Themes. One each term. 
Required of all students registered in the Sophomore Class. 

3. Three Original Declamations. One each term. 
Required of all students registered iu the Junior Class. 

4. Three Original Declamations. One each term. 
Required of all students registered in the Senior Class. 

5. Early English. Forty-five exercises. 
Study of authors. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 25 

6. Elizabethan Writers. Thirty exercises. 
Study of authors. 

7. Writers of the Restoration and the French Influence. 

Th irty exercises. 

8. Victorian Writers. Twenty exercises. 

9. English Romance. TJiiHy exercises. 

10. American Literature. Thirty or fifty exercises. 
Lectures and study of authors. 

11. Study of Words. Thirty exercises. 

12. Advanced Rhetoric. Twenty exercises. 

FRENCH 

1. French Grammar. Forty-five exercises. 
Pronunciation; dictation; oral drill; translation. 

2. French Reader. Thirty exercises. 
Easy selections from French authors; irregular verbs. 

3. Readings from French History. Thirty exercises. 
Study of the more common and essential points of French syntax. 

4. Writers of the Nineteenth Century. Forty five exercises. 
Feuillet, Merimee, About; special attention to French idioms. 

5. The Modern Drama. Thirty exercises. 

Scribe, Victor Hugo; Sandeau; the text will be made the basis of 
exercises in conversation. 

6. French Prose of Popular Science. Thirty exercises. 

The aim is to increase the student's vocabulary of practical, if not 
strictly scientific, subjects. 

GEOLOGY 

1. Elementary Geology. Thirty exercises. 

2. Mineralogy. Thirty exercises. 



26 COLLEGE OF ArrKICULTUltE 

A short course in blowpipe analysis, followed by laboratory practice 
in the determination and study of minerals, with special reference ta 
their economic value. 

Course 2 is open only to students luho have taken Chemistry 1 and 2. 

GERMAN 

1. German Grammar. Forty-Jive exercises. 

Declension of nouns and adjectives ; regular and in-egular verbs ; oral 
drill; written exercises. 

2. Readings for Beginners. Thirty exercises. 

Carefully-graded selections of such a character as to gradually meet 
and master the difficulties of German syntax. 

3. Contemporary Writers. Thirty exercises. 

Variety of vocabulary, and the mastery of the more common idioms, 
will be the aim of this Course. 

4. Gemian Plays. Forty-jive exercises. 
The selections chosen will be made the basis of colloquial drill. 

5. Masterpieces of German Literature. Thirty exercises. 
Goethe, Schiller, Lessing. 

6. Scientific German. Thirty exercises. 

The purpose of the Course is to familiarize the student with the 
vocabulary of scientific investigation. 

HISTORY 

In the work in history, special attention is paid to the devel- 
ojiraent of those arts and institutions which have had the most 
important influence upon later history. 

In the advanced courses, considerable time is given to histori- 
cal reading and to written work. 

1. Grecian History. Forty-five exercises. 

2. Roman History. Thirty exercises. 

3. Mediaeval History. Thirty exercises. 

4. Modern History to the French Revolution. 

Forty-five exercises. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 2T 

5. European Political Histoi*y since the beginning of the 
French Revolution. Thh'ty exercises. 

6. American History to 1789. Thirty exercises. 

7. American Political History since 1789. Forty-five exercises. 

MATHEMATICS 

1. Higher Algebra. Ninety exercises. 

2. Solid Geometry, with advanced course. Sixty exercises. 

3. Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. Sixty exercises. 

4. Analytic Geometry. Seventy-five exercises. 

5 a. Differential Calculus. ) /-» ? ^ ? • 

- One Imnared exercises. 

5 h. Integral Calculus. ) 

6. Astronomy. Thirty exercises. 

METEOROLOGY 

1. Meteorology. Twenty exercises. 

Recitations and lectures on wind systems, precipitation, humidity,, 
laws of storms and tornadoes, and methods of prediction of atmos- 
pheric changes. 

MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS 

1. Military Drill. 

Practical instruction in drill and gymnastic exercises. 
Four exercises per week throughout tJie Freshman, Sophomore, and Jun- 
ior years; elective in the Soiior year. 

2. Military Tactics. 

Theoretical instruction in drill regulations and the elementary prin- 
ciples of military science. 

One exercise per week throughout the Freshman, Sophomore, and Junior 
years. 

PHILOSOPHY 

1. Logic. Thirty exercises. 

Lectures and recitations. 



28 



COLLEGE OF AOIUCULTUKE 



2. Psychology. 

3. Ethics. 

Lectures and recitations. 

1 u. Mechanics. ) 
1 h. Heat. \ 



PHYSICS 



2 a. Light. ) 
2 h. Sound. ) 

3. Electricity and Magnetism. 



Forty-pve exercises. 
Tliirty exercises. 

Forty-five exercises. 

Tliirty exercises. 
Thirty exercises. 



Courses 1, 2, and 3 are a general introduction to the subject. The 
instruction is given by recitations and lectures, the latter being illus- 
trated by experiments and stereopticon. Notes on lectures and 
experiments are submitted by each student. 



4. Laboratory Work in Mechanics and Heat. 



5. Laboratory Work in Heat and Light. 



Fo7-ty-five exercises. 
Thirty exercises. 



6. Laboratory Work in Electricity and Magnetism. 

Thirty exercises. 

The work consists in the experimental verification of the laws of 
physics and the determination of physical constants; for example, the 
student will by experiments investigate the intensity of gravity, co- 
efficients of friction, tlie analytical balance, elasticity of wires, specific 
heats, laws of radiation and absorption of heat, candle power of lights, 
dip, declination, and intensity of the earth's magnetism, laws of elec- 
tric currents, of electro-magnets, etc. A systematic and carefullj'- 
written report on each experiment is required. 

Courses 4, 5^ and 6 are taken consecutively and are open only to those 
loho have passed in Courses 1, 2, and 3, Students in Engineering must 
also hare passed in Mathematics 1 to 6. 

7. Electrical and Photometrical Measurements. 

a. Fifteen exercises. h. Fifteen exercises. 

The work consists in the measurement by various methods of cur- 
rent, resistances, and E. M. F., and in photometric study of arc and 
incandescent lamps. 

Course 7 is open only to those who have passed in Courses 4, 5, and 6. 



AND THE mechanic; AKTS 29 

8. Experimental work on the efficiency, characteristic curves, 
and curves of potential of dynamos and motors. Ticenti/ exercises. 

Course 8 is open only to those who have passed m Physics 7 and Engi- 
neering 7. 

POLITICAL SCIENCE 

1. Political Economy. Fifty exercises. 

A course in Walker's Political Economy, with lectures upon some of 
tlie practical questions of the day. 

2. Laws of Business. Thirty-three exercises. 
Recitations supplemented by lectures and the discussion of cases. 

3. American Constitutional Law. Forty-two exercises. 

Use is made of Pomeroy's Constitutional Law, which is brought up 
to date by means of the decisions of the United States Supreme Court. 
Special attention is given to the connection between American consti- 
tutions and American political history. 

4. Advanced Political Economy. Thirty exercises. 

A consideration of such subjects as banking, bimetallism, and taiiff 
legislation. 

Open only to those who hare taken Course 1. 

0. Advanced Political Economy, or Social Science. 

Thirty exercises. 
Open only to those who have taken Courses 1 and 4. 

SHOP WORK 

Three hours' work in the shops is reckoned as one exercise. 

1. Work in Wood Shop. 

Exercises in carpentry, joinery, and pattern making. 

a. Forty-five exercises. h. Thirty exercises, 

c. Thirty exercises. d. Forty-five exercises, 

e. Thirty exercises. f. Thirty exercises. 

2. Work in Machine-shop. 

Exercises in bench work, machine work, and shop measurements. 



80 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

a. Thirty exercises. b. Twenty exercises, 

c. Twenty exercises. d. Forty-five exercises, 

e. Thirty exercises. f. Thirty exercises. 

ZOOLOGY 

1. Introductory Zoology. Thirty e.rercises. 

A general introduction to the study of animal life, by means of lec- 
tures and laboratory dissections of the principal types. 

2. Animal Biology. Ticenty e.rercises. 

A general study of the nature and processes of animal life, with 
especial attention to heredity, variation, development, and mental 
powers. 

Open to students who hare taken Course 1. 

8. Entomology. Thirty exercises. 

A review of the classification, structural characters, and biological 
relations of insects, with a special study of those injurious to culti- 
vated crops and domestic animals, and of the means of preventing 
their injuries. 

Open only to those who have taken Courses 1 and 2. 

4. Economic Ornithology. Fifteen exercises. 
Lectures on the relations of birds to agriculture, and their relations 

to each other and to other organism.'!. 

Course 4 is open only to students who hare taken Courses 1, 3, and 3. 

5. Advanced Zoology. 

Averaging four exercises a week for a year. 

Course 5 is intended for those students who elect Zoology for their Sen- 
ior year. It will usually be modified to suit individual needs. Open 
only to those loho have completed all precediwj courses. 

6. Zoological Bibliography. One hour a week for a year. 
Open only to students taking Course 5. 



AND THE MP:CHANrC ARTS 31 



COURSES OF STUDY 

AND SCHEDULE OF HOURS 



For Details, see Description of Studies. 

Chapel exercises : 11 : 45 daily, except that on Sundays the 
exercises are held at 5 p. m. Attendance is required of all students. 

Military DriU : Military Science 1. M., T., Th., F., 12 to 
12 : 30. Attendance is required of all students, except in the 
Senior year, in which the drill is elective. 

Rhetoricals : Wednesdays, 12 to 12 : 30. Attendance is required 
of all students. 



32 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 



FRESHMAN YEAR. 

For all Foub-Year Courses. 



FIRST TERM. 



Rhetoric — Englisli la 

Algebra — Mathematics IjDiv. I. 
and 2 ( Div. II. 

*Shopwork — Shopwork 1 a -j y.. ' jj* 

Freehand Drawing — (Div. I. 

Drawing 1 a (Div. II. 

Grecian History — History 1 
or *French — French 1 . . . 

Military Tactics — Military Science 2. 



Exercises 
jDiv. I. W. F, 
1 Div. II. W. F, 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 10. 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 11. 
M. T. W. 1:30 to 4. 
W. Th. F. 1:30 to 4. 
W. Th. F. 1:30 to 4. 
M. T. W. 1:30 to 4. 

. T. Th. S 

. T. Th. S 

(Div. I. F. 

• (Div. II. F. 



per w 


eek. 


:^1 


2 


} 


6 


} 


2J4 


i 
1 


2.1^ 


:l] 


3 


11:} 





SECOND TERM. 



Rhetoric — English 1 b. 

Geometry — Mathematics 2 

*Shopwork — 

Shopwork 1 b 
Freehand Drawing — 

Drawing 1 b 
Roman History — History 2 
or *French — French 2 



(Div. I. 
(Div. n. 
(Div. I. 
(Div. II. 
jDiv. I. 
(Div. II. 



Military Tactics — Military Science 2 



j Div. I. W. F. 9. 
( Div. II. W. F. 8. 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 10. 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 11. 
M. T. W. I:.30to4. 
W. Th. F. I;30to4. 
W. Th. F. 1:30 to 4. 
M. T. W. 1:30 to 4. 

T. Th. S. 8. 

T. Th. S. 9. 

/Div. I. M. 11. 

• (Div. II. M. 10. 



} 2>^ 

} 2>^ 

}^ 
} 



THIRD TERM. 



Rhetoric — English 1 c 



(Div. I. 
(Div. II. 



Geometry and Trigonometry 
— Mathematics 1 and 3 



(Div. I. 

(Div. II. 
tDesciiptive Geometry — Drawing 3 a 
or 1 Botany — Botany 1 
Mediaeval History — History 3 
or French — French 3 . . . 

Military Tactics — Military Science 2 



W. F. 9. 

W. F. 8. 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 10. 
M. T. W. Th. F. S. 11. 

M. T. W. Th. F. 1:30 to 

T. Th. S. 8. 

T. Th. S. 9. 
JDiv. I. T. 11. 
(Div. II. T. 10. 



4. 5 



*Women take both French and History, and omit Shopwork. 



fDescriptive Geometry is taken by students intending to complete either 
of the Engineering Courses, or the Course in Technical Chemistry; Botany is 
taken by all other students. 



AND THE MECHANIC ARTS 33 

COURSE IN AGRICULTURE 
SoPHOMOKE Year. 

FIRST TERM. 

Exercises per week. 
Structural Botany— Botany 2. i T W Th F 1-30 to 4 ^ 

Introductory Zoology — Zoology 1. ) 
Early English— English 5. M. 3. W. F. 8 
French— French 1 or 4. T. Th. S. 9 or 11 } 

or Modern History— History 4. T. Th. S. 9 i 
Inorganic Chemistry — Chemistry 1. M. W. F. 10 . 
Mechanics and Heat— Physics 1. T. Th. S. 10 
MiHtary Tactics— Military Science 2. Th. 9 or 11. 
One Theme— English 2. 



FIRST TERM. 



Pomology — Agriculture 2. W. F. 11 
Chemistry of Plant Growth — Agriculture 1. T. Th. 11 
Plant Diseases— Botany 3. T. Th. 9 to 11 
3 



SECOND TERM. 

Animal Biology— Zoology 2. W. F. 1:30 to 4 . 
Enghsh— English 6. M. 3. W. F. 8. ... 

French— French 2 or 5. T. Th. S. 9 or 11. | 

or Modern History— History 5. T. Th. S. 9 S 
Inorganic Chemistry— Chemistry 2. M. W. F. 10 . 
Organic Chemistry— Chemistry 3. T. Th. 1 :30 to 4 
Sound and Light— Physics 2. T. Th. S. 10 . 
Military Tactics — Military Science 2. Th. 9 or 11. 
One Theme— English 2. 

THIRD TERM. 

Entomology— Zoology 3. M. W. F. 9 to 11 3 

French— French 3 or 6. T. Th. S. 9 or 11 ) 

or American History— History 6. T. Th. S. 9 i 
Surveying— Engineering 1. M. T. W. Th. F. 1:30 to 4 ... 5 

Organic Chemistry — Chemistry 4. W. F. 11 2 

Electricity and Magnetism — Physics 3. T. Th. S. 10 . . . 3 
Military Tactics — Military Science 2. M. 11. 
One Theme — English 2. 

Junior Year. 



Exercises per week. 



34 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

Economic Oruitliology ^-Zoology 4. S. 11 1 

German— German 1. T. Th. S. 8 ^3 

or American Political History — History 7. M. W. F. 10 / 
Chemical Laboratory — Chemistry 5. M. T. W. 1:30 to 4. . . 3 
Farm Work — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 
Military Tactics — Military Science 2. M. 11. 
One original declamation. English 3. 



SECOND TERM. 

Foods and Nutrition — Agriculture 3. T. Tli. 9 
Stock Feeding — Agriculture 4. W. 8 

Forestry — Agriculture 5. F. 8 

Geology— Geology 1. T. Th. S. 11 . 
German— German 2. T. Th. S. 8 

or American Literature— English 10. M. W. F. 11 
Chemical Laboratory — Chemistry 0. M. T. W. 1:30 to 4 
Farm Work and Shopwork — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 
Military Tactics — Military Science 2. Th. 10. 
One original declamation. English 3. 

THIRD TEEM. 

Floriculture— Agriculture G. M. W. 1:30 2 

Soils and fertilizers — Agriculture 7. W. F. S. 8 . . . . 3 

Olericulture— Agriculture 8. T. Th. 11 2 

German— German 3. T. Th. S. 8 ) 3 

or Logic— Philosophy 1. T. Th. S. 10 I 
Mineralogy— Geology 2. M. 8 to 11. W. F. 9 to 11 . . . 3 
Farm Work — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 
Military Tactics — Military Science 2. F. 8. 
One original declamation — Englisli 3. 

Senior Year. 

first term. 

Exercises per week. 

Comparative Anatomy of Domestic Animals — Agriculture 9. 

T. Th. 8 2 

Dairy Chemistry — Agriculture 12. S. 9. 1 

Agricultural Seminary — Agriculture 13. T. Th. 10 . . . 2 

Political Economy and Laws of Business — Political Science 1 and 

2. T. Th. S. 11. W. F. 8 5 

German— German 4. M. W. F. 11 

or Psychology— Philosophy 2. M. W. F. 10 
Farm Work — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 
One original declamation — English 4. 



} 



AND THE MECHANIC" ARTS 35 



SECOND TERM. 

Dairying— Agriculture 10. W. F. I:30to4 2 

Astronomy— Mathematics G. | ^v rp, t^, c o 

Meteorology — Meteorology 1. ] 

Agricultural Seminary — Agriculture 13 and Thesis. S. S . . 1 

Roads— Engineering 11. T. Th. 10 2 

German— German .5. M. W. F. 11 • i 

or Ethics— Philosophy 3. M. W. F. 10 > 3 

or Advanced Political Economy — Political Science 4. T. Th.S. 11 ) 

Farm Work — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 

One original declamation — English 4. 

THIRD TERM. 

Domestic Animals — Agriculture 11. T. Th. 9. .... 2 
Agricultural Seminary — Agriculture 13, and Thesis. T. Th. S. 8 3 
German— German 6. M. W. F. 11 i 

or Advanced Political Economj' — Political Science 5. T. Th. S. 11 J " 
Constitutional Law— Political Science 3. M. T. W. Th. F. 10 5 

Farm Work — Agriculture 14. Ten hours per week. 
One original declamation — English 4. 

BIOLOGICAL DIVISION OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
COURSE 

Students wishing to make a special study of the biological sciences 
relating to Agriculture — such as botany, entomology, and economic 
zoology — will elect in their Senior year, the advanced courses in 
zoology, numbered respectively 5, 6, and 7. 

CHEMICAL DIVISION OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
COURSE 

The work in this division is intended especially to fit for the profes- 
sion of an agricultural chemist — for work in experiment stations, large 
dairy establishments, fertilizer woi'ks, etc. Students wishing to take 
this course will elect, with the advice of the instructors in charge, 
seven hours per week of chemical work during the Junior year, and 
eight hours per week during the Senior year. Two years of German 
will be required in this course, and French is recommended to be 
taken by students intending to enter the division. 



36 COLLEGE OF AGlMCULTt'EE 

COURSES IN ENGINEERING 

Sophomore Yeak. 

i-ikst term. 

Exercises per week. 

Analytic Geometry— Mathematics 4. T. W. Th. F. S. 8 . . 5 

Descriptive Geometry— Drawing 3 b. M. W. I:30to4 ... 2 

Mechanics and Heat— Physics L T. Th. S. 10 .... 3 

French— French 1 or 4. T. Th. S. 9 or IL . . . . . 3 

Shopwork— Shopwork 1 d. M. W. F. 9 to 11: 4o .... 3 

Military Tactics— Military Science 2. Th. 9 or 11. 

One Theme — English 2. 

SECOND TERM. 

Differential Calculus— Mathematics 5 a. T. W. Th. F. S. 8 . . 5 

Perspective Drawing — Drawing 4 a. M.W.I: 30 to 4 ... 2 

Sound and Light— Physics 2. T. Th. S. 10 S. 

French— French 2 or .5. T. Th. S. 9 or 11 3 

Shopwork— Shopwork 1 e. M. W. F. 9 to 11: 45 .... 3 
Military Tactics— Military Science 2. Th. 9 or 11. 
One Theme — English 2. 

THIHD TERM. 

Integral Calculus— Mathematics 5 b. T. W. Th. F. S. 8 . . 5 

Surveying— Engineering 1. M. T. W. Th. F. 1: 30 to 4 . . . 5 

Electricity and Magnetism— Physics 3. T. Th. S. 10 . . . 3 

French— French 4 or 6. T. Th. S. 9 or 11 3 

Military Tactics— Military Science 2. M. 11. 
One Theme— English 2. 

Junior Year. 

first term. 

Mechanism— Engineeering 2. W. F. 8. T. Th. S. 9 to 11 : 47j 
Inorganic Chemistry — Chemistry 1. M. W. F. 10 . 
Physical Laboratory— Physics 4. M. T. W. 1: 30 to 4. . 

German— German 1. T. Th. S. 8 3 

Shopwork— Shopwork 2 a. Th. F. I:30to4 2 

Military Tactics— Military Science 2. M. 11. 
One original declamation — English 3. 

SECOND TERM. 

Mechanics of Engineering— Engineering 3 a. T. W. Th. F. S. 9 . 5 
Inorganic Chemistry — Chemistry 2. M. TV. F. 10 . , . . 3 



AND THK MECHANIC ARTS 37 



Physical Laboratory— Physics 5. M. T. W. 1 : 30 to 4 . 

Oerman— German 2. T. Th. S. S 

Shopwork— Shopwork 2 b. Th. F. I:30to4 .... 
Military Tactics— Military Science 2. Th. 10. 
One original declamation — Englisli 3. 

THIRD TEKM. 

Mechanics of Engineering — Engineering 3 b. T. W. Th. F. S. 11 

Mineralogy— Geology 2. M. W. F. 9 to 11 

Physical Laboratory— Physics 6. M. T. W. 1 : 30 to 4 

German— German 3. T. Th. S. 8 

Shopwork— Shopwork 2 c. Th. F. 1: 30 to 4 . 

Military Tactics — Military Science 2. F. 8. 

One original declamation — Enoljsli 3. 



COURSE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

Senior Ykar. 

first term. 

Materials of Construction — Engineering 4. M. W. F. S. 11 . 
Thermodynamics — Engineering .5 a. M. 10. T. Th. 11 
Mechanical Drawing — Drawing 4b. F. S. 8 to 11 . 
Mechanical Laboratory — Engineering 8 a. Th. F. 1 : 30 to 4 
■Shopwork- Shopwork 2 d. T. W. Th. 8 to 11 
■Chemical Laboratory — Chemistry 5. M. W. 1: 30 to 4 . 
One original declamation — English 4. 

SECOND TERM. 

Machine Design — Engineering 9. M. T. W. Th. 11 
Thermodynamics — Engineerings b. M. F. S. 10 . 
Mechanical Laboratory — Engineering 8 b. W. Th. F. 1 : 30 to